Samuel Morland

Samuel MorlandIn existographies, Samuel Morland (1625-1695) (EP:12) (CR:5) was an English engineer noted for his prototype work on attempts and ideas for making an engine for raising water.

Overview
In 1660, Morland became a baronet, at which point he began to attempt to engineer different things; the following is a summary:

“Moreland received his appointment and a baronetcy in 1660, and immediately commenced making experiments, partly at his own expense and partly at the cost of the royal exchequer, which were usually not at all remunerative. He built hand fire-engines of various kinds, taking patents on them, which brought him as small profits as did his work for the king, and invented the speaking-trumpet, calculating machines, and a capstan. His house at Vauxhall was full of curious devices, the products of his own ingenuity.”
Robert Thurston (1878), A History of the Growth of the Steam Engine (pg. 27)

In 1683, Morland gave a booklet to the monarchy, which stated the following:

Water being evaporated by fire, the vapors require a greater space, about 2000 times that occupied by the water. And rather than submit to imprisonment it will burst a piece of ordnance. But being controlled according to the laws of statics, and by science reduced to the measure of weight and balance, it bears its burden peaceably, like good horses, and thus may be of great use to mankind, especially for the raising of water, according to the following table, which indicates the number of pounds which may be raised six inches, 1,800 times an hour, by cylinders half-filled with water, and of the several diameters and depths of said cylinders.”
— Samuel Moreland (1683), “The Principles of the New Force of Fire” [1]
Morland steam table
A copy of Morland's 1683 steam table which "indicates the number of pounds which may be raised six inches, 1,800 times an hour, by cylinders half-filled with water, and of the several diameters and depths of said cylinders". [4]

This project to Louis XIV was for raising water by means of steam, accompanying it with ingenious calculations and tables. [2]

“There is no exact description of the engine proposed by Morland, but the project is of the highest interest as one of the first to demonstrate the practical utility of steam-power. Morland's experiments must have been conducted with great care and skill, his estimate that at the temperature of boiling water steam was about two thousand times more bulky than water being substantially confirmed by Watt after careful investigation some hundred years later.”
— Leslie Stephen (1894), “Moreland” (Ѻ), Dictionary of National Biography

Robert Thurston, of note, conjectured that this "Morland engine", described above, was a design Morland learned from Edward Somerset (1663). [4]

Gunpowder engine
Moreland, at some point, seems to have published designs for engines that used gunpowder to facilitate the raising of water (see: gunpowder engine):

“We cannot say whether Samuel Morland employed a cylinder and piston in his apparatus above mentioned; we know that Hautefeuille did not. So far as our information goes, it is to Huygens that the merit belongs of having constructed the first motive engine consisting of a cylinder and piston. He employed gunpowder to produce a vacuum under the piston, and the atmospheric pressure performed the work.”
— Robert Galloway (1881), The Steam Engine and Its Inventor (pg. 20)

Samuel Morland in the seventeenth century had envisaged the deployment of gunpowder engines in mines and for land drainage.”
— Christine MacLoed (1988), Inventing the Industrial Revolution [5]

Moreland’s designs, supposedly [?], did not employ a piston and cylinder. [3]

Quotes | On
The following are quotes on Morland:

“As we learn from a warrant of Charles II, Samuel Morland was, in 1661, granted a ‘monopoly’ for an engine for raising water out of mines by means of ‘air and powder conjointly’.”
— Anon (1881), “The History of the Steam Engine: Overview of Galloway’s The Steam Engine and its Inventors” [3]

References
1. (a) Moreland, Samuel. (1683). “The Principles of the New Force of Fire: Invented by Moreland in 1682” (“Les Principes de la Nouvelle Force de Feu, inventée par le Chevalier Morland, l’an 1682, et présentée a Sa Majesté Très Chrétienne, 1683.”), Manuscript presented to Charles II.
(b) Moreland. Samuel. (1683). Elevation of the Waters by all kinds of Machines reduced to the Measure to the Weight and to the Balance (Elevation des Eaux par toute sorte de Machines réduite à la Mesure au Poids et à la Balance, présentée a Sa Majesté Très Chrétienne, par le Chevalier Morland, Gentilhomme Ordinaire de la Chambre Privée et Maistre de Mechaniques du Roy de la Grande Bretagne). Paris.
(c) Thurston, Robert. (1878). A History of the Growth of the Steam-Engine (txt) (pgs. 28-29). Appleton and Company.
(d) Ubbelohde, Alfred. (1954). Man and Energy: Illustrated (pgs. 53-54). Hutchinson's Scientific & Technical Publications.
2. Kirby, Richard; Withington, Sidney; Darling, Arthur; and Kilgour, Frederick. (1956). Engineering in History (pg. 156). Courier, 1990.
3. (a) Galloway, Elijah. (1826). History of the Steam Engine: From its First Invention to the Present Time. Cowie.
(b) Anon. (1881). “The History of the Steam Engine: Overview of Galloway’s The Steam Engine and its Inventors” (Ѻ), in: English Mechanics and the World of Science, 32:507-08, Feb 4.
4. Thurston, Robert. (1878). A History of the Growth of the Steam-Engine (txt) (pgs. 27-30). Appleton and Company.
5. MacLeod, Christine. (1988). Inventing the Industrial Revolution: the English Patent System, 1660-1800 (pg. 175). Cambridge University Press.

External links
Samuel Morland – Wikipedia.

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