|Some 2012 MinutePhysics video (Ѻ) screenshots of exchange force applied to economic interactions, wherein they explain the money as an exchange rate particle, or long-range interaction mediated by a particle, in which the photons actuate momentum transfers between electrons, whereby the exchange force becomes equivalent to “momentum transfer”; in the caption of which a 2009 paper (Ѻ), on gauge theory in economics, by Lee Smolin, is cited.|
In 1993, Canadian political scientist Paris Arnopoulos, in his Sociophysics, gave an outline of the premise of an exchange force operating socially, as follows: 
“All entities, whether fermions or humans, need some mediating agency to interconnect them into systems. This indispensable interrelating and interacting role is ultimately played by different field particles named bosons. Unlike fermions, which are characterized by a significant mass and charge, bosons do not take partake of these to attributes. Rather, they only have spins and provide connections as they are exchanged among fermions.”
Such exchanges are of three kinds: weak or strong nuclear, electromagnetic, and gravitational. The first exist by sharing gluons and thus hold together the atomic nucleus. The second take place by exchanging photons and thus explain most of our ordinary phenomena. The third operate by the displacement of gravitons and thus provide the overall attraction between everything in the universe. Similar phenomena occur up the ontological ladder to describe social, as well as atomic and galactic bonding. Societies, like all systems, are held together by certain ties of varying strength and extent.”
In 2007, American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims, in his Human Chemistry, published an outline of a field particle mediated "exchange force" operated model of social interactions, via the use of primary field particle and secondary field particle model scheme. 
1. (a) Arnopoulos, Paris. (1993). Sociophysics: Chaos and Cosmos in Nature and Culture (pg. 23). Nova Science.
(b) Arnopoulos, Paris. (2005). Sociophysics: Cosmos and Chaos in Nature and Culture (pg. xlviii). Nova Publishers.
2. (a) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume One). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
(b) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume Two). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.