Thermodynamics of Humans

Thermodynamics of Humans (1956)

1. A few words of love
2. A few words of life
3. Thermodynamics of life
4. Life force
5. The issue of death
6. Thermodynamics in social and economic
7. Thermodynamics of ethics
8. Thermodynamics of life
9. Worship
Left: Cover of Iranian thermodynamicist Mehdi Bazargan's 1956 book Thermodynamics of Humans (Termodynamik-e Ensan). [1] Right: a 2009 synopsis of the book's sections. [12]
In famous publications, Thermodynamics of Humans: Love and Worship (Farsi: Eshq va Parastesh ya Termodynamik-e Ensan) (Persian: عشق و پرستش ي ا ترمودينام يك انسان) is a 216-page 1956 book written (from Spring to Autumn of 1955 during a 5-month incarceration) by Iranian mechanical engineer and thermodynamics professor Mehdi Bazargan, in which he attempts to explain human activity thermodynamically, using equations, and also in footnoted sections he attempts to explain how his equations explain passages of the Quran. [1] Bazaran's Termodynamik-e Ensan seems to be the first attempt at a book on and entitled 'human thermodynamics' (a term Bazargan uses on page four); although, technically, Polish social economist Leon Winiarski's circa 1890 Social Mechanics would be the true first book on the thermodynamics of systems of humans.

In circa 1980 retrospect of this book, in an article section on the 'Cause of Movement and Life', Bazargan summarizes that: [2]

“In general, an object in a given force field will, of necessity, behave in a calculable and predictable way. For any object, whether a stone, a plant, or a human society, force means movement.”

On this quote, which seems to be a citation of either French physicist Gustave Coriolis 1829 principle of the transmission of work or its thermodynamic formulation by German physicist Rudolf Clausius, in his 1865 mathematical introduction, Bazargan is saying that movement of a human body or the body of a human society by the forces acting on those bodies constitutes a measurement of work as the product of force times distance or as pressure-volume work, measured at the boundary of society. This is the first step into pure thermodynamics. Beyond this, Bazargan goes on to discuss entropy and thermodynamics applied to human activity.

The book seems to be an expanded view of his earlier six-page 1946 chapter “The Relationship Between Man and Work”, in Work and Islam, in which Bazargan had discussed what he called the 'physiological thermodynamics' of human work. Bazargan wrote his famous 1956 treatise Termodynamik-e Ensan (Thermodynamics of Humans) while in prison for his political views, a precipitate of the 1953 Iranian coup and its subsequent political restrictions. The book was first published in 1957, according to private documents in possession of Bazargan's biographer Saeed Barzin. [9]

First main principle
The most cited equation that Bazargan seems to use in this book is German physicist Rudolf Clausius' first main principle in the form:

 W = U - TS \,

although he does not seem to define these variables in precise thermodynamic terms. [7] Bazargan defined work W by the term ‘effective energy’ equating it with the human power of movement and production; the internal energy U by the phrase ‘initial internal energy’, equating it with desire, need, and love; and temperature T he equated to the value of one’s possessions; and entropy S with the amount of possessions. [9]
Bazargan (entropy equation, page 70)
Increase in assets
Total price
Unit Price
Production amount or increase in item quantity

Bazargan employs about ten equations in the first seventy pages alone. The sections of cropped equations, of pages 70-71, gives an idea of Bazargan's treatise, while at the same time highlighting Persian-to-English translation issues, concerning what exactly Bazargan is saying. The equation of work, below, seems to be saying that the work of the individual in a society is a function of the internal energy less the energy associated with sexual inventory, whatever that means?

The book, according to a review by Muhammad Taqavi was is divided into two parts: the first part, which is the main text, is about what Bazargan called the ‘thermodynamics of man’, and is an examination of love, the need for love, various types of love and the like, on the basis of thermodynamic concepts and formula. The second part of the book amounted to footnoted explanations of certain scientific points in the main discussion that were thought to correspond with Koranic verses. Bazargan maintained that the two parts were independent, such that rejection of one part did not amount to denial of the other. [9]

Bazargan (equation pg 71)
or need
The capacity of consumption
or total need

Available assets [items]
(Sexual inventory?)

Bazargan called his discourse on historical evolution the “evolutionary course of religions”, on the postulate that religion has developed through evolution, an argument which he bases on Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species and its theory of natural selection; and his argument of social laws the “thermodynamics of society”.

Bazargan explains everyday life in terms of thermodynamics, using it as a model that can explain how society in general works, according to a 2004 review by American cultural anthropologist Mazyar Lotfalian. Bazargan explains that love is that which is connected to faith but expanded to biology and is considered as the source of all human activity: “under the rubric of love, we want to gather all human goals and sources of human activities, whether it is food, clothing, libidinal feelings …” On devotion, Bazargan states that it is the movement of love to its ultimate limit, which is god. Lotfalian gives the following definition of Bazargan's subject matter the thermodynamics of humanity: [7]

“[Human thermodynamics] (termodynamik-e ensan) is the mathematical expression of how human activity works according to a set of laws that are based on the relation of heat, time, and energy.”

Bazargan devoted a section to human morality. In introducing this discussion, he comments: [9]

“I will try to discuss morality from the point of view of thermodynamics and [scientific] natural law. Such a task is very difficult. Nevertheless, doing it is better than not doing it.”

This is similar to German polymath Johann Goethe who stated in circa 1810 that ‘the moral symbols used in the natural sciences were the elective affinities discovered and employed by the great Bergman'.
Libb Thims tsFardin Khalili
Libb ThimsFardin Khalili

English translation project
A complete English translation of Bazargan's Thermodynamics of Humans has not yet come to fruition.

On 27 Apr 2010, American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims obtained a 216-page PDF version of the book (in Farsi) from Bonyad Farhangi Bazargan of

Using this PDF, the first 40 pages has been machine translated by Thims, shown below. Others, in communication with Thims, to have participated or given tips or direction, in some way or another, to the English translation project include: Iranian-born American engineer Robert Kenoun (section below), Iranian-born American chemical engineer and thermodynamicist Ali Mansoori, among others (work in project).
Reviewers | Potential
Robert KenounAbdolali BazarganReza HashermianMehdi Bahadori Nezhad
Robert Kenoun
Abdolali BazarganReza Hashermian Mehdi Bahadori

On 28 Oct 2012, Iranian-born American electrical engineer Reza Hashermian, in query on a tip by Mansoori that he might have already done the translation, Hashermian commented to Thims: [13]

“No! I wish I did, but I have not translated Mehdi Bazargan's 1956 book on Thermodynamics of Humans! It is certainly an excellent book to translate and I encourage you to finish the translation you have started.I wish you success!”

On 29 Mar 2013, Thims began communicating with Bazargan's son, Abdolali Bazargan about the translation project, who commented:
ToH cover (draft) (18 Apr 2013)
Current working draft cover (18 Apr 2013) to Bazargan translation project.

“I was very pleased to hear that one of my late father’s books has interested you to make it part of a curriculum on the topic of thermodynamics. I had forwarded your links and email to “Bazargan Cultural Foundation” in Iran to seek their input, and they too were intrigued on the idea to translate this text into English. Unfortunately, my lack of knowledge in English and the topic will not make me a good candidate to translate this book; however, I will be more than happy to support this project with limited resources I have. Please let me know how you foresee this endeavor getting accomplished and how can I be of any assistance in expediting or facilitating this goal!? Best regards and looking forward to your reply.”

On 4 Apr 2013, in further discussion with Hashermian about the Abdolali Bazargan involvement with the project, Hashermian suggested the following to Thims:

“I think your choice of Abdol Ali Bazargan is an appropriate one. As far as I know, he has been in US for quite a while and giving lectures both in Farsi and English. I would like to introduce another person to you if you could get the hold of him. Dr. Mehdi Bahadori-Nezgad, you may already know him. I think, if he accepts, Dr. Bahadori-Nezgad is one of the best choices to either do the translation or the proof reading. You can read his Vita. He is a mechanical engineer and one of the earliest students of Mehdi Bazargan. His classmate and one of the closest friends was Dr. Mostaffa Chamran, who passed away during the Iran-Iraq war. Although I have read the book and have enjoyed the subject in quite a while ago, but thermodynamics is not close enough to my field to get engaged with the proof reading of the book.”

On 16 May 2014, Fardin Khalili emailed Libb Thims the following note:

“I just graduated and I am done with my thesis works that has prevented me to work hard on translating the book. Right now I am free and will continue the translation. I estimate to finish the translation by the end of summer.”

Human thermodynamics | Kenoun translation
The following is the excerpt, from pages 4-5, where Bazargan uses the term "human thermodynamics", specifically in brackets, referring, it seems, to the general subject of thermodynamics applied in sociology and economics, as translated by Iranian-born American engineer Robert Kenoun, with commentary shown in brackets. [11]

[With all the respect for Mr. Bazargan, I do not like his writing; he could have done a much better job. For such a difficult subject using long sentences and figurative phrases makes it harder for the reader to follow and grasp his thoughts and ideas much less to translate it in another language. He also uses a lot of Arabic words in his writings, which is natural for him due to his religious conviction to Islam and Arabic language that Koran uses. I have translated this page as close as I could to keep its originality unless figurative use of words interfered with meaning. In that case I tried to preserve the meaning.]

To escape from such a misery, there are two options. One, to make an attempt, even if it is a lousy attempt, to explain the principles of thermodynamics and their applications in the footnotes, and try not to sell them as science. Also, try to avoid detailed explanation and prolongation of arguments of connecting subjects to refrain from confusing those unfamiliar with the subjects of mathematics and thermodynamics in order to preserve the totality of the main subject of thermodynamics and to continue further discussions that follows. However, one should not expect that as the validity of thermodynamic equations and their results are proven scientifically, be also believed in the mind of the readers. The very elementary idea of application of thermodynamics in the field of economic that we discussed in a chapters in the middle of the book, nowadays, is much more advanced than once it was presented. Although these theories still incomplete and in infancy stages, but there is much hope for finding more common grounds between the field of thermodynamic and other sciences such as social and economics. Nevertheless, the help we have received, in this chapter, from using few simple mathematical equations may not produce a conflict with more common topics discussed in later chapters.

[This is exactly where you got stuck. The worst sentence written here that I cannot make sense of.
Here is my take and understanding of this sentence; not an exact translation but the meaning of it.]

[Bazargan is worried that scientific community may excommunicate his book because he has brought the notion of God and religion in such a scientific discussion like thermodynamics. To avoid it, he suggests that all topics related to 'human thermodynamics' and God/religion be separated and discussed in the footnotes. I believe he refers to the scientific community as “those better than us”; an exact translation. Continuing with the rest of the page.]

Nevertheless, readers should not disregard the footnotes so that they, too, not to be included as part of this community, i.e. “those better than us”.

[I guess here he even insults this community as “dumb donkey” Anyway the text of the book (referring to the scientific notions) and the footnotes (referring to matters discussed in relation to God/religion) each has its own independent approach.]

Anytime there are similarities in the results and conclusions between the two approaches, they are stated in the footnotes and if the reader finds one to be nonsensical it does not mean that the other is too. The reader should also be aware and not to expect concrete results and mathematical proof for our approach (referring to footnote material). In this approach, the pseudo-science, i.e. “Thermodynamic of Life” has been equated to worship, love of the heavens filled with stars and fields that are full of flowers. Since human and social activities fit within these two limits (I guess he means approaches) inevitably in their journey through the territory of love and worship, they will face so many humanitarian issues that when they are observed and analyzed from this perspective and approach it would be much more interesting.

[This last paragraph was very poetic and he used words in figurative phrases that the exact translation to English would have been too confusing and nonsense. Again, this my understanding of his mind.]

Human thermodynamics | Google translate
The following is the excerpt, from pages 4-5, where Bazargan uses the term "human thermodynamics", specifically in brackets, referring, it seems, to the general subject of thermodynamics applied in sociology and economics.

∗ ∗ ∗
براي فرار از چنين بدبختي دو چاره جويي كرده است. يكي آنكه سعي نموده است
مباني و مسائل ترموديناميك ر اكه مورد استناد قرار مي گيرد، به هر دست و پا شكستگي
شده در پاورقي ها تا اندازه اي شرح دهد و حتي المقدور كمتر علم فروشي نمايد.
به علاوه ربط مطالب را با بعضي تجديد مطلع ها و تفصيل ها- كه به نوبه خود مزيد
تطويل و تصديع شده و قبلاً معذرت مي طلبد- طوري ترتيب بدهد كه اگر
قسمت هايي مفهوم نشد و براي بيگانگان ب هترموديناميك و رياضيات مبهم بود
مع ذلك رشته ي كلي گسيخته نگردد و تعقيب مباحث بعدي امكان پذير باشد. ولي
توقع هم نبايد داشته باشيد كه نتايج و فرمول هاي ترموديناميك كه در جاي خود
مسلم شده است در اينجا و در ذهن خواننده نيز به اثبات و يقين برسد.
فصل وسط كتاب كه استعمال ترموديناميك در اقتصاد مي باشد خودبه خود توسعه
و تفصيل خارج از تناسب پيدا كرده و بيش از آنچه نظر ابتدايي بود جلو رفته است.
مع ذلك البته ناقص است و گمان مي كند در اين زمينه ميدان تفاهم و تشريك
مساعي مابين ترموديناميك و علوم اقتصاد و اجتماع خيلي باز و اميدبخش باشد. در
هر حال استمدادي كه در اين فصل از بعضي فورمول هاي ساده رياضي شده است
مانع تجديد عهد با فصول بعدي كه موضوعات عمومي تر مي باشد نخواهد بود.
و همچنين براي آنكه ارتباط « از ما بهتران » چاره جويي ديگر آنكه براي خاطر دسته ي
طبيعي مطالب با مفاهيم ديني و اسلامي موجب طرد و تكفير متن كتاب از ناحيه ي بعضي
استقلال خود را از دست ندهد آنچه « ترموديناميك انسان » روشنفكران نشود و موضوع
را كه پاي خدا و كلام خدا در آن مي آيد جدا كرده در پاورقي ها جا داده است.
(مع ذلك به كليه خوانندگان محترم توصيه مي نمايد پاورقي ها را هم نديده نگيرند تا
خداي نكرده مشمول آيه فوق الذكر كه در شأن... الاغ نازل شده است نگردند!..). در هر
حال متن كتاب و حاشيه هريك براي خود جرياني مستقل دارد. هرجا نتايج و ربط هايي
پيش آمده است كه ب هگمان نگارنده قابل تطبيق و قياس با آيات قرآن و كلمات ائمه
است تذكر و ترجم هاي در ذيل صفحه داده شده است و اگر يكي از اين دو جريان
به نظر خواننده كج و بيراهه رفته باشد دليل بر انحراف ديگري نبايد گرفته شود.
انتظار ديگري كه نبايد داشته باشيد رسيدن به نتايج بسيار قطعي رياضي در اين
است. در اينجا ترموديناميك در زمينه حيات « نيمه ادبي- نيمه علمي » قبيل مباحث
انسان به عنوان پل ربط و معراجي از صحراي پر از گُلِ عشق به آسمان پر از ستاره ي
پرستش انتخاب شده است. نظر به اينكه فعاليت هاي انسان و اجتماع مابين اين
دوسرحد يا بر حول اين محور در حركت و گردش مي باشد، ناگزير در سفر از ديار
عشق به ديار پرستش از بسياري منازل بشريت و مناظر انسانيت عبور خواهد شد كه
وقتي از دريچ هي جديدي ديده مي شود ممكن است خالي از تازگي و تماشا نباشد.
∗ ∗ ∗
To escape from such misery we have used two saving options. Firstly, we have tried to use thermodynamics principles and applied issues in the main part of the text and to use citations in the footnotes, to some degree as possible to describe sections of a secondary nature. In addition, with some relevant content and reformulation of details - which in turn worsens prolongation of concept for troubling and already demand - so we have arranged the main parts of the concept and its math the overall field is not disruptive, and pursuing further discussions are possible. But we should not expect the results of thermodynamics and the formulas used in places clearly here and in the mind of the reader to prove to be certain.

The middle chapter book is focused on the use of thermodynamics in economics as in the spontaneous development of proportion and detail and have found more than what was considered the primary. The course will be incomplete and one will consider this field in this area of understanding and sharing effort between thermodynamics and economic and social sciences very open and is promising.

Any appeal in this chapter to simple mathematical formula has been done to prevent re-promise that next session with more general issues are not. They also communicate, with better choice for those seeking more explication for the normal subjects with connection to Islamic religious concepts are found in the causes, and are thus an exclusion and excommunication from the main area of the text, so that the textbook will not lose its independence, in what intellectuals may call "human thermodynamics" and not be directly connected to subject matter of the second part of the book, that in the footnotes, of God and the word of God.

To all readers, editorial recommends users not seen them until now God not subject to the above verse is used in dignity. Assurance is revealed. For the textbook is now and your margin for each stream of discussion is independent. Where relevant results and some before that the writer has adaptive and comparison with verses and words of Iman's and interpreters is reminded of the following page has been if one of these two flow the singer is tilted and went astray because of the deviation should be another. One should not have expected the other to achieve results in a very definite mathematical way.

The [typo] thermodynamics of life is thus presented here as "semi-literary" and "semi-scientific" topics relevant as a bridge from desert full of flowers to love the sky full of stars. Worship is selected. Considering that human and social activities between these around the axis of the movement and circulation is forced on a journey from the land of love to worship in many homes, land and landscape of humanity and that humanity will pass when a new day is seen may not be empty recently and watched.
* * *

Termodinamik-e EnsanHT Bazargan trans (Simorgh)
Translation by randomly-polled Iranian-born American, indicating that the title means: "Thermodynamics of Human Beings". [8]
عشق و پرستش ي ا ترمودينام يك انسان
A poll of an Iraqi-born American indicates that the above Farsi title means "Thermodynamics of People".
Thermodynamics  of Humanity (footnote)
Above: Footnote twenty-three to Bazargan's circa 1980 article "Religion and Liberty", seems to indicate that Bazargan calls his own book "Thermodynamics of Humanity"; this, however, may be a which may be a secondary translational interpretation? [2] Right: a 2014 translation by Iranian-born American translator Sadegh Simorgh.

Title translations issues
There seem to be many variations of the English translation of the title of Bazargan's book including "Man's Thermodynamics", "Thermodynamics of Humans", "Thermodynamics in Human Condition", "Thermodynamics of Humanity", "Thermodynamics of People", "Thermodynamics of Human Beings", or "Human Thermodynamics". The pure Persian/Farsi title, according to Google translate, reads:

عشق و پرستش (love and worship) ي ا (or a) ترمودينام (thermodynamics) يك (of) انسان (man)

The last part, taken together, however, translates in a politically correct sense as thermodynamics of humans: ترمودينام يك انسان (thermodynamics of humans), as indicated by Google translate. If the book was to be republished and fully translated in English this would seem to be the correct modern title, i.e. Thermodynamics of Humans.

The book began to be cited in secondary English works in the 1960s or 1970s, under various titles (some as listed below). It is not for certain whether there is an actual English translation of the entire book? There may have been one published in English in Houston by the Book Distribution Center in 1978, as this is a common reference; although more investigation needs to be done.

The actual English translation of the Farsi title Eshq va Parastesh ya Termodynamik-e Ensan differs depending on source, which include: Love and Faith: the Thermodynamics of Human Beings [4];Thermodynamics in Human Condition (1969) [6]; Love and Devotion: or the Thermodynamics of Humanity (1978) [7]; Love and Worship: Human Thermodynamics (1979) [3]; Love and Worship: Man's Thermodynamics (date); Love or Worship or the Thermodynamics of Humanity (date), among others. In the 1998 English reprint of Bazargan's article "Religion and Liberty" (c.1980), as shown in footnote 23 (above), it seems that Bazargan calls his book, in English, the Thermodynamics of Humanity; although, again, this may be a post-humorous translation interpretation. Post 1979 English reprints of the book tend to retitle or translate Termodynamik-e Ensan as Human Thermodynamics. [3] A yet another (1990) reference states that, in English, the book was called Love and Adoration, or the Thermodynamics of Man. [10]

English translation
Shown below is the partial start of a straight Farsi → English Google translation of Bazargan's book using a 216-page PDF version of the book sent to American chemical engineer Libb Thims from Bonyad Farhangi Bazargan (of on 27 Apr 2010. If you are fluent in both Persian and English feel free to correct the mis-translated sentences (which are many).

Page 2:
Topics basics (Complete Works: 268)
In honor of my mother, homonymous S. Kobra, example of Loyalty and sacrifice.

Submitted to:
Dear friends and relatives during the Involvement with munificence and kindness and Tafaqodi, Prove they dare to express magnanimity.
Page 3:
This book brings the first months of military prison governor (April and June 1334). Fortunately, reading and writing was prohibited? Therefore, major employment - which This case should be forced to put his name activity - was turn the book. A value Book legend and the novel love books, a bit of religious books Person's story, such as prayers or faith leaders and topics, ie the destination of their written Nature worship is eternal. Thus strengthening the spirit of passing time and provided with Acquiring new knowledge from deprivation compensatory activity to act abroad, respectively. Also, the book Thermodynamics industrial house I had asked about the opportunities available subject A few years ago that Wedgwood Hshbahty between verb and its chemical sense Lhay Anfa I think I was. The combination of these three factors hefty mixture was digested with shame that now all Service are presented to readers. How nice savings and be helpful I do not know. Entertainment for the author has. If the reader the tedium of employment  empty Is very satisfied and will be Shaker. However, the bad and good legs who must Be written that caused unemployment and involvement in this ... So that as the book suggests, the book includes three types of content are: First, Love all the less desirable and famous. Basically someone dislikes it will not be revealed (Especially in the nation Sharmslk Iran). Secondly, worship; serve as Hdalay love But it also was said host name of God and God gives the smell and the fairy say This offends the talk. Or "smart set" Bismillah might enter the river

page 4:
Topics basic (Works 270)
A god who did "not  ANOVA, Fischer exact    M. H.   R. M. S. M.    tons   R. F.   you. R. F.   D. M.     N Qs and R.   conducted "true verse Khran are like frightened that Solat milk can escape from the word Rome Do! The third is thermodynamics, Items to be other than that I think people The few school have been forced to drop this course, theoretical (and certainly forget Have) very upset and worried others will ... Short of reading the book does not predict! Ali remains and Hvzsh!
* * *
To escape from such misery has two saving options. Rather one has tried to R. Ak·h thermodynamics principles and issues cited is placed, each hand and foot fractures In the Notes, to some degree as possible to describe and to lower marketing. In addition, with some relevant content and re-informed of details - which in turn worsens Prolongation and sorry for troubling and already demand - so if you arrange Parts of the concept and not for foreigners was vague and math b Htrmvdynamyk M Zlk the overall field is not disruptive, and pursuing further discussions be possible. But Should also expect to have results and formulas in place of thermodynamics Is clear here and in the mind of the reader and also prove to be certain. Middle chapter book is the use of thermodynamics in economics Spontaneous development Out of proportion and detail and have found more than what was considered the primary front is gone. M Zlk course incomplete and they will field in this area of understanding and sharing Effort between thermodynamics and economic and social sciences very open and is promising. At Any appeal in this chapter some simple mathematical formula has been Preventing re promise that next season with more general issues are not. And also they communicate, "we better choice for those seeking Moreover, for the Normal subjects with Islamic religious concepts and causes exclusion and excommunication from the area, some text books Lose its independence, what "human thermodynamics" intellectuals and not subject That the foot of God and the word of God that comes to separating the Footer is here. (M Zlk to all readers edit recommends users not seen them until now
50 and 51: Hand Rmyd Gvrkhrany telling that [front] milk flee. / (1. Mdsr (7

page 5:
Love and worship (Works 271)
God not subject to the above verse in dignity ... Ass is revealed Ngrdnd !..). Per Text Book now and your margin for each stream is independent. Where relevant results and some Before that the writer Hgman adaptive B and comparison with verses and words of Imams And interpreter is reminded of the following page has been if one of these two flow The singer is tilted and went astray because of the deviation should be another. Should not have expected other to achieve results in a very definite mathematical Is. Thermodynamics of life here in "semi-literary - semi-scientific" topics such as
Human levitation and relevance as a bridge from desert full of flowers love the sky full of stars Worship is selected. Considering that human and social activities between these Dvsrhd or around the axis of the movement and circulation is forced on a journey from the land Love to worship in many homes, land and landscape of humanity that humanity will pass When a new Drych Hey is seen may not be empty recently and watched.
* * *
Thermodynamics principles long ago in many science and technical issues and theoretical The overwrought and the results have been remarkable. Maybe Zys Tshnasy and Human activities as well as the earlier and better than what this book is trying to work Be taken. Of course L Alfzl  trick  D. M.  height  . In any case, is necessary in any thermodynamics Where the local dress and the color of the analogy and metaphor to sustentation to ethnic language Talk to the parties understand each word. Entering the world and full of endless forms Of life and distorting some of the inevitable adjustment will be necessary. Certainly at the foot of thermodynamics And work here at the beginning of a more lame and stuttering tongue Dartr other places will be. At First steps and precautions for brevity should not accept large items to be delivered. Lack of Writer and a bit identification and qualification opportunities for entering the details of expression but Approximation could not be. With such a confession and apology is hoped that any courage Hsaht b popular Holy shrine of love and worship and every error that contributed bright spots thermodynamics Is entered, in favor of reform and readers should be elevated Tkmy Lknndgan

Page 6:
Topics Basics (Works 272)
Bazargan  photo (950px)
Photo on page 6 (add: English translation of caption)

Page 7:
Chapter 1
A Few Words of Love

Page 8:
"Topics basic" (Works 274)
-1 0.1 world of love
First previous love life and people have been flirting. I am also a poet and artist in this Feeling nourished and soft areas of competence and aesthetic view I have in mind. Personal taste and sense of love Nchshydh step in the valley and the world of lovers and fascination with beauty I did not perfection. But, according to such well-known, if I have eaten wheat bread I've seen people get. Briefly describe the love and heard my calling.
* * *
Of scientific books and correspondence from anyone serious life, religious books and literature The moral that aside, what should be said of human poetry, poems of love Is. Tales of childhood to the end of the wedding is, in ancient legends and literature All Zba Nha often love stories, poems and poems of poets throughout our role Yar has occurred and journalist, wrote of writers in Europe and theater and cinema with a brief exception  Love and tinker around the axis M Yznd away. Melody is music lovers. Artists, authors and readers are all beautiful panegyric Food is love that has been: What everyone is seeking partners and how drunk alert Home is everywhere love what what Knsht Mosque Books mysticism and wisdom to express the meaning of the original and delicate thoughts, the language of Gvyatr Languages are not love. All love turns tail. Love of course different with different titles. A point is not more than sorrow and love this too Kz any that I hear is Namkrr -1 0.2 you must love into account? It is true that love is out of discussion of serious topics of science and love working Is hidden, but if you can camouflage is not deniable. Although the poet used exaggeration and hyperbole to say to  and work of artist and writer Musician and writer, and all show that certain lines Brjst Hkrdn desired

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"Topics basic" (Works 275)
He is. But - not Chyzky people refrain from things. Can not deny the fact that They love to both accepted and rejected is legitimate or deviant and one Work is a major absorber of humanity and the cause is very effective in individuals and Communities played a major role and will. Whatever your love, whether fictitious or Available, it works visible and palpable. What was visible and tangible and effective, Can not be scientific topic and the direction is not significant. Can not deny the fact that a lot of obstacles in the heat of love your way Water can. Fu Qaladh and fills in its own to create. Literary and artistic masterpieces, and how many military conquests and political success in the following Blazing flames of love has been made. Or when the heart person under Severe body functions have been located. N stage determination to love before you step  profits Ray B.  you this journey can we possibly Jazbyt and reality is something natural and true love. Instead of telling someone Is, sentiments fills falls and manage intelligence and other talents Adjacent and internal to the weld and the incidence and appearance come. Maybe next welding and That b stimulation Hadmy refurbishment and gives liveliness. Quote old young poets Be. If Yar Zll lip kiss by a young myself and I live over again I g. -1 Types love and power, 0.3 Various aspects of courtship and lover is different. Sade Htr and what is more normal and Sh Qha other basic scale is, love and sexual attraction is a male and female signs. This
Realms universe behalf of human animals (and perhaps species) and the connection will be extended. In the world of animals who hypocritically empty artifice and poetic is Tkhy Lhay Strange power of this phenomenon is better and size charts and praised it easier. Since the creation of nature and will clearly look and Gray will provide gift Particular score is the man who created and deviation does not disorder, can be better Quality of this reality and realized it believes ...

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"Topics basic" (Works 276)
Biology scholars say the main actions or signs of a major three things in life Are: Nutrition - exchange (with external environment) - Tvald. And these three things that goal Their common survival and survival is, rather more important and others sacrificed their Makes the third act and the sexual instinct is the reproductive factor. Rather than that some Insects do not come into the world, except for mating: males and females were immediately pleased . His life from night to morning after spawning done nothing touches the eye turvy 2 Many kinds of animals for the sexual act only because they felt Is. Faber 3 famous scientist who study courtship or copulation Yknv of the spider 4 5 to see. While the male "love of power above the power of death is His favorite was hard embraced scientist sees animal material shall Eating poor husband is a dispute. Nothing without love dedication Pressure to reduce the warmth and love and so much loyalty and dedication continues to Fkyn Ruthless lover to love about belly tank been sympathetic Mydrd sexual glands. At The time is getting rid of ... Sense of self-protection in animals and defense of survival there. However, cases and examples That indicate a sense of self-preservation (ie selfishness) in the sense of sexual and production Generation and maintain the shield pockets are numerous. Love and wars that predators and Chrndgan mating season for the kidnapping and the owner of a substance (or flock material Deer) and shall lead to victory coupled with a strong male will kill other males, Evident from hunters and Zoology is normal. Thus the nature Before the conclusion of its security and generation of B Hhfz uprising has weakened individual does not Producer and the donor are inherited. Also has a female serial. Predators and boldness that Article animals defend their baby shows sometimes Shdydtraz heat Males

1. Fonctions; 2. Les Ephemeres; 3. J.H. Fabre; 4. Mantes religieuse; 5. L'amour plus forte que la mort.

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When mating is. Maternal love, which comes after sex love it Is stronger. Poets, we all reap Ghprdazy of metaphor and the right to say that the singing nightingale in Hand For the flower lover and is popular for. Not only but other birds and insects nightingale The spring flight and song will they burn the desired sex are followed. Animals, like humans and H. efflorescence  d d  action and manifestations of the best works Existence during the lover to occur. Mystics from the world of animal and human inputs on each foot beyond the city walls occur as partners and saw Hand N  and every instrument a love song heard, the world breathless and with the manifestations of life and love birth Are known. Roman Rumi says: Of course the reactions of love Kunder M.  Ftad fire of love Kunder N  Ftad Soil body was lying on the mountain of love was dance and pep was Rejoice we love a good soda because of our medical Plato and our Galen you with his arrogance and honor our medic The creation of religions and their training officers are bound to observe the truth were known The tail of love and the servants are surprised. Founder of monotheistic religions on earth respect All of them are, Ibrahim (Ali Nabi Ali  ship Hals  Lam) is. Khalil Ibrahim. Khalil H. M.  Nyfa   Q L M    you and us ... "the friendly. Loving God! Quran makes him such a description Al-Omran / 67) Abraham was Hanif (Hanif miles and the Taliban). "Kan M N  chagrin  Shrkyn Right).  M. tuberculosis was  M. (submitter to God) and not an idolater (other than servants of God and to love No longer push) Christians, their religion the religion of love and know. Jesus came to say Who love (to love God and love to create them) to train. There is no word love in the Quran (the Persian word is more poetic Arabic. Perhaps the time has not been in common use, and now the Arabs love  b c say). And They based education and training based on refinement and put contemplation, and belief and certainty Have been asked to open everywhere you speak words like  B. D.   Gha’  and quite   Hezbollah (search and
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"Topics basic" (Works 278)
Demand on God) - a pill   van Allah - Allah  parents - a row   Van L  Qa’  God - maximum   b c  God etc. "Heart" is. Aside no faith in Islam and the Koran than it is known to enter Is not acceptable and effective knows. Believe work is the heart and the heart of the believer, the name of God Is blown. Believing and seeing the signs of God's revelations to the soil falls and tears of joy "Ask" comes. Order Holy Qur'an repeatedly makes me read me Come unto me. This Dargahan we Dargahan not despair if you repent Sdbar open fracture Ay Love as if that criticism fail impurity, jealousy accusation that alien traits Mshvqhay earth is the Eternal Portal is love. Because they are not only Property to love their hearts are pure will, the Koran also promised each fault
Forgiveness will save Shrek: A.  Lai N God  Ghf   Shrek  to the thigh and the infrared  Ghf  R. Zlk   L M N  The  Sha’. (Nisa / 48). Does not allow the love and serve God as though No one who Is (Beth - Shafi - partners - hypocrisy - Find - a reward - fear, etc.) to share. The heart of believers and religion is for God and Khalsa Mkhlsa hard to kill him; least N Fm   a row  Wa Kan L  Qa’   R. B. Fly   the paternal uncle Sal Mola  L AS   Lai Ha and  Shrek  Bbad  conducted  R. B.  the اح  da (K · hf / 110: Say Everyone is so desirous of meeting with their Lord is required to do practical work Worthy, and the servants of the Lord No one partner does not.) The Shia religion, so you know, if accepted religion and province to province, known In love across the board. Dahayy imams who come across Tkbyr and hymn the praises of With God and want a reminder that the great goods and attributes of God forgiving and purity and Magnanimity and other traits Jlalh, love him to much at the heart of a Muslim. Imam Sajjad (AS) taught us prayer Abvhmz·h Smaly stated: Allhm  you OWN  Asylk  it Tmla and cardiac  b c  elk  (the heart of God you want me chock-full of love You have to), and Sb   inform   Qayk Li L (Khatrm meeting and appointment in the popular turn), or Ghay  T في R.  Ghb  T (o But my wish and desire) 1

1. Dahayy course taught us that the Prophet other than Hand Dahayy that is common to us. We pray World and ask ourselves easily. God to serve them Tlbym. They need prayer and love have secrets And God himself would serve him leave. Zkrshan describe the greatness and perfection, and Sobhan

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-1 0.4 Generalized love Human evolution and diversity of human traits very wide range of mind and has variable. Here, the issue should love a wider horizon and fuel types and Atvar Hdartr much and And numerous aspects of studied. What makes something easy is that despite the different scenarios
Different and contradictory purposes and Z Fhay high intensity, common in all these respects Love that course, many names are found there. If the destination is different, Source unit. Is a secret love jokes that it delivers That its name not ruby lips and legging line is The names of the degrees of Sade such exponential words and asked to beg, desire Or order started Bhsb intensity and Zfy Khvahndh that is important or Which is called gravitational words such as destination or purpose, need or needful, Desirable ideals, popular and beloved arrives. And finally lead to God. All of it for that person to reach the other side, and his desire to create Internal and external movements to a kind of love will be: Love was not in any one certainty insider Everyone has thought in terms of understanding

Variation of praise and satisfaction are believers. Considering the greatness of creation machine has the humility and self blame Sorry to be. They ask for forgiveness and request shall esteem. Contrary to our complaints section Protest delivered to your work and God's hand only when caught praying and begging removed creditor We are. Ash Qand it and we  M. de  attempts Their patience and Faraj want more and better ways to collect on the problems and Abtlahay right to bring home. Higher strength and effort and win the race and serve Yknnd M. demand action. (Camille is in prayer: Swan St.  AS  but  tail   K d c   Varhy and maximum  D. A.   but Alzym  conducted J. Van   living.  B L E and   shall  Aljd  mischief Khshy  K d   and Ald   loan  F. Yala  Tsal Depending  tail  K d   Asrh  or even mischief  Lake  Squares Als  Abqyn and immediately    Lake  mischief or chagrin  wind  Ryn). In front of us to escape Karda duty and God and we want to put on our own instead of serving the homeless and train their Persist. B Ysy expectation and suffering, free and clear step from heaven! Language to pray to God in love and now want to read and is beloved. Requires knowledge of worship and then Is. In fact, all knowledge and faith to find love at home is like getting to know and pray to God Bdrkhanh like squash to be informal and ask for service.

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Lover who currently have nothing to do and what is desirable and what degree of external reality and Have the ability to love is. What is important and indisputable fact that such a state in humans and Of activity is found. Human existence, whether it across or under the command of the material Ink spiritual know, is up against love. Is hot and inflamed. To Next to come and weld enter. His body and nerve activity to find and work with this Intimacy and exhilaration do. The appropriateness and understanding are for it. Like that Previous provision, and it has been their home appreciation. Because nothing in human Love (meaning both in positive and negative directions) to movement and activity comes Drnmy. After the real love is real. And when Love in front of hidden assets out Comes to existence and may be used in pockets after he made for the same work And discussed. Now if we consider that love is with different stages Steps it is found that a person against his love and sacrifice can forget, Will reach a deeper Astnbathay Bahri is a measure of love is not alone Hychsh But they die there is not remedy Before we reach such a stage of deep and accurate, the normal process of post We see that we get very present in the collection or spending time to think or Mqsvdman property Bnmayym, Let your Bzhmt, from selfishness to accessories and let inoculation. In other words, just love feeling a sense of self-preservation and survival picture is. M Zlk Feels natural and the human (or in life in general.) And with all the horns and Which leaves it to the poets and mystics Hand of material and scientific phenomena and undeniable Is rather remarkable. Henceforth to our other female lover, or the opposite sex with charm and Attractions passionate and is not a hobby, but every good purpose and will be included. Intention is that as a simple single photo, all the objectives and the origin of life Activities of human physical and mental we have a gathering. Including food, Clothing and Shhvat sexual instinct, emotion, taste, art, and material credit Affairs

1. Psychologique

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Love and worship 281
Spiritual, physical and psychological (and physiological Psykvlvzhyk) or carnal miles. Apparently this Generalization error and facilitate the way we have gone. Because the manifestations of life is very active and Tha Except where these activities of the purposes and issues that interest or need to be human, Does not originate. The day a person and a desire to taste what is not of any practical
Does not. 0.5 -1 need Now if you consider that the desire to seek love and when that person loses
In need of his or catchy feel the opposite side (namely the need to open Yknv But that is the need to confront the man is feeling and stimulation), We say that the source and origin of all manifestations of life and active Tha is no need Life is needed. With the difference being that the latter Ghyrzndh No sense of hunger or thirst, or lack of and need not Ynmayd general. He claims there is. "Out" but the first thing that needs to

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"Topics basic" (282 works (

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Chapter 2
A Few Words of Life

We said love and worship. Enough. Speech is not the end and be rid of it. Poetry with repetition Leza Nalghyb Hafiz: Bahri is a measure of love is not alone Hychsh But they die there is not choice. Go head man thermodynamics. Thermodynamics us to see what the land borders. Of course, the first start of human life.

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"Topics basic" (Works 284 (1
0.1 -2 orbit life And filling the deficit and without prejudice "need" of human (and in general any living organism) to resolve That feels itself, and the rush to move in and demand comes. Purpose seems to And preys lover or blends. The fire of love or need or appetite, he gradually reduced Be. Peace and settlement and satisfaction and depression in other words, he obtained Be. Turns off. May even go to sleep. Thus a period or a cycle of actions to head home his life purpose
Appears. Thermodynamics called a small circuit during makes. Circuit or garlic Packet, first it was stillness, and strength was needed appeared, causing the need Movement and were active, and joiner work leads to success, the concession activity (Results were terminated and this became the stillness. (Forms 1

Bazargan graph (page 18)
pπ (dmkhtsat?) Hypothetical circuit lifepv coordinates
Seek or need it appeared extremely leaves. After a while (in the Source o Activity begins. Activity and demand is increasing both in until (a and A points Browse a review is needed to find discount. (B and B activity reaches a maximum (around Can. The low activity can finally be achieved Browse and off (points

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Supposed that this small circuit for all living creatures to the incessant  D. M. Death (or to sleep at night and death, like winter Khva price) and may be repeated 1 say. However, "a singular orbit" or "circuit element of life is simple or compound is Degree of need and longing and love stronger activity is more severe and longer perform Been, the circuit will Dartr domain. Which we have called it arrogance, representing the amount of work that a person (or if p Available) on the way to the Beloved collected per unit time gives the circuit area Show time), the equivalent activity or something that v) v and p coordinates oabcd While the circuit element has to perform for the beloved.

 K = \int Pdv = A \,

Yknv only need to have, and such a simple food adequacy of their lives May call, own lifetime exclusive and limited to a singular orbit above will not. Needs Numerous and diverse and are found consecutively.
Firstly, to supply any need to be simple primary circuit to separate during (May in time become the consistent and ink). Secondly (point) after an order to come to drink and needful satisfied Were stagnant, such as not being equally. Hunger, thirst, need oxygen, etc. Sraghshan comes back. So that the collection should be open to new needs and demands Fall to the hands and feet. Thirdly environment in which agents live and brings the issues recently They face the changes, problems, risks, etc, this also forced to pay Performed during the reaction or defensive circuits are. That may be separated from
Be. A, v and p or main circuit and it coupled with increased

1. Cycle elementaire de la vie

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"Topics basic" (Works 286 (1
Raba (sensitive points) circuit elements in terms of the above is true External activities and emerging needs in terms of internal disturbances is blocked and this inactivity Is leading, but always an influence and change the interior (and sometimes In addition, existing outside) leaves the same arrangements and the emergence and growth The new structure within the existing (and in the external environment) is. The members or For his part, needs the new organization and new Drkhvas Thay shall require That lead to proliferation and the development and sequencing circuit is. For example, a drop from the ommunity of male and female gametes is true, is an animal Cellular and need to potluck. Movements and activity with low to attract and Food disposal. But the result of feeding can immediately start Anqsam. A two-cell and cell Four thousand cells and cell was a colony established that the nutritional needs It is far worse than the main drop. Then simply become uniform, Mjv  F. and Ghyrmtqarn be. Cells with the situation inside out has changed and therefore Need different types of activities they can find. Rather than gradually during the scenarios Embryonic, cell and tissue function, each requires different needs and requirements and Different if the baby has come out and wide open environments with high risk Ghyrmanvs Are facing. This time he needs air, water, food and protection against cold and Heat and environmental factors. For they cry when he does not need to bring milk. Instead of warm and soft and his occasional Ngahdarnd Fzvlatsh lift. But some day when Eye and ear over and opened for him, if in addition to the above equipment entertainment See and hear do not cry will provide. Than those who feed him and Intimacy to play next to him if found to be around and cry to foreigners Makes strange. Will find the need to socialize. Slowly slowly grown feet and hands Child while trying to get equipment and objects and throwing and walking Falls. Ten times the stairs rises and falls. Objects at hand if he is Enough to bend their will and right to reach them after the harvest forward Can throw away from him again need to be prowling. Thus Zlatsh is strong and stands on the foot. Strong muscle movements, and other games

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New toys and more shall require and demand. During this time course, and other languages Senses he is left unemployed. Grows and the word goes back Hmshbt and learn. Of his curiosity is stimulated. The personality and self-esteem is gaining. Age That reached maturity in his original need appears. Until married and Child is not owner of batch Plan looks at low interest, but that the parent Mother was particularly strong feelings straight to the child sees him Many efforts to make and present operations. Emotional development of children with the song Instead, be renewed and strengthened and refined child Ygrdd M. ... As well as to life. Far above that in spite of prolongation and troubling speech reader, and sample stage Brief emergence and proliferation requirements and Sh Abtlahay Qha and was consecutive, all individual Was dedicated. Transduction in individual communities and their organization is up joint ... Such short fortune telling and the creation and public life in head Is living, just defective and needs to be and always remain incomplete and needy. However the need for removing and collecting the desired or can rush first lover Ahtyajsh For always not saturated and supply, will occur again. And secondly, any progress and growth Need a geometric progression on the need arise. No matter how open horizons of life and Further forward, more needs. If the environment for human needs and problems Investigate and explore new faces defeat in person before, Desire brings new shower. According to Baba Taher naked: G's and seen both the heart cry of the heart sees what he had learned Nyshsh Zpvlad make dagger to the heart of my wife had to be free Or interpreted wisely and Lvknt Dvnvyy a beautiful life of a consecutive series Imbalance conditions (dissatisfaction) has been arranged. So that the constant Tb was always in demand and tries to find growth and development. Wherever satisfaction Balance between environment and type of established, where evolution stopped Ygrdd M..
0.3 -2 meaning of life

1. Le conte du Noly

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So the need for life. When the need for activity and appetite is there. The life Is. Gradually the need and appetite and desire and love are low, the growing aging goes. Finally, appetite and enthusiastically and love young. But joy of life and activity Both young. When all appetite and taste and desires were silent, when death is Like Jmadat ... Difference between young and old with the dead is not alive at this weight with less material Be. Or old dead weight and not the substance is not lost, but the degree requirements and He dreams of the weak or has vanished. Life is the hope Which makes up. Of course, need and desire Mnbs internal situation and the existing building Is vital, but finally the power and facilities primarily a function of love and hope Is. If the defect and therefore need not and need not Zayandeh action and love, the life of Not all the way to there not passed across: Shqym home and no monk Zsrhd
Yet despite all this climate to come my way If problems in love before and after sperm was little love to become young Rashid Were not human eyes and ears open and did not. Azadmanesh march and not learned. Him Such creation was not cheap to provide their own road to the left or B Hrast normal life

1. L AS   the future but while Ella M.  Nsan  N Ald   every trick of thy  Shyya M.  Zkvra.  or non Khlqnah  M N  Ntfh Amshaj ثم  Nbtlyh  Fj  AS  Lnah  Q  Mya B   Syra or the ill-Nah  de  the   Als  Bill or  M.   or shock to you and   M.  or Kfvra (universe / 1: whether the man's name and address when urgently In no time. We drop him from the tangled complex have created, then we infected B Hgrftarysh, until He made a hearer and a seer. Then we guide him or whether Shaker and Hbrdar or disbelieve in the favor of and Denied.

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The main human capital in the valley of love and wishes is a request. Almost Internal energy stored in all of human existence Frakhvr what happens not to ask of him They will demand answers. Maythll afford and use, especially with the treasury which Second nature is infinite. Because everything is in pain is:
Notify me of that pain is your pain medication in the two world Tvast John Pain Nothing is a pain treatment, treatment principles will Vank·h he bases his life

1. Holy Lord in prayer Camille virtuous states: A.  Ghfrl   N M K Lai  Mel   or  La Ald  A’ and  Arh  M. M N   R. S.   the property  Paced (but please forgive him who possessed nothing and thanks Thumb B Hksy hope that gets cold). Ĥ Alrj 2. Imam Sajjad (AS) in one of the prayers seeking Havaeji Scriptures states:  and county  Algh  from straw and M. A.  not  Tsbbhm But you  Alfqr and  from the  M. Alfqr or  Lake (whom you need and without means of need and poverty, and they raised their
To achieve the poverty and need from you are.)

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Topics basic (290 works)

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Chapter 3
Thermodynamics of Life

Thermodynamics is a science that more than 132 years of my life Ygzrd it. For Carnot Machinery and equipment for steam power generation (mechanical force) into the heat Work, this knowledge is remarkable. And his studies on the relationship between these two energy - The heat and work - and the exchange ratio (balance coefficient) are obtained. Conditions "Carnot" essential work of heat production and efficiency (efficiency) heat machine own ideals Has expressed. Thermodynamics has announced two principles: The first principle, the principle of survival and stability of energy - the energy and non constant creation and destruction Is. What man or nature will be carried out if the energy conversion from If other delivery systems is also. The second principle, the principle of aging or degradation of energy - while energy and Thvy Tbdy Lha Lha of An effective value to be stagnant amendeth post. If the lowest temperature The heat Anrzhyst whatever degree is lower than is inefficacious. Energy Remains constant in terms of quantity but in quality degradation shall. Accordingly, thermal machines statute and regulations (and the reverse in Cooling machine producing cold) was prepared. Considering that the production and energy conversion machines unique steam and combustion and cooling And not in other industrial operations, and natural transformation of energy into the foot (especially Mediation with heat) comes in between the principles of thermodynamics and the results in other Hhay Rasht Industry and especially in physics and later chemistry and favorable results were used as income Was. Principle of thermodynamics two Qalzkr Fu and formulas relevant energies and opening keynote Password their relationship was (the light - electricity - radiation - chemical, even nuclear energy, etc. On earth or in heaven).

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Life is activity in the heat too. The thermodynamics as well. 0.1 -3 nosy thermodynamics in natural sciences It is evident that the circuit element life simple circuits containing a verb and Interaction and exchange are not simple. Works that are upon them and the emergence Mtrtb Members and new arrangements, all of the evil is very, very detailed and difficult. This In its general subject scholars Biology (Biology) and dissection (anatomy) And Zoological (Zyvlvzhy) and enter the details of physics and chemistry topics Especially organic chemistry is. Our competence and the right to enter this information and Necessary to discuss developments and how relevant do not Tbdlat. From evil We are. Thermodynamics is a science that, even on machines "watch" out Heating and industrial Asbabhay more or less artificial and his descendants are, interference And they did not pay attention to the interior, that does not work, for example engine discussed with Piston and cylinder or rotary Hhay P. R. . Speed and size and manner how it is. Thermodynamics wrapping machine pulled away view mode in fluid input and output Device shall. Issued and incoming energies account keeps. Exchange of Device itself can study abroad development. Next to these exchanges and The results should be the income was, to his dignified sustentation two principles firmly comments Will and shall confirm or Tvsy of ... "Consultative" Thermodynamics is not the first time in his head made crock other sciences Wants to sniff out what to spread their work released on the head, and evil Laws that they after years of extensive experience with complex inference Expressions Hand made, Under a simple mathematical formula to put the field and Vsyl Jlvyshan of use and Astntajhay give next. Electricity in heating, melting and extraction of the metals in Thermal radiation and chemistry and a verb and its bilateral Anfalhay this work has. What is a barrier in experimental biology and even an active economic and moral Thay Man may call faith! Young science of thermodynamics. Dreams of youth are not fault!

1. If you already have others here, but poor thing has not come better, Alfzl Llmtqdm.

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So in no way involved in the life of shoes you do not want to foot and scholars Byvlvzhystha Natural and even Fyzysyn Shymyst of Bnmayym. Ask yourself this very small circuits with life domains and courses Thousands of different and perhaps millions of times daily or annual human relationships (and any existing Living) environment is out of place during the incidence and the emergence of various activities Is, its energy Where to be and where? Under what principles and Is regulation? What are the results? 0.2 -3 compared Because of this, which enter the details and quality of vital activity and if Nshvym Could also seems to wash with a never ending variety of critical actions, by the formula General impossible simple unit is forced to express the interplay of vital resorted to Comparison and analogy al. Because prejudice and comments external relations with existing or desired His lover (who is out) is, qualitatively, the internal operation of the device (ie Body) in terms of thermodynamics and has no significance. Compared to which resort you'll get In terms of protests and foreign exchange is true, in general would be acceptable. Living in the last stage of analysis a number of chemical elements Simple, such as oxygen, Yydrzhn, carbon, nitrogen, etc., was established in Hand. Tissue, nothing except Organic chemical compounds are not. Also vital operations (especially opinion Materialist s) a series of action and chemical Anfalhay. Leading to extremely detailed and Complex. Therefore, we present a collection of live chemical or organization (Shymyk system) For comparison, and we compared one of the simplest act, for example chemistry and Anfa Lhay Combination of oxygen and Yydrzhn we consider are: Independent elements. Propertied. No origin alone (O oxygen (2 Namely that the independent element (H act and no energy source is not. But when the Yydrzhn (2 Is certain to face, if normal conditions, the opening movement and the effect of any update Does not. However, high temperature or in the vicinity of the catalyzer in the proper environment Favorable, these two elements together has grappled fills and super heat

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(If the frequency of blast material and very favorable conditions) have been appearing, in combination Is emerging. (H2O) with their new properties emerging body of water called

H2 + 1/2O2 → H2O + 68,320 calories

After which the resulting heat was dispersed again and the recession appears to be cold. Water Resulting also in turn may object, for example chlorine in the fall and another circuit and To renew the product. Similarly so on. Exists. "Affinity" to say Shymyst between oxygen and Yydrzhn We say about living between existing and desired object he needs or  Alyh Need or desire and love there. That very large scale sophisticated substitute a life Has the same affinity. If the oxygen affinity and Yydrzhn them fascinated Mnjzm have in one another, during combined heat and motion appears. Living in desirable or prowling their beloved activity before heat They were concealed in secret and finally manifested joiner reached lover, then cold Are. Meanwhile, the joiner, or marriage relationship and that such a simple combination of oxygen and Yydrzhn is, that the new body, new cells or tissue and new members or Physiological conditions and is Psykvlvzhyk appears. Of course, in this case, the interaction formula is so simple and straightforward combination of water But is not very complicated. And in particular may waste a lot of branches 2 and Be accompanied. But that is the basis and general. Especially from abroad, and Thermodynamic terms compared to fully adaptive seems. 0.3 -3 where energy comes from: The main question that applied where vital water and feed energy required for this motion And cases where supply is Blajvab stay.

1. Complexe
2. Dechets

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Whether a source and a source of metaphysical and spiritual essence of something vital Is blown? It helps the environment? It even as an isolated system Critical operations on their own internal practices and foreign exchange that the algebraic set Is zero if they Ygyrd M? NO. Exactly like the analogy above organisms expressing the energy required for activities that In hunting or killing enemy Sydkrdn or to obtain or build the beloved object and B. Generally achieve Hmnzvr put to work from their leave is placed. Capital And internal energy for two Yhay that B. M. Yryznd Hkharj. Here, like compound Repulsive interaction calefactory Alhrart or H2 + 1/2O2 3 and put the same inoculation He has his weak (ie, hungry) and the need has again forced the circuit during Another is to provide fresh material from outside Rome as Qdar (ten energy) into Maythll Acquire and store energy. Of them (A> These circuits all circuits open area was positive. (0 Disposal is out of energy. And any combination of heating or other C + O 2 H2 + 1/2O As the composition of two Concealed internal energy or energy derived compound, less than total energy Energy internal elements are issued and energy with opposite sign "Energy joiner» 4 call. Here the energy or the so-called spiritual connection "connection Negative weaken and fall in love with the discount is cold Hhay internal. Leading to internal investment and demand as long as the exposure was not lost, Underground storage impoverish was no incidence and emergence. Someone (even themselves Person) was not aware of it. Meeting of the beloved and demand and thus favorable Conditions, the matter to the Judiciary and the Judiciary to act income. Hidden or concealed mode mode Potential and potential energy into kinetic energy to create the kinetic energy can be.

1. Systemes isoles
2. Energie interne
3. Exothermique
4. Energie de liaison

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Now if you question the sense of appetite or interest in or need love Azkja comes? From there, we answer that oxygen affinity and thus made Yydrzhn (If you do not take blame, so are created) that such and such possibility and affinity There is talent in them. (Of course, they may be the possibility and potential of Atoms and electrons and their ancestors have been.) Configuration and desired living or
They loved so well arranged that such demands appear Vshq Maby breads Be. Sometimes a side attraction, the duplex was sometimes true: what good without Gr love both  Q R without imposing come true. Hope this vague answer is do not take too much blame, because over there so Is. Electric attraction, attraction of gravity, electrons, collections, etc. constellation. Mill is one of the dancers takes every bit of each particle to a particular destination G fire to wind up the soil from wind G month following planetarium to the top If the desire is the desire to know what is truth in the cavalry regiment
This is a strong desire to gain such insight into love and to be followed in a sinew The first principle of thermodynamics in terms of stability and survival of primary energy, accounting Vital activity of existing circuits closed. Energy comes not from above, not Heterogenesis is produced is not mortal. Using existing reserve those former Has gained self-inoculation and delivery similar to M. Ygzard Thvy Lhay Dyabatyk 2 will do…

1. From wild Bafgh
2. Dyabatyk like to say that the delivery or collection system without heat exchange with the outside and spend Its internal energy (or energy acquisition Ghyrhrarty) be done. Also, without wastage and loss, ie the difference Funds to complete the so-called thermodynamic reaction and to fully carry out Mtqablh. Reactionary Ie, the pressure difference within the system and there is no disturbance in the system against external pressure Particles into the system is equal and opposite pressures are expressed. Work so that all foreign forces Reactionary form of energy (such as being compressed gas cylinders) to be stored in the system. This being the Mtqablh That temperature and pressure differences between inside and outside of other factors, is extremely small. So if the outside power in the abbreviated change and reverse the difference between work Photo taken inside to give out energy.

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Noticeable point is that some activities and power of person which will update Will depend on the interest rate and that love has to find is good. True Energy is necessary to express the inner person and can be extracted, but human existence Ie, body weight and energy is stored Yhay facilities Anrzhtyk life
Shall determine. To infinite possibilities in this regard may also be. There lover Capital is unknown and the unknown talents and appears to love drawing That talent will enter the judiciary to act. If the natural balance and agreement Between love and establish indigenous lover was ready to love and vision and near complete To be loved, may be about energy and the effects of the above Nature and habits of thought to be miraculous. (This coming season Will be brighter). 0.4 -3 is frail Ftyr Now that know the origin and source of energies needed for the smallest active vital Thay Internal assets are living. And thus the demand and bustle that Available only to appear desirable and beloved, but also improve the growth and development Will, we can look at the issue from a higher horizon than all and has We generalize it to human purposes and certainly clear that this general principle to bring the faith Man what's up and provide what is desired and placed Ngzard kindly " 1. And creation of life on the circuit is that what the person "is not reached And his favorite is the (wealth, time, place, comfortable, and finally Tmkn body and soul) Does not use, to hide and will not receive a new stage and stage Growth and perfection will be achieved. Effort and costs that others do for humans Orbit would be that someone out there is closed and therefore can not Result for the Interior and Finance is his real. Obviously, when two others provide

Giovane Tnalva c t  Tnf  powers  M. M.   B or Th van  "0.1 Al-Omran / 92: Never to achieve good and you will not be good unless you love what you spend."Ella Tzr  Vazr   recent Vzr conducted. And lick it    L La La   Nsan or our attempts  Q "0.2

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Bnmaynd needs someone as a person than the circuit during the life Will. And in the rear of the activities and benefits will be vital. Shed and B Hkar property and throwing personal belongings (including credit and real) Firstly, as de   and Ron D. M.  metabolism and action while internal combustion and heating materials Stable waste and toxins out of tissues and the environment makes the body cleans Person shall purify. And secondly, reduction of reserves and need to make this do-nothing Man and his love and desire to work and bring joy and another step on the road Growth and perfection pose. Like the weed field with weeds discarding . Weeds and old plants is a result of purification 0.5 -3 aging If a principle of thermodynamics, and in the world, but the main principle of the survival and stability, government Did not, the human situation is much better than they had all safely and frequency Days of grace, like Adam and Eve lived in paradise and Mkhld We become. And technical school students bother to understand the second principle of thermodynamics Not found, trapped maze filled with ambiguity entropy were not! Entropy interpretation of mathematical or aging is the second principle of thermodynamics, the principle of denial First the stability and survival of the energy does not, but all of them to each bowl and Kvz Plan Are

Jam / 38 and 39: Be aware that any cargo load Brnkhvahd another human being, and what the owner But they will try their "And you   N Q   AS ONE   Q and F   the  Ray" And that therefore he tried to be seen soon. 1. Khz M N  my   the Wall p.    Dqh Tth   RA and M.  Tzky  The price  Repentance / 103: received alms hanging from their property. This means they can clean and pollution Yha M. Ynmayy smooth. Quantity of heat in thermodynamics is operating. Ie, a type of heat energy, and (S) 2. Entropy Work and energy like electricity and waterfalls, etc., should be a product of quality factor (such as voltage Water fall waterfall height) in a quantity of agent (eg water) is. Is the product of two factors. Qualitative difference in the temperature or the temperature level that is considered and known. Another factor Unfortunately, none of the senses with natural and physical Asbabhay not measurable and mathematical formula Is deduced, is the entropy or aging.

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The second principle says that if the cyst Mha exchanges abroad and with its own delivery In principle on a fair regular, ie without friction and loss and confusion to Do completely reactionary, not only low and high energy is not, but the value And its effect also not lost, the system can receive this with what is spent Is to act (in circuit) repeat till Alabd. And each time the value of good work And can be converted into usable energy to be whether to leave. Unfortunately, as the blameless person in the world is less complete, as well as objects and toys Cow are not perfect. In friction and disorder and chaos and Domestic waste some energy is always valuable to do that is to Offset against consumption and domestic waste is reached. Some fraction of each orbit to In terms of useful work to be found. In other words, the circuit in terms of exchange accounts work, Is not closed properly. Amount of work that goes from the form of heat instead Post is a high energy comes from. Efficiency (efficiency) can never be one hundred percent. The primary organisms that are nothing but material systems can not The principle that the aging (ie old) translations have to be exempted. As Material energy systems Predicate of them delivered by Ghyrartjay Gradually become a working B Hhrart ability to lose and Are worn and the total energies in the universe too   T and T was granted the surface The deterioration process, the principle of entropy in the universe to live sensible, general concept Aging and old age makes the embodied. In animals and humans to prove the second principle of thermodynamics is a waste operation. Something Is experimental, general, and a Moslem. So far this principle has not taken exception . What Significant and should be searched, the quality of presentation and how the expression of entropy that

 S = \int \frac{dQ}{T} \,,  dQ = TdS \,
Is Entropy, i.e. what the delivery system of more than reactionary
 S > \int  \frac{dQ}{T} \,
Thus achieving high temperatures Yrvd M, increases. 1. And M.   M N N   RA  Nnk  Q  the  Yalkhlq F.Ys / 68: Everyone has a lot to do in life and modes of creation, we wear out pH).

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Results of activities and exchange of vital or living organisms Entropy how progress And what can never be a formula that entropy function and certain specified device Is expressed. In simple chemical systems, aging is expressed with words and can be Hzmy Is calculated and compared. After supposedly living in the formula to go back Would be inconclusive. But now the trouble and inconvenience that the power of the writer Is beyond the reader do not. Evil we see from the outside is easier. To Instead they point to the low entropy  the subject has read into the formula and the number We, as we discuss the qualitative. Again, no results will be income.

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Chapter 5
Life Force

If ever love and life and general literary language we speak of this to Mathematical formula for the thermodynamic expression of love and life are going. Grope grope and Len Glngan step is removed. Perhaps other steps Stronger and take longer.

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0.4 grams of blood in animals (S) -1 increased entropy Animals used to look (one of them is human) body temperature higher than Is the normal temperature environment. Activities within their temperature constant or Called the thermodynamics Ayzvtrm occur. Therefore constantly exchange with Outside heat rejection and shall compensate for heat loss and keep constant Body temperature, so that we do act metabolism. Ie Oxygen by breathing air that can enter the lungs and red blood cells by the Reaches all parts of the body tissues contain materials combined with a combustion  the permanent Grmad (Repellent Alhrart) supply. Food animals (in terms of thermodynamics, which They are animals Ayzvtrm Nmamym) must be a way that results in combination with oxygen Heat production may call (ie, energy is negative description resulting compounds). On the other hand compounds calefactory always have lower entropy than the objects Are constituted (eg, Zr entropy of water in the base case, ie 20 degrees 45 calories. If particle entropy / C and atmospheric pressure equal to 11 Is 55 calories). / 24 and a total of 71 / 1 / 2 is equivalent to 5 O 31/21 for the base case for 2 H 2 Because it is clear. Because it resulted from the combination of heat given out Shall fall. S is, therefore dS <then 0 dQ <is. 0 But if your verb Anfalhay calefactory degrees and a high temperature Verb Anfalhay equilibrium (two-way Mtqablh) as recipients, it is natural that as long as Will be fixed. S combination of heat, but have not lost as with Dyabatyk Because usually the combustion temperature in degrees and the normal one-way (Ghyrmtqablh) Is performed after surgery in total entropy increases. Looking back now or animals accustomed to promise ourselves Ayzvtrm: -1 Animal life in the cooler environment and disposal of heat to the outside shall Cause degradation of her body is entropy. For example, people in every time the (dQ <0) Average 100 calories to heat and excrete body temperature 37 degrees C is the charge as:

Bazargan equation (page 36)  \frac{10+0}{273+37} = \frac{0}{322} \,(?)

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Young is 322 units. / Unit of entropy is lost. Or in other words 0 Unfortunately the only thing that reduces the entropy is one. Other actions Raise it. -2 Nutrition and supplement the evacuation operation, because in general causes the minerals And relatively simple organic materials (vegetable or animal organisms easier (NaCl) as Man) enters the body, instead of organic compounds found in greater detail the body out. And simple compounds generally have higher entropy repellent compounds Alhrart Levels are high, so this operation, import and export entropy differentials Mabh Remains in the body.
-3 Practice breathing and other internal Lhay Anfa verb, so that as noted above, S levels in normal temperature as is done unilaterally increase Be. -4 Mechanical body activities. Without quality change and want to enter the verb and Chemical Anfalhay very long and how muscles work to produce tissue step mechanism, Same magnitude as the production and transfer of M. Ygvyym always coupled with friction and Atla Fhayy That is the product temperature, this practice also causes raise the entropy Is. (Car body heat due to thermodynamic machine is a low interest And paragraph 55 so that the first volume of thermodynamics described industrial efficiency, it 3%, and severe activity / 0% unemployment or at bedtime, when the normal gait 3 6% respectively. Asymptote in performance / mechanical means for runners and only five working machine Mabh around 7% to 7% margin of 100% heat becomes entirely. Although this Is not zero and temperature dT Hkharj B is poured, but as between body and environment Makes progress. In addition, the temperature of S, the exchange will not be Mtqablh A lot of work to be poured out into a heat and energy that They are. S in the tissues increased -5 Other body activities. Practice development and proliferation of cells and tissue growth and members Because reproductive coupled with simple organic materials into organic matter such as very detailed protein Etc., and apparently must calefactory Tnz Ldhndh aging, but because the unilateral

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Are carried out (never been seen to perform fetal Qhqhra garlic and children Be. S return to her parents) Open namely increased Psykvlvzhyk and intellectual activities (mental) to have such a diagnosis that causes Changes in body temperature or brain and produce additional heat Nmygrdnd. Now in effect or
Precision and elegance neural activity heat production of about savings Hgyry May be less, or no mental and intellectual activities as their name Tvrk·h Mental feed material have been laid. In short, if the acts 2 and 3 do not Ghyrartjay Ygrft, an act They will be compensated in this regard and the body remains constant entropy. However, conditions Normal conditions of life, a total of constant entropy body and this trend is About the entropy of the system and represent the age of the animal or person is aging. Entropy unit or the body relative Entropy: Entropy quotient of total weight Man. Of course, the baby is extremely weak. Because most sperm joint compounds Is. But soon shall progress. The relative activity is as much more progress The relative entropy will be higher. In the fetal period and after the children and young people Power cell proliferation and tissue growth and active foreign Thay are extremely high, Entropy is a severe progressive and perhaps the remaining life of between one and feed angle Tangent curve entropy relationship found. Genital gametes and sperm, which are cells of a sequence of interaction and Series into a long mineral and organic material after simple organic matter to simple materials More detailed and protein and protoplasm and nucleus and delivered into cells are obtained. Such that the composition of the extract and comprehensive full body materials are, because each These compounds calefactory entropy comes down, germ cell minimum relative entropy Will. This point also say that Byvlvzhys Tha experience and believe that death Closing an animal or human body that public organizations and the general circulation verbs As a result, some vital parts of sensitive corruption or some Gyrkrdn currents occurred Be. And the system lost his Mahngy work falls. So that if

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Member to correct defective or retention difficulties and the high build, Back to Life Will be possible. This experience has been repeatedly. Death of a person's death Public body is not the minor's death. Ie before Frdfrd body die, Your device and they are denied public cooperation. Minutes and after the death of Sa Tha Person or animal is seen in the muscle tissue and internal heart or stomach, kidney Movements and their secretions continue growing and gradually go silence. Also Keep complete tissue or cells isolated from animals living in environments Favorable containing foods and that they were poisons and waste Secreted from cells is common practice to disposal. Here might be the result Cells were living inside the body fluids and the environment because no difference in degree Will. And so that future seasons will be discussed in S is heat, no progress Maybe life was extremely possible for them is acceptable. 0.2 -4 energy or energy efficient a useful animal Ayzvtrm Energy being concealed from the energy and entropy we talked, a few words from Jaysh say that is true here. Effective or useful energy, which credibility (W) «Effective Also called "work function 2" different concepts and use cases, names have multiple B and Han Chemical thermodynamics is the Guide have found special importance in determining Zyqymty For the interaction and balance, etc. is three. Therefore, thermodynamics, life

1. Energie utilisable
2. Work Function

And energy (U) energy difference between general internal system, (W = U - TS) 3. Effective or useful energy system The amount of energy or capital system that could be converted to work. W is (TS) system Ghyrmfyd Is used and the effect shows. Simply put the above two principles of thermodynamics and the total expressions removed W is as much more than U is obtained. So that whatever had Yshvd M (Q) heat Will be less. Produce the system entropy W Thvylhay Ayzvtrm and reactionary system is more Is and vice versa: W equal degradation dA =-d (U-TS) But if the system can automatically change Ghyrartjay, produce less than effective energy will be reduced Chemical thermodynamics system which are under constant change and interaction (dA <-d (U-TS) May be minimized (in Thvylhay reactionary W When the balance has already indicated that its final stage.

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Can not service the source. Because the vital activities of friendly animals Like all chemical interaction that gradually released in the environment occurs or
As a connection is done in ovens, has been subject to Ayzvtrm.
dA - dW
And certainly it is between growth and life and power and other vital facilities available
Living close relationships are established. 4 we saw that the relative entropy function of animal age was climbing. Section 1 Constantly with an average rise. Now the fact that the relative internal energy T in the case of fixed combination of existing public bodies and remains constant Is. W causes the gradual degradation of S is fixed and permanent, the permanent progress Effective useful energy or relative energy relative decline of the animal constantly growing, continuous power Activities of foreign and domestic actions (proliferation and growth and production) is decreased. Extent the problem of physiological age of two that Dr. Alexis Karl 3 W in this regard Defines remembers. Dr. Carl for animals and humans in addition to age When a calendar of foreign contract is a normal age-related self- The existing definition. The late Dr. wound healing period, which of course depends on Multiply rapidly and produce cells and tissue with its long and short Nha Jva Pyrha Long index, age or actual physiological age Ygyrd M.. It is evident that The chronological age is associated with age, but is not consistent. A person 30 years old Less worn and do not be a good and lively, physiological age may He leaves less than 25 years younger. Cells of fetal tissue or when the child M. Ygzarnd chowder special view is growth rate and proliferation Extraordinary show. Multiply rapidly in young mild and very mild Pyrha

Zero and the minimum is Ghyrartjay) - see Chapter 5 Book Industrial thermodynamics or better
Samuel Glasstone-Thermodynamics for Chemists: Book it
1. Continu
2. Age physiologique
3. Dr. Alexis Carrel
Page ##:

1. (a) Bazargan, Mahdi. (1956). Love and Worship or Thermodynamics of Humans, 216-pgs. (Farsi: Eshq va Parastesh ya Thermodynamic-e Ensan) (Persian: عشق و پرستش ي ا ترمودينام يك انسان). Tehran: Enteshar Publications.
(b) First published in 1957, according to private documents in possession of the author (Bazargan or Barzin).
(c) First English editions in circa 1970 as Love and Devotion: or the Thermodynamics of Humanity (among other variants). Houston: Book Distribution Center; though no copies are readily available.
(d) The linked to PDF (above) of Love and Worship or Thermodynamics of Humans is courtesy of Bonyad Farhangi Bazargan (of, sent to Libb Thims, 27 Apr 2010.
2. Bazargan, Mehdi. (c.1980). “Religion and Liberty” (Section: Opposition: the Cause of Movement and Life, pgs. 81-82, note 23: Thermodynamics of Humanity); originally in Rediscovery of Values (Bazyabi-e Arzeshha); reprinted in Liberal Islam: a Source Book (chapter 7, pgs. 73-84) edited by Charles Kurzman, Oxford University Press, 1998.
3. Bazargan, Medhi. (1979). Work and Islam (section: About the Author, pgs. ii-iii; list of works, pg. 63); translated by M. Yasefi, Ali A. Behzadnia, and Najpu Denny. Houston: Book Distribution Center.
4. Mehdi Bazargan (biography) –
5. Barzin, Saeed. (1992). Islam in Defeince of Constitutionalism and Democracy: A Political Biography of Iranian Ideologue Mehdi Bazargan (thermodynamics, pg. 33-34, 43, 78, 116). PhD dissertation, University of Exeter.
6. Chall, Leo P. (1999) “Title” (pg. 984). Sociological Abstracts, Vol. 47, Issue 2.
7. Lotfalian, Mazyar. (2004). Islam, Technoscientific Identities, and the Culture of Curiosity (ch. 3: A Techno-Cosmopolitan in the Context of the Secular State: The Discourse of a Muslim Engineer/Politician, pgs. 31-53; section: The Theory of Thermodynamics as a Model, pg. 46-50, etc; W=U-TS, pg. 50). University Press of America.
8. Poll (conduced by Libb Thims) of random public person (Iranian-born American), bumped into by coincidence, in Chicago (2010), whose first language was Farsi.
9. Taqavi, Sehed M. (2004). The Flourishing of Islamic Reformism in Iran: Political Islamic Groups in Iran (1941-61) (section: Mehdi Bazargan, pgs. 62-; section: Scientific Approach to Religions (thermodynamics), pgs. 82-96; W=U-TS, pg. 88). Routledge.
10. Chehabi, Houchang E. (1990). Iranian Politics and Religious Modernism (Bazargan, “Thermodynamics of Love”, pg. 52; thermodynamics, pgs. 49, 52, 126, 138). I.B. Tauris.
11. Translation of 216-page Farsi PDF (version), pages 4-5, by Robert Kenoun, emailed to Libb Thims (29 Jun 2010).
12. Love and Worship: Human Thermodynamics (2009) (review) (Persian → English) –
13. Reza Hashermian (faculty) – Northern Illinois University, Dekalb.
14. (a) Mehdi Bahadori –
(b) Mehdi Bahadori Nezhad (about) –

Further reading

● Kasraie, Irfan. (c.2010). “Thermodynamics and Religions: Critical Opinion of the Late Mr. Bazargan about the Interaction of Science and Religion” (Persian → English),

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