|Alma matter||University of Halle|
|Students||Max Planck (indirect)|
Willard Gibbs (indirect)
|Eponyms ||Clausius entropy|
In 1850, Clausius, in his first article “On the Moving Force of Heat and the Laws of Heat which may be Deduced Therefrom”, grouped and refined the earlier work of French physicist Sadi Carnot (Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, 1824) on the assumed reversibility of the working body together with the mechanical equivalent of heat measurements of English physicist James Joule ("On the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat", 1845), in the development of the conservation of energy, thus framing the outline of what he called the second main principle and first main principle (second law and first law of thermodynamics), respectively, in equation format, later encapsulated in the form of the ten fundamental equations of thermodynamics, as indicated by roman numerals in the second edition (1875) of his textbook.  The following is the gist of his quantitative re-formulation of heat in respect to the Carnot cycle:
Clausius' 1875 textbook, in short, is the definitive textbook of thermodynamics, upon which all branches of thermodynamics are built.
In Clausius' nine memoirs, through the development of his conception of quantity entropy, symbol S, and its relation to irreversibility in engine cycles, Clausius pulled together a number of philosophical cornerstones, such as time, heat, friction, chemistry, transformation, spontaneity, conservation and others, into one cohesive theory namely the first and second laws of thermodynamics, otherwise known as the "dynamical theory of heat".
The paper that spurred Clausius on in his quest to formulated laws on the relationship between heat and work was French physicist Sadi Carnot's 1824 publication "Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire". The sentence of Carnot's paper that caught the direct attention of Clausius is, in Clausius' own words, that: 
“Whenever work is done by heat (on a body in a cycle) no permanent change occurs in the condition of the working body [and that to deny this] would overthrow the whole theory of heat, of which it is the foundation.”
In this statement, in particular, according to Clausius, that a change does occur in the condition of the working body, Clausius saw his existence's work before him.
The collected papers of Clausius, constituting two volumes, total 16 papers: 1-9 (1850-65) on thermodynamics, 10-13 (1852-57) on the theory of electricity, and 14-16 (1857-62) are on gas theory. 
In his 1857 article “On the Nature of Heat Compared with Light and Sound”, Clausius compared heat, light, and sound to give a Boltzmann-Ebeling like description of the earth ecosystem based on metabolic needs, insulation, and chemical affinities. 
| Other photos of Clausius.|
In 1857, Clausius published his "On the Nature of the Movement which we call Heat", in which, according to his own words independently of German chemist and physicist August Krönig, and his 1856 "A General Theory of Gases", developed a similar, but much more sophisticated version of the theory which included translational and contrary to Krönig also rotational and vibrational molecular motions.  In a followup 1858 paper, Clausius he introduced the concept of mean free path of a particle.
Clausius’ early education was at a small private school, where his father was the principle. Following private schooling, Clausius moved on to the Gymnasium in Stettin. In 1840, at the age of 18, Clausius entered the University of Berlin in which he first entertained thoughts of a degree in history, but eventually settled on a degree in mathematics and physics, completed in 1844. He then spent a probationary year at the Frederic-Werder Gymnasium teaching advanced classes in mathematical physics.
Clausius completed his PhD dissertation in 1847 (or 1848), entitled On those Atmospheric Particles that Reflect Light (De iis Atmosphaere Particulis quibus lumen Reflectituri), under German mathematician and physical chemist Johann Schweigger, which proposed an explanation for the blue color of the sky, the red colors seen at sunrise and sunset, and the polarization of light, at the University of Halle (Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg). 
in 1850 was appointed professor of physics in the royal artillery and engineering school at Berlin. Late in the same year he delivered his inaugural lecture as Privatdocent in the university. 
In 1855, Clausius became a physics professor at the Polytechnic School in Zurich and two years later, in 1857, he was appointed to the same position in the University of Zurich. In 1867 he moved to Würzburg as professor of physics.  In 1869, he became a physics professor at the University of Bonn, where he remained until his dereaction (death) in 1888. 
American physicist Michael Guillen gives a fairly detailed biographical overview of Clausius in chapter "Unprofitably Experience" on the second law in his 1995 book Five Equations that Changed the World. 
See also: Leon WiniarskiIn circa 1880, Clausius gave a talk on “On the Energy Supplies of Nature and the Utilization of them for the Benefit of Mankind” (published in book form in 1885), which, according to Spanish applied mathematics historian Jose Pacheco, was said to have inspired Austrian science teacher Eduard Sacher to write his 1881 book Outline of a Mechanics of Society. 
Quotes | On
The following are quotes on Clausius:
“The German Ikari flap their waxen wings in Cloud Cuckoo Land [nephelokokkygia].”— James Maxwell (c.1872), on Rudolf Clausius’ 1871 “Reduction of the Second Law of Thermodynamics to General Mechanical Principles” 
“Before Clausius, truth and error were in a confusing state of mixture, and wrong answers were confidently urged by the highest authorities.”— Willard Gibbs (1889), “Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius” 
“The work of Clausius lies not on the shelves of libraries, but in the thoughts of men, and in the history of more than one science.”
— Willard Gibbs (1889), “Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius” 
“Clausius deduced his proof of the second law of thermodynamics from the hypothesis that: ‘heat will not pass spontaneously from a colder to a hotter body.’ This means not only that heat will not pass directly from a colder into a warmer body, but also that it is impossible to transmit, by any means, heat from a colder into a hotter body without there remaining in nature some change to serve as compensation. In my endeavor to clarify this point as fully as possible, I discovered a way to express this hypothesis in a form which I considered to be simpler and more convenient, namely: ‘the process of heat conduction cannot be completely reversed by any means.’ This expresses the same idea as the wording of Clausius, but without requiring an additional clarifying explanation. A process which in no manner can be completely reversed I called a ‘natural’ one. The term for it in universal use today, is: ‘Irreversible’.”— Max Planck (1949), Scientific Autobiography (pgs. 16-17)
Quotes | By
The following are noted quotes:
“Every force tends to give motion to the body on which it acts; but it may be prevented from doing so by other opposing forces, so that equilibrium results, and the body remains at rest. In this case the force performs no work. But as soon as the body moves under the influence of the force, work is performed.”— Rudolf Clausius (1875), “Mathematical Introduction”
|Original English translation of the famous April 24, 1865 statement of the two laws of the universe by Clausius. |
1. (a) Clausius, Rudolf. (1865). The Mechanical Theory of Heat: with its Applications to the Steam Engine and to Physical Properties of Bodies (translator: Thomas Hirst) (Ѻ). John van Voorst, 1867.
(b) Clausius, Rudolf. (1875). The Mechanical Theory of Heat (trans. Walter Browne, 1979) London: Macmillan & Co.
2. Clausius, Rudolf. (1850). “On the Moving Force of Heat and the Laws of Heat which may be Deduced Therefrom”, Communicated to the Academy of Berlin, Feb.; Published in Poggendorff’s Annalen, March-April, Vol. lxxix, pgs. 368, 500, and Translated in the Philosophical Magazine, July 1851, Vol. ii. pgs. 1, 102.
3. “Theory of Electricity by Rudolf Clausius in the Development of Thermodynamics” – by Eri Yagi and Rika Tadokoro.
4. Clausius, Rudolf. (1865). "On Several Convenient Forms of the Fundamental Equations of the Mechanical Theory of Heat" (ninth memoir), Read at the Philosophical Society of Zurich on the 24th of April, 1865; published in the Vierteljahrsschrift of this society, Bd. x. S. 1.; Pogg. Ann. July, 1865, Bd. cxxv. S. 353; Journ. de Liouville, 2e ser. t. x. p. 361; The Mechanical Theory of Heat, ch. 9 (pg. 365). J. Van Voorst, 1867.
5. (a) Cropper, William H. (2001). Great Physicists: the Life and Times of Leading Physicists from Galileo to Hawking (pgs. 104-05). Oxford University Press.
(b) Rudolf Clausius – Mathematics Genealogy Project.
(c) Johann Schweigger – Wikipedia.
6. Clausius, R. (1857), "Über die Art der Bewegung, die wir Wärme nennen" (About the Nature of the Movement, Which we call Heat), Annalen der Physik 100: 353-379.
7. (a) Gibbs, Willard. (1889). “Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius”, Proceedings of the American Academy, New Series, Vol. XVI, pgs. 458-65; in: Scientific Papers of J. Willard Gibbs: Dynamics and Vector Analysis, pgs. 261-67.
(b) Pickover, Clifford A. (2008). Archimedes to Hawking (pg. 339). Oxford University Press.
8. (a) Pacheco, Jose M. (2008). “Does More Abstraction Imply Better Understanding: Ampuntes de Mecanica Social by Antonio Porunondo). Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Preprint 351.
(b) Clausius, Rudolf. (1885). Über die Energievorräthe der Natur und ihre Verwerthung zun Nutzen der Menschheit (On the Energy Supplies of Nature and the Utilization of them for the Benefit of Mankind). Bonn: Verlag von Max Cohen & Sohn.
9. Magie, W.F. (1899). “Biographical Sketch of Clausius”, in: The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Memoirs by Carnot, Clausius, and Thomson (pgs. 107-108). Harper & Brothers.
10. Guillen, Michael. (1995). Five Equations that Changed the World (ch.: An Unprofitable Experience: Rudolf Clausius and the Second Law of Thermodynamics, pgs. 165-214). Hyperion.
11. Rudolf Clausius – Encyclopedia Britannica (1911).
12. Clausius, Rudolf. (1857). “On the Nature of Heat Compared with Light and Sound” (“Ueber das Wesen der Wärme verglichen mit Licht und Schall”). Zurich: Verlag von Meyer & Zeller.
13. (a) Gibbs, Willard. (1889). “Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius” (pg. 459), Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences¸16:458-65.
(b) Garrison, Fielding H. (1909). “Josiah Willard Gibbs and his Relation to Modern Science, Parts I-IV” (pdf) (§1: 475), Popular Science Monthly, Part I: 74(27):470-84, May; Part II: 74:551-61, Jun; Part III: 75:41-48, Jul; Part IV: 75:191-203, Aug.
(c) Josiah Willard Gibbs and his Relation to Modern Science: I, II, III, IV – Wikisource.
14. (a) Clausius, Rudolf. (1871). “Reduction of the Second Law of Thermodynamics to General Mechanical Principles”, Pogg. Ann. 142:433.
(b) Maxwell, James. (c.1872), Publication. Publisher.
(c) Macrakis, Michael S. (1997). Scarcity’s Ways: the Origins of Capital: a Critical Essay on Thermodynamics, Statistical Mechanics and Economics (Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science) (pg. 94). Springer.
● Clausius, Rudolf. (1857). On the Kind of Motion we Call Heat (Über die Art der Bewegung welche wir Wärme nennen). Publisher.
● Clausius, Rudolf. (1858). “On the Treatment of Differential Equations which are not Directly Integrable” (Mathematical Introduction, Mechanical Theory of Heat, 1865). Original from note published in Dingler’s Polytechnisches Journal, Vol. cl. pg. 29.
● Clausius, Rudolf. (1859). “The Potential and the Potential Function”, Leipzig: John Ambrose Barth.
● Clausius, Ludwig. (1878). “On the Relation of the Work Performed by Diffusion to the Second Proposition of the Mechanical Theory of Heat.” Philosophical Magazine: a Journal of Theoretical, Experimental and Applied Physics, 5(26): pgs. 237-38. Jul-Dec.
● Riecke, name. (1889). Rudolf Clausius (biography). Gottingen.
● Rudolf Clausius – The New International Encyclopedia, 1902.
● Daub, Edward E. (1966). Rudolf Clausius and the Nineteenth Century Theory of Heat. University of Wisconsin.
● Kirkham, M.B. (2005). Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations (XI. Appendix: Biography of Rudolf Clausius, pg. 311). Academic Press.
● Watson, Peter. (2010). The German Genius: Europe’s Third Renaissance, the Second Scientific Revolution, and the Twentieth Century (Clausius, pgs. 234, 345-48, 479, 819, 854). Harper Perennial.
● Wolff, Stefan L. (2012). “Rudolf Clausius: A Pioneer of Modern Theory of Heat” (abs), Vacuum, Mar 01.
● Rudolf Clausius – Wikipedia.
● Rudolf Clausius – MacTutor Biographies, University of St Andrews.
● Rudolf Clausius – NNDB.com.
● Rudolf Clausius – Eric Weisstein’s World of Scientific Biography.
● Clausius T-shirt - Photo (and his famous enunciation of the two laws).
● Clausius Tower Society - Koszalin University of Technology.