# Spacetime

 A video (4:43) still of physicist Dan Burns (2012) doing (V) the space-time warping demonstration, devised by Shannon Range (2004), constructed (Ѻ) from PVC pipe and Lycra, wherein he shows how the warping of spacetime, owing to the mass of each object, sun, moon, and earth, shown here, cause a rotation of the moon about the earth and the moon and earth about the sun.
In science, spacetime (TR:15) or “space-time” is the combination of space and time into a single manifold called Minkowski space (a combination of Euclidean space and time); a geometry, devised by Hermann Minkowski (1907), originally for Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism, which he showed explained the special theory of relativity of Einstein (1905), that includes the three dimensions and a fourth dimension of time or space and time intertwined, not viewed a separate entities as Newton had envisioned, according to which two observers in relative motion could disagree regarding the simultaneity of events; an event in Minkowski geometry being identified as a “world point” in a four-dimensional continuum. [1]

Exchange force
In 1992, English physical chemist Peter Atkins explained exchange force in the context of spacetime as such: [2]

“All forces that bind atoms, nuclei, and the deepest components of particles, can be regarded as arising from the interchange of particles. Force is only the codeword for this behavior being played out on the arena of spacetime. Spacetime, with its curvature forms the stage; particles distributed as waves pursue straight lines; but particles detach from particles and travel (straight) to others and impress on them their motion. Force is the name of this interchange of particles.”

Whether or not forces act attractively or repulsively, supposedly, depends on the spin of the particles being exchanged: even-integral spin particles are attractive, odd-integral spin particles are repulsive between like particles. [2]

Quotes
The following are related quotes:

“The views of space and time which I wish to lay before you have sprung from the soil of experimental physics, and therein lies their strength. They are radical. Henceforth space by itself, and time by itself, are doomed to fade away into mere shadows, and only a kind of union of the two will preserve an independent reality.”
— Hermann Minkowski (1907) (Ѻ)

Time is not one of the variables of pure thermodynamics.”
Gilbert Lewis (1930), “The Symmetry of Time in Physics”

“Objects that appear to be pulled through a gravitational force are actually objects traveling through warped spacetime.”
— Anon (2016), synopsis (Ѻ) of Einstein’s 1915 general relativity discovery

References
1. Daintith, John. (2005). Oxford Dictionary of Physics (pg. 492). Oxford University Press.
2. Atkins, Peter. (1992). Creation Revisited (pgs. 64-65). W.H. Freeman & Co.