|American quantum information theorist Charles Bennett's 1987 rendition of Szilard's demon collecting information on the particles of the system. |
The Szilard demon was described in Hungarian physicist Leo Szilard's 1929 “On the Decrease in Entropy in a Thermodynamic System by the Intervention of Intelligent Beings”, in which an attempt was made to disprove the existence of a Maxwell's demon, by arguing that the logarithmic interpretation of entropy (S = k ln W) could be used to determine the entropy produced during the ‘measurement’ of information the demon discerns when viewing the speeds and positions of the particles in his two compartments. 
Evolution and heat death
In 1946, Belgian-born English thermodynamicist Alfred Ubbelohde seems to have used the Szilard demon model to argue that new findings in quantum physics and aspects of radiation thermodynamics might negate the heat death ultimatum of the universe. 
● Szilard’s paradox
● Maxwell’s demon
● Laplace’s demon
1. Ubbelohde, Alfred René. (1947). Time and Thermodynamics (pgs. 90-91). Oxford University Press.
2. Szilárd, Leó. (1929). “On the Decrease in Entropy in a Thermodynamic System by the Intervention of Intelligent Beings” (Uber die Entropieverminderung in einem thermodynamischen System bei Eingriffen intelligenter Wesen), Zeitschrift fur Physik, 53, 840-56.
3. Bennett, Charles H. (1987). “Demons, Engines, and the Second Law”, Scientific American, 257(5): 108-116, Nov.
● Berger, Jorge. (1990). “Szilard’s Demon Revisited” (abstract), International Journal of Theoretical Physics, 29(9): 985-95.