Scientific revolutions

Scientific revolutions
A 2018 CrashCourse take (Ѻ) on “scientific revolutions” in the context of paradigm change.
In science, scientific revolutions are periods in progress and development of scientific thought where established theory or ideas gets thrown out, completely overhauled, or significantly modified, often owing to new conflicting experimental findings, resulting to bring about new and unexpected growth in scientific thought, typically characterized by a new branch of science. The following is a 2011 snapshot of what can be called the Goethean revolution, one that we are in the midst of or possibly beginning of presently, but do not yet know it: [1]

“Both Goethe and Gombrowicz incorporate explanations of structure into their narratives, and both make references to a chemical model of combination. ‘Gombrowicz’s novelty consists in his going one step further and perfecting Goethe’s revolution’: the character of Olek Skuziak allows him to destroy the narratives completely and put himself ‘in the position of speaking to oneself alone’. Regnault writes, on Gombrowicz’s behalf: ‘My pornography is an optic of perversions, but it is also an inversion of the art of writing, a pornology of writing’. When Gombrowicz writes of ‘persevering in obscenity’, the persevering designates the rigours of the structure, which allow one to surpass the charms of obscenity and lead to their expulsion.”

Scientific revolutions are typically measured in decades, starting on a certain year, preceded by build up years, followed by a transformation period, ending with universal acceptance. These epoch periods become known as revolutions, typically only in retrospect, when the topic or subject begins to see third party descriptions of the subject using the term “revolution”. Some of the main scientific revolutions are tabulated below:

#NameYearPersonPublication
Span
1Copernican revolution:
Aristarchus (270BC)
Nicolaus Copernicus (1543)
Galileo Galilei (1609)
Robert Hooke (1665)
Isaac Newton (1687)
1543Nicholas CopernicusOn the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres270-
2Chemical revolution
Leucippus (475BC)
Robert Boyle (1661)
Isaac Newton (1718)
Antoine Lavoisier (1773)
Torbern Bergman (1775)
John Dalton (1808)
1718Isaac NewtonQuery 311718-1926
3Goethean revolution
Jean Sales (1789)
Johann Goethe (1796)
Mirza Beg (1987)
Libb Thims | Thimsian revolution (1995)
1796Johann GoetheElective Affinities1789-present
4Thermodynamic revolution
Galileo Galilei (1592-1642)
Robert Boyle (1657)
Robert Hooke (1657)
Benjamin Thompson (1798)
Sadi Carnot | Carnotian revolution (1824)
William Thomson (1843)
Rudolf Clausius (1865)
James Maxwell (1871)
Ludwig Boltzmann (1872)
Willard Gibbs (1876)
Hermann Helmholtz (1882)
Max Planck (1893)
Walther Nernst (1905-1916)
Albert Einstein (1905)
Gilbert Lewis (1923)
Edward Guggenheim (1933)
Erwin Schrodinger (1944)
1824Sadi CarnotReflections on the Motive Power of Fire1797-1933
5Darwinian revolution
Ovid (8AD)
Johann Goethe (1780)
Erasmus Darwin (1791)
Etienne Saint-Hilaire (1833)
Alfred Wallace (1858)
Charles Darwin (1859)

1859Charles DarwinOrigin of Species1780-present
6Maxwellian revolution
Pierre Gassendi | Corpuscular theory of light (1649)
Robert Hooke | Wave theory of light (1660s)
Isaac Newton | Corpuscular theory of light (1670s)
Christiaan Huygens | Wave theory of light (1678)
Thomas Young | Double-slit experiment (1801)
Michael Faraday | Lines of force (1830s)
James Maxwell | electromagnetic field (1865)
Albert Einstein | light quanta (photon) (1905)
1865James Maxwell"A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field"1649-present
7Quantum revolution
Rudolf Clausius (1857)
Ludwig Boltzmann (1891)
Max Planck (1900)
Albert Einstein (1905)
Niels Bohr (1913)
Erwin Schrodinger (1926)
1900Max Planck"On the Law of Energy Distribution in the Normal Spectrum"1901-1926

Discussion
The average IQ of the "core" revolutionist, per each scientific revolution, i.e. Copernicus (IQ=190), Lavoisier (IQ=175), Goethe (IQ=230), Clausius (IQ=205), Darwin (IQ=175), Maxwell (IQ=210), and Planck (IQ=190), is IQavg=196.

In categorizational terms, in respect to a "revolutionary genius" pointing system, we note that those with two or more revolution association or roles include:

Revolutions
Person
IQTypes

IQAVG
3Newton215Copernican, Chemical, and Maxwellian}
210
3Einstein220Thermodynamic, Maxwellian, and Quantum
3Hooke195Copernican, Maxwellian, and Thermodynamic
2Goethe230Darwinian and Goethean

}



202
2Maxwell210Thermodynamic and Maxwellian
2Clausius205Thermodynamic and Quantum
2Galileo200Copernican and Thermodynamic
2Schrodinger190Quantum and Thermodynamic
2Boltzmann195Thermodynamic and Quantum
2Boyle185Thermodynamic and Chemical


The IQ average of the 12 revolutionists, with known IQ estimates, having only single revolution association, is: IQAVG = 189.

Related to all of this, Boltzmann, in 1886, famously postulated that the future would look back and define the century the following way:

"The nineteenth century will be remembered as the century of the ‘mechanical vision of nature’ and of ‘Darwin’s evolutionism’."

Which has indeed been the case, with Darwin and Clausius being the two big competing theories with which the modern person uses to understand his or her own existence.

References
1. Synopsis of Francois Regnault, “Optique de Gombrowicz” – Kingston University.

External links
Scientific revolution – Wikipedia.
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions – Wikipedia.

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