Top 1000 geniuses (candidates)

In genius studies, top 1000 geniuses (candidates) (IQ:#|#) refers to potential genius candidates who might fall into the top 1000 geniuses of all time rankings. [N1]
The following is a work-in-progress listing, by date of addition (most recent additions at top) of 100+ possible draftee genius potentials , which are in the consederation stage, to be added to the "top 1000 geniuses" rankings:



Ronald Fisher

(RGM:859|1,500+) (James 38:29) (CR:9) English statistical evolutionary biologist noted, in evolution thermodynamics, for his 1933 theory that "fitness", as described via Darwin's natural selection theory, has something to do with entropy and entropy increase; also known, supposedly, for the “sexy son hypothesis” (Ѻ).

John Haldane

(James 38:30) (CR:19) English biochemist (chnops chemist), with a "formidable intelligence" (Smith, 1965), noted for his 1929 half living thing theory (see: half-alive theory), for his 1932 hot thin soup theory (see: primordial soup), and for his 1950s kin selection theory.

Etienne Condillac

Irving Fisher 75Irving Fisher

Friedrich Hayek 75Friedrich Hayek

Bernard Mandeville 75Bernard Mandeville (1670-1733)

Walter Heitler 75Walter Heitler

(GPE:48) (CR:11) German physicist, noted for his 1927 article “Interaction of Neutral Atoms and Homopolar Bonding according to Quantum Mechanics”, co-authored with Fritz London (1900-1954), wherein they employed or synthesized used Niels Bohr's model of the atom (Bohr model), Louis de Broglie’s electron wave theory, and Erwin Schrödinger’s wave equation, to quantify and conceptualized the idea that the movements of the electrons, technically called electron wavefunctions—mathematical expressions involving the coordinates of the electrons in space—can join together mathematically with plus, minus, and exchange terms, to form a Lewis-type covalent bond, which by 1956 had solidified into the model that particles in their orbits have an "interaction energy" (aka exchange force) which actuates or realized the bond.
1.Photo needed 75Daniel Scargill

[FA:53] (CR:2) English Hobbesian-Epicurean atheistical stylized mechanical philosopher;

“The soul of man is but a trembling atom.”
— Daniel Scargill (1668), comment to Thomas Tenison

noted for his age 21 Mar 1668 expulsion from Oxford for arguing that “origin of the world could be explained mechanically” and for being made on 25 Jul 1669 to publicly recant his earlier statements that he “gloried to be an Hobbist and an atheist” and that “there is a desirable glory in being and being reputed an atheist”.
2.Karl Schwarzschild 75Karl Schwarzschild

Event horizon(GPE:95) (GAE:20) (CR:2) German physicist and astronomer, noted in radiation thermodynamics, for his 1915 derivation of the so-called the “Schwarzschild radius”, which is the radius of the event horizon of a non-rotating black hole, which he did by solving Einstein's general relativity field equations, while he was serving in WWI at the Russian front.
3.Edmund Burke 75Edmund Burke

(RGM:364|1,500+) (Gottlieb 1000:180) (Time 100:58) (Perry 80:33) (CR:4) Irish-born British statesman, social philosopher, and thinker,
4.Erwin Muller 75Erwin Muller

Atoms first seen (Muller, 1955)(GPE:100) German-born American physicist, noted for being, on 11 Oct 1955, the first person to "see" an atom with his own eyes, specifically he saw a tungsten atoms using his newly invented "field ion microscope".
5.Umberto Eco 75Umberto Eco

Italian novelist, literary critic, philosopher, and semiotician, noted in genius studies culture for having the third-largest personal library in history, said to contain 30,000 to 50,000 books, influential to influenced Nassim Taleb, noted for generally for his 1980 The Name of the Rose, which is ranked by some (Ѻ) alongside Dan Brown’s The Da Vinci Code and Graham Hancock’s Fingerprints of the Gods.
6.Porphyry 75Porphyry

(Cattell 1000:906) (CR:2) Roman philosopher, a student of Plotinus, and the one who edited and published his The Enneads, noted for reporting that the Greek letter theta (Θ) was, in its archaic form, written as a cross within a circle (⊕, ⊗) and later as a line or point within a circle (Θ, ʘ), derived from the Egyptians used an X within a circle as a symbol of the soul, and that the value of nine ‘9’, in the Greek numbering system, was code for it being a symbol for the Ennead [nine gods], the nine major deities of the Heliopolis creation myth of Heliopolis.
7.Siger of Brabant 75Siger of Brabant

(CR:2) Belgian-born (Ѻ) French-Latin philosopher;

“For not every being has a cause of its being, nor does every question about being have a cause. For if it is asked why there is something in the natural world rather than nothing, speaking about the world of created things, it can be replied that there is a first immoveable mover, and a first unchangeable cause. But if it is asked about the whole universe of beings why there is something there rather than nothing, it is not possible to give a cause, for it's the same to ask this as to ask why there is a god or not, and this does not have a cause. Hence, not every question has a cause, nor even every being.”
— Siger of Brabant (c.1275), Publication (Ѻ)

aka the “Latin Averroes”, noted for his secular interpretation (Ѻ) of Aristotle; in his Impossibilia, presented the idea that “there is no god” (see: god does not exist), intended an intellectual training tool for students in logical disputation; the Condemnation of 1277 was, supposedly, a response to radical thinkers, such as Brabant; Dante, in the Divine Comedy, put Siger in the ‘Heaven of Light’ in the brilliant company of twelve illustrious souls, specifically beside Thomas Aquinas and Isidore of Seville.
8.Walter Schottky 75Walter Schottky

(CR:1) German physicist, electrical engineer, and thermodynamicist; after getting his PhD under Planck, he pioneered semiconductor technology, inventing things such as the Schottky diode, Schottky barrier; the then penned his Thermodynamics: The Theory of the Circular Processes of Physical and Chemical Changes and Equilibria, wherein he not only introduced the “G” symbol for the isothermal, isobaric chemical potential, aka Gibbs energy, which is the chemical potential of society, introduced thing such as: the “Schottky anomaly”, a peak of heat capacity, and “Schottky system” (Muschik, 1990).
9.Charles Peirce 75Charles Peirce

[RGM:667|1,500+] (Becker 139:51) (Stokes 100:60) (CR:15) American chance-based philosopher and logician;

“In an article published in The Monist for January, 1891, I endeavored to show what ideas ought to form the warp of a system of philosophy, and particularly emphasized that of absolute chance. In the number of April, 1892, I argued further in favor of that way of thinking, which it will be convenient to christen tychism (from tyché, chance). A serious student of philosophy will be in no haste to accept or reject this doctrine; but he will see in it one of the chief attitudes which speculative thought may take, feeling that it is not for an individual, nor for an age, to pronounce upon a fundamental question of philosophy. That is a task for a whole era to work out. I have begun by showing that tychism must give birth to an evolutionary cosmology, in which all the regularities of nature and of mind are regarded as products of growth, and to a Schelling-fashioned idealism which holds matter to be mere specialized and partially deadened mind.”
— Charles Pierce (1892), “The Law of Mind”

noted for (add).
10.Hasan Sabah 75Hasan Sabah

Sabah gardenIranian military leader;

“Sabah would introduce his designated assassins into his garden, some four or six or ten at a time, having first made them drink a certain potion, which cast them into deep sleep, and then causing them to be lifted and carried in. So, when they awoke, they found themselves in the garden, a place so charming they believe that it was [Islamic] paradise in truth, and the beautiful voluptuous maidens dallied with them to their heart’s content, so thy had what all men most desire above all else.”
— Marco Polo (c.1300), Publication

the person behind the invention of “assassins”, from the Arabic Hashishi, based on the fact, as reported by Marco Polo, he employed an early form of “behaviorism”, wherein he drugged warriors, and awoke them in a seeming magical garden, walled on all sides, which he had built, supposedly Rudkhan Castle in the Alborz mountain range, Iran, filled with food, drink, and the most beautiful women in the land, thereby somehow, after drugging them again and waking them up outside the garden, convincing them that this was the afterlife, using this as a tool to make them kill assigned targets.
11.Simone Beauvoir 75Simone Beauvoir

[RGM:419|1,500+] (Stokes 100:75) (Becker 139:25) (CR:16) French writer, atheist, and existentialism philosopher;

God is a name for nothing more than a cover of a mirage.”
— Simone de Beauvoir (c.1950), Publisher

noted for (add)
12.Gilles Deleuze 75Gilles Deleuze

(RGM:726|1,500+) (Becker 139:94) (HuCR:12) (GPhE:#) (CR:7) French atheist philosopher; noted for []
13George Scott 75George Scott

Will of Rock (vs Will of Human)(SN:30) [CR:53] American physical organic chemist;

“To a materialist no thing is real but atoms in a void and we are but ‘molecular people’ controlled by the actions of natural physicochemical law.”
— George Scott (1985), Atoms of the Living Flame (pg. 181)

for his 1960s to early 1970s efforts to make a two cultures department at the University of South Dakota, which attempted to reconcile Burrhus Skinner’ behaviorism, with Clarence Darrow’s determinism models in respect to crime and punishment, in the context of Zeno of Citium and humans viewed atomically or as “molecular people”, intermixed with some ideas of Ilya Prigogine, whose lectures he attended, which resulted in his 1985 book Atoms of the Living Flame: an Odyssey into Ethics and the Physical Chemistry of Free Will; influential to Thims in the development of human chemical thermodynamics.
14.Giovanni Porta 75Giovanni Porta

(EP:6) (CR:17) Italian mathematician, chemist, physicist, and general polymath; noted for his 1586 invention of a telescope, able to see things miles away, and for his 1601 steam engine constructions, based on the earlier models of Hero (50AD).
15. Zu Chongzhi 75Zu Chongzhi

(Oduenyi 100:51) Chinese astronomer, mathematician, politician, inventor; calculated pi to seven places a record beat until al-Kashi (c.1400) (Ѻ); in astronomy, he was able to make a calendar with this degree of accuracy since he had calculated the length of the tropical year (time between two successive occurrences of the vernal equinox) as 365.24281481 days (an error of only 50 seconds from its true value of 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 46 seconds), and a nodal month for the moon of 27.21233 days (compare the modern value of 27.21222 days) (Ѻ); inventor of human-powered paddle wheel boats; a Hedkandi2 (Ѻ) top 1000 missing candidate (Apr 2020).
16.Diophantus 75Diophantus

(Murray 4000:13|M) (Eells 100:26) (Allen 100:38) (GME:22) Alexandrian mathematician; a Hedkandi2 (Ѻ) top 1000 missing candidate (Apr 2020).
17.Pierre Duhem 75Pierre Duhem

(CR:34) French mathematical physicist, chemical thermodynamicist, historian, and philosopher of science, characterized an "uneasy genius" (Demartres, 1892) (Ѻ); noted for his age 26 penned a “Study of the Thermodynamics Works of Willard Gibbs” (1887); gave commentary on the Condemnation of 1277; a Philoepisteme (2018) top 10 missing top 1000 genius candidate (below).
18.Giotto 75Giotto

[RGM:729|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:219) (Murray 4000:8|WA) (GAG:#) (CR:3) Italian painter and architect;

“Giotto, Titian, Rembrandt, and Goya were the great painters. I am only a public clown.”
— Pablo Picasso (1952), Interview (Ѻ)

Noted for artwork in the "halo" article; influential to John Ruskin.
19. Lewis Carroll 75Lewis Carroll

[RGM:615|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:845) (CR:3) English writer, mathematician, photographer; noted for world-famous children’s fiction, e.g. Alice in Wonderland, Through the Looking Glass, and the poem Jabberwocky (see: Lotkean Jabberwocky); the number "42" is employed in his work four times; a Quora-posited (2018) possible (Ѻ) genius.
20Henry Carey 75Henry Carey

(SN:10) (CR:105) American physical science applied sociologist and economist;

“The laws which govern matter in all its forms, whether that of coal, clay, iron, pebble stones, trees, oxen, horses, or men, are the same; man is the molecule of society; and social interaction operates under the great law of molecular gravitation.”
— Henry Carey (1858), The Principles of Social Science (pg. 62); cited by Pitirim Sorokin (1928) in Contemporary Sociological Theories (pg. 13)

known as the ‘Newton of social science’ (see: social Newton), noted for his three-volume 1858 The Principles of Social Science, wherein he uses of physics and chemistry in sociological theory, e.g. his ‘law of molecular gravitation’ which he says accounts the aggregation of people in larger cities, among numerous other theories, e.g. "friction" resulting from the "rubbing together of human molecules".
21.Photo needed 75Keith Burton

(CR:15) English electrical engineer and theoretical physicist;

“Of the impossibility of saying anything without saying everything.”
— Keith Burton (c.1960), answer to why he stopped publishing after his thermodynamic table

noted his 1957 thermodynamics table for biochemical reactions, containing free energy of formation values ΔGfº for about 100 species of “biochemical reactions, able to make predictions on reactions that had not yet occurred”, in the words of Robert Alberty (2003).
22.Photo needed 75Thomas Newcomen

Newcomen engine[RGM:714|1,500+] (EP:17) (CR:29) was an English engineer, who built on the Papin engine (1690) and Savery engine (1698), guided by help from Robert Hooke, to make his 1712 Newcomen engine, the first marketable steam engine; by 1732, there were, supposedly, more than 100 Newcomen engines in Britain and Europe, and 2,000 Newcomen engines by 1800, and the "industrial revolution" was underway.
23.Emile Clapeyron 75Emile Clapeyron

Clapeyron indicator diagram(CR:63) French mining engineer and physicist; his “Memoir on the Motive Power of Heat”, brought Sadi Carnot’s 1824 paper Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire into the public light, and with the very important use of the Watt indicator diagram, employed to update graphically Carnot’s arguments.
24.Benjamin Thompson 75Benjamin Thompson

Cannon boring experiment (Thompson, 1798)(Cattell 1000:571) (EPD:F2) (GPE:#) (CR:41) American-born English physicist;

Rumford has informed us himself that he should probably have remained in the modest condition of his ancestors if the little fortune which they had to leave him had not been lost during his infancy. Thus, like many other men of genius, a misfortune in early life was the cause of his subsequent reputation. His father died young [age 2]. A second husband removed him from the care of his mother, and his grandfather, from whom he had everything to expect, had given all he possessed to a younger son, leaving his grandson almost penniless. Nothing could be more likely than such a destitute condition to induce a premature display of talent.”
Georges Cuvier (c.1815), Publication (pg. 9)

noted for his 1798 cannon-boring experiments
(compare: ice rubbing experiment, 1799), which provided data for the first calculation of the mechanical equivalent of heat, and which laid question to the then-established caloric theory, as discussed in his famous An Inquiry Concerning the Source of Heat which is Excited by Friction”; after disproving Antoine Lavoisier's caloric theory of heat, he then married his wife (Lavoisier having been guillotined in 1794).
25. Hideki Yukawa 75Hideki Yukawa

YukawaJapanese theoretical physicist; noted for his prediction (1935) of the pion or “pi meson” particle; considered, along with Ernest Rutherford, a pioneer of theory of the strong nuclear force; considered a “genius” (Dalitz, 1985) among modern physicists; adjacent section of "atomic theory" diagram, section four fundamental interactions, indicates his general big name stature (Hanlon, 2020).
26.Jan Ingenhouse 75Jan Ingenhousz

Jan Ingenhousz (photosynthesis)Dutch physician, physiologist, biologist, and chemist; noted for his 1779 discovery of photosynthesis and for his 1789 heat conduction in wires experiments; adjacent photo is a 2017 Google Doodle (Ѻ) commemorating his 287th birthday.
27.Harold Blum 75Harold Blum

(EvT:20|21+) (CR:55)
28.Etienne Saint-Hilaire 75Etienne Hilaire

(Cattell 1000:481) (EvT:9|21+) (CR:9) French naturalist;

“It is quite certain that there was a moment when life did not exist on our planet, and another moment when it appeared. It is the passage between these two states that forms the great problem of natural philosophy today.”
— Geoffroy Hilaire (c.1836), Publication

noted for his 1795-1833 views on the origin and form change of animals; characterized as a "deism-based materialistic evolutionary determinism" theory of species origins (Hecht, 2003); noted for his 1830 confrontation with creationist Georges Cuvier; Goethe’s last writings were said to have been devoted to defending Saint-Hilaire.
29.Photo needed 75Philo of Byzantium

Philo thermometerGreek engineer, physicist, and mathematician, noted for making the first thermometer.

“Among the greatest scholars that studied in Alexandria were Euclid, Archimedes, Ctesibius, Philo of Alexandria, and Hero. It is likely that the study of machines was at first an outgrowth of mathematics research and its application to mechanics rather than as an institute to produce useful machines.”
— Francis Moon (2007), The Machines of Leonardo da Vinci and Franz Reuleaux (pg. 110)

Influenced: Leonardo da Vinci, Robert Fludd, and possibly Galileo.
30. David Ricardo 75David Ricardo

[RGM:739|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:127) (GEcE:#) (CR:3) British political economist; noted from some type of “labor theory of value”; one of the four founders of “classical economics”, along with Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and John Mill (Leontief, 1982).
##.Proudhon 75Pierre Proudhon

(Cattell 1000: 742) (Gottlieb 1000:648) (CR:2) French politician, economic theorist, and self-defined anarchist;

“Anarchy is order without power.”
— Pierre Proudhon (1848), Confessions of a Revolutionary
27. Frederick Soddy 75Frederick Soddy

(Murray 4000:18|C) (CR:69) English physical chemist and radiochemist;

“The laws [of thermodynamics], which express the relation between matter and energy, govern the rise and fall of political systems, the freedom or bondage of societies, the movements of commerce and industries, the origin of wealth and poverty, and the general physical welfare of a people.”
Frederick Soddy (1911), Matter and Energy (pg. 10-11)

Noted for his 1911 to 1921 publications on relationship of matter, energy, and thermodynamics to economics; a 2019 “missing top 1,000 genius candidate” (Ѻ).
28.Nicolas Lemery 75Nicolas Lemery

Acid and Alkali(Faber 114:10) (GCE:#) French chemist; noted for his 1675 Course on Chemistry, wherein, supposedly (Thorpe, 1874), he was the first to propose the division of chemistry into “organic chemistry” (animal/vegetable kingdom) and “inorganic chemistry” (mineral kingdom); noted for his so-called "geometric atomism" (Farber, 1961), wherein to explain neutralization that takes place when an acid and a base react, he conceived, based on contemporary atomism and Descartes (c.1640), a geometrically-locking acid-base model of corpuscles, according to which the barb or spike of an acid corpuscle fit into the grove of a base or alkali; was one of the earliest conceptions of “molecule” (Ѻ) or two corpuscles joined, and a remote precursor to the chemical bond (see: history of the chemical bond).
29.Thomas Harriot 75Thomas Harriot

(Siegfried 10:8) (GME:#) (CR:3) English mathematician, philosopher (Hues, 1594), physicist, navigator, linguist, an oft-cited general polymath, noted for the c.1595 introduction of the inequality sign.
30.Claude Berthollet 75Claude Berthollet (1748-1822)
(Cattell 1000:669) (Murray 4000:13|C) (GCE:11) (DN:7) (CR:56) French chemist; noted for his circa 1800 studies on chemical affinity, the laws of affinity, and in particular his objection to the original notion of “elective affinity”, in that there may the splitting of affinities; was one of the mental references used by German polymath Johann Goethe in the scripting of his novella Elective Affinities.
31.Marcellin Berthelot 75Marcellin Berthelot

(CR:45) was a French chemist;

“It is the object of these researchers to do away with life as an explanation, wherever organic chemistry is concerned.”
— Marcellin Berthelot (c.1865), Publication; cited by Forris Moore (1918) in A History of Chemistry (pg. 204); cited by George Scott (1895) in Atoms of the Living Flame (pg. 93)

noted for his effort to debunk the vital force theory, for his synthesis theories, for work in introducing terms in thermochemistry, and his thermal theory of affinity, and for his maximum work principle, the latter two of which ultimately superseded by the thermodynamic theory of affinity, but important stepping stones, none the less.
32.Jacques Charles 75Jacques Charles

(CR:6) French physicist, chemist, mathematician, and inventor; noted for his Montgolfier-stimulated 1783 “manned” hydrogen balloon test; and for his 1787 experiment where he filled five balloons to the same volume with different gases, and then raised the temperature of the balloons to 80ºC and noticed that they all increased in volume by the same amount; he thus found the following relation:

 V = kT \,

known as Charles law.
33. Joseph Montgolfier 75Joseph Montgolfier

French aeronautics engineer and paper manufacturer; in his early 20s, while observing laundry drying over a fire incidentally form pockets that billowed upwards, he began to contemplate the building of a hot air powered flying machine; in 1775, he built parachutes and did test jumps from his family house; in 1782, together with his brother Etienne Montgolfier, they built the a working hot air balloon; and in 1783, they made a hot air balloon that to carried a human.
34.Carl Benz 75Karl Benz

[RGM:161|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:140) German engineer; noted for
35.Oliver Lodge 75Oliver Lodge

(GPE:111) (CR:11) English physicist, electrical engineer, and philosopher; noted for
36.Charles Wheatstone 75Charles Wheatstone

(Murray 4000:15|T) English scientist and inventor;
37.Stephen Gray

Gray experiment 3(Cattell 1000:644) English electrical experimenter, astronomer, chemist, and dyer; noted as the first person, via his 1729 experiments with an elongated Hauksbee generator, to conduct electricity through a cord of hemp or metal, for up to several hundred feet, thereby becoming the discoverer or inventor of electrical conductivity and or the inventor of electrical wires.
38.Niccolo Cabeo 75Niccolo Cabeo

Italian philosopher, engineer, mathematician, and theologian; classified as a “Jesuit naturalist”, along with Athanasius Kircher and Gaspar Schott; his Magnetic Philosophy (1629), a book that attempted to refute the theories of William Gilbert (1600), from the Aristotelian view, made an important observation of electrical repulsion, reporting his observations that an electrically charged body can attract non-electrified objects, also that two charged objects repelled each other.
39. William Jenney

(Gottlieb 1000:89) American architect and engineer; his 1885 ten-story Home Insurance Building, Chicago, is considered the first modern skyscraper.
40. Gustave Eiffel

French civil engineer; person behind the design of the Eiffel Tower, the Statue of Liberty, and many bridges and buildings; an oft-classified “engineering genius” (Ѻ); see: David Harvie’s 2006 Eiffel: the Genius Who Reinvented Himself (Ѻ).
41. Elisha Otis

American industrialist; noted for his c.1852 invention of safety device that prevents elevators from falling if the hoisting cable fails, demonstrating it in 1853 at the New York State fair and in 1857 installing it in a five-story elevator at a store at Broadway and Broome Street; this ushered in the start of the skyscraper era. (Ѻ)(Ѻ)
42.Abdus Salam 75Abdus Salam

43Srinivasa Ramanujan 75Srinivasa Ramanujan
 IQ_O \,=185
 IQ_O \,=180+
 IQ_O \,=130-140
[RGM:N/A|1,500+] (GME:30) Indian mathematician; influential (Ѻ) to Abdus Salam (IQ:#|#); IQ guesstimates: 185 (Ratner, 2016) (Ѻ), 180+ (Gamarra, 2018) (Ѻ), 130-140 (Williams, 2016), and or “overrated as a mathematician” (Ѻ) [see: overrated geniuses].
44. Edmund Burke

(Cattell 1000:12) [RGM:341|1,500+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (Time 100:58) (Perry 80:33) Irish-born British statesman; noted for []
45.Henry IIHenry II

(Cattell 1000:457) (Time 100:30) English king; noted for his c.1170 introduction of "trial by jury", usurping the older practice of trial by priest with holy water.
46. Mozi

Chinese philosopher; noted for his “state of nature” (Ѻ) theory of society, precursory, in form, in some sense, to the latter logic of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Charles Montesquieu.
47.Gerbert 75Gerbert

48.Johann Faust

49.Jean Robinet

French physicist philosopher, naturalist, encyclopedist, and early evolutionist, noted for his 1786 Philosophical View of the Natural Gradation of the Forms of Being, wherein he outlines his so-called "active principle", rooted in active forces and powers, behind the spontaneity of movements, mineral to man, seen in nature, up and down the chain of being, which is behind gradation of forms of being and changes or metamorphosizes produced therefrom; the gist of which, on first pass, seeming to be an early forerunner to: the Gibbs energy, aka the force function, method of natural selection, behind the spontaneity of chemical change, such as is found, in pre-cursory form in Goethe's human chemical theory, described by affiinity chemistry logic, Friedrich Nietzsche's will to power theory, and the leading modern human free energy theorists.
50.Michael Servetus 75Michael Servetus

(Cattell 1000:642) Spanish theologian, physician, cartographer, and humanist; noted for his The Restoration of Christianity (1553) which rejected (Ѻ) trinity and the concept of predestination; influential to: Thomas Aikenhead.
51.Isidore of Seville 75Isidore of Seville

[RGM:862|1,500+] (GMAG|#) (CR:3) was a Spanish theologian and scholar;

“Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever.”
— Isidore (c.620), Publication (Ѻ)

noted for []
52Thaddeus StevensThaddeus Stevens

American politician; noted as intellectual driving force behind the passage of the 13th amendment;

“Stevens was one of the most remarkable figures in 19th century American politics. Two principles shaped Stevens's public career. One was his belief in public education. As a member of the Pennsylvania Legislature in the 1830's, Stevens was known as the “Father of the Common School” because of his efforts to prevent the retrenchment of public schooling during a state budget crisis. The second was his hatred of slavery and commitment to the equal rights of black Americans.”
— Eric Foner (1976), “If You Wondered About Thaddeus Stevens” (Ѻ), The New York Times, Dec 31

portrayed powerfully by Tommy Jones in the film Lincoln (2012); see actual quotes (Ѻ) and film quotes (Ѻ).
53..Jordanus Nemorarius

54. Alexis Tocqueville 75Alexis Tocqueville

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (CR:3) French diplomat, political scientist and historian;

History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies.”
— Alexis Tocqueville (c.1850) (Ѻ)

Noted for his two-volume Democracy in America (1840), read (Ѻ) by Marilyn Monroe and Ayaan Ali, and his The Old Regime and Revolution (1856), both read by Henry Buckle.
55. Thomas Malthus

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (CR:4) English scholar and cleric; noted for his Essay on the Principle of Population (1798), wherein he argued that all "life forms", including humans, have a propensity to exponential population growth when resources are abundant but that actual growth is limited by available resources (Ѻ); influential to Charles Darwin and Henry Buckle.
56. David Ricardo

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:744|1,500+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (GEconE:#) (CR:3) British political economist; influential to Henry Buckle.
57.Viktor Frankl 75Viktor Frankl

[RGM:N/A|1,500+] Austrian meaning philosopher, neurologist, and psychiatrist;

“What man actually needs is not a tensionless state but rather the striving and struggling for some goal worthy of him. What he needs is not the discharge of tension at any cost, but the call of a potential meaning waiting to be fulfilled by him.”
— Viktor Frankl (c.1946), Publication (Ѻ)

cited in film Halloween (2019) as a philosophy being taught to kids in high school about finding “meaning” even in the most dire of circumstances.
58.Murray Gell-Mann 75Murray Gell-Mann

59.Bernard Fontenelle 75Bernard Fontenelle

(Cattell 1000:539) (CR:3) French lawyer, scientist, and philosophy writer;
60 Samuel Pufendorf 75 newSamuel Pufendorf

61. Vladimir Nabokov 75Vladimir Nabokov

[RGM:387|1,500+] Russian-born American novelist, poet, translator, and entomologist;

Existence is a series of footnotes to a vast, obscure, unfinished masterpiece.
— Vladimir Nabokov (1962), Pale Fire (pg. 272)

noted for his Pale Fire (1962), characterized as a “brilliant satire of academic writing, in which the footnotes and the commentary swell up and overwhelm the original work” (Goelet, 2015) (Ѻ); colloquially known for his Lolita (1955) [ML100:4]; characterized a “scientific genius” (Marsh, 2016) (Ѻ) for his butterfly work; is an auto-characterized “synesthete”, similar to Daniel Tammet (Ѻ), having, since a young age, been able to equate colors with letters and numbers, e.g. red to the letter 5; a 2013 “missing writer” (Ѻ); Pumpkin Person (Ѻ) estimated his IQ at 144 (2015); characterized as “clearly extremely intelligent” (Jackson, 2017) (Ѻ).
62. Max Stirner 75Max Stirner

[RGM:253:1,500+] German philosopher; purported influence to Friedrich Nietzsche; top 1000 candidate nominee (2019) (Ѻ).
63.Charles Dupuis 75Charles Dupuis

(RMS:22) (CR:14) French savant, a rhetoric professor, lawyer, mathematician, theologian, telegraph inventor, astronomer, and religio-mythologist;

“We think ourselves possessed, or, at least, we boast that we are so, of liberty of conscience on all subjects. Yet, how far are we from these exalted privileges in fact! There exists, I believe, throughout the whole Christian world, a law which makes it blasphemy to deny our doubt the divine inspiration of all the books of the Old and New Testaments, from Genesis to Revelation. Who would run the risk of translating Dupuis?”
John Adams (1825), “Letter to Thomas Jefferson”, Jan 23

noted for his multi-volume 1794 Universal Religion: Origin of All Cults, oft-cited, along with the parallel works of Constantin Volney (1791), as one of the first Christ myth theory works; compare: Dorothy Murdock (160|#435), Wallis Budge (155|#540), and Gerald Massey (185|#67).
64.Friedrich Engels 75Friedrich Engels

[RGM:944|1,500+] (FA:104) (CR:51) German social scientist; was strongly against, in an unbridgeable gap sense, the Henry Carey inspired views of Eugen Duhring; noted as intellectual cohort of Karl Marx (1818-1883) (IQ:180|#126) [RGM:175|1,500+] (Scott 50:23) (FA:120) (CR:186); see 1979 cartoon (Ѻ) of Marx and Engels talking an IQ test.
65.Hunter Thompson 75Hunter Thompson

American journalist, author, and realism existence philosopher; Quora IQ guesstimated (Ѻ) in “the 140s” or “pretty high” (2018).
66.Ramon Llull 75Ramon Llull

(Cattell 1000:517) Spanish polymath;

“If understanding followed no rule at all, there would be no good in the understanding nor in the matter understood, and to remain in ignorance would be the greatest good.”
Ramon Llull (c.1300), The Hundred Names of God; cited (Ѻ) by Margaret Boden (2006) in Mind as Machine: a History of Cognitive Science, Volume 1 (pg. 56)

noted for his 1296 “tree of knowledge” diagram and his 1303 a “scale of intellect” diagram (see: great chain of being); a discussed (Ѻ) potential top 1000 genius candidate.
67.John Wallis 75John Wallis

(Murray 4000:17|M) (Eells 100:33) (GME:25) English mathematician and theologian, noted for []
68. Giovanni Borelli 75Giovanni Borelli

Inverse square law of gravityItalian physiologist, physicist, and mathematician; his Theory of the Planets (1666) is cited, in the heated correspondence of Newton (1686), along with the theories of Ishmael Bullialdus (1645), Christiaan Huygens (1673), Christopher Wren (1677) as being the originators of the inverse square law of gravity, in opposition to Robert Hooke’s claim that he (1666, 1670, 1679) was the first to propose the inverse square law (Ѻ)(Ѻ) and taught or suggested the idea to Newton
69.Thomas Willis 75Thomas Willis

70.Johannes Hevelius 75Johannes Hevelius

(Murray 4000:20|A) Polish astronomer, lawyer, and mayor; noted
71.Ole Romer 75Ole Romer

Speed of light (Roemer)(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (CR:4) Danish astronomer; noted for 1675 theory that the apparent anomalies in the apparent movement of the moons of Jupiter, which depended on what season the earth was in, i.e. Jupiter at conjunction (sun between earth and Jupiter) or opposition (earth between sun and moon), could be explained by light having a finite velocity; for his 1676 calculation of the speed of light of earth orbital radius divided by 22 minutes or 220,000 km/s (as calculated later by Christiaan Huygens); and for his 1701 thermometer, fixed at the freezing point and boiling point of water, an model that later influenced Daniel Fahrenheit (c.1708).
72.John Herapath

73.Robert Burton 75Robert Burton

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (CR:15) English scholar; noted for his The Anatomy of Melancholy (1621), wherein he impressively employs electricity (amber), magnetism (loadstone), and heat (warmth) logic to explain love and beauty; hung himself in the same room that Robert Hooke later stayed in as a student; influential to Henry Finck and also Goethe, possibly.
74.Walter Heitler 75Walter Heitler

77.William Hamilton 75William Hamilton

(GME:27) Irish mathematical physicist; eponym of the Hamiltonian (compare: Lagrangian and Gibbsian).
78. Pieter Musschenbroek 75Pieter Musschenbroek

Leyden jarDutch scientist; in 1746, building on the electrostatic generator (c.1660) experiments of Otto Guericke, and the electricity storage experiments (c.1742) of George Bose, invention of the Leyden jar, the first working capacitor.
79. Hermann Minkowski 75Hermann Minkowski

Spacetime(GME:#) German mathematician; mentor to Einstein;

“The views of space and time which I wish to lay before you have sprung from the soil of experimental physics, and therein lies their strength. They are radical. Henceforth space by itself, and time by itself, are doomed to fade away into mere shadows, and only a kind of union of the two will preserve an independent reality.”
— Hermann Minkowski (1907) (Ѻ)

noted for his 1907 concept of spacetime, i.e. space and time joined as one new thing, as shown by the grids adjacent, and that Einstein’s special theory of relativity could thus be understood geometrically in four dimensions, Cartesian dimensions plus space-time.
80.Joseph Campbell 75Joseph Campbell

[RGM:1224|1,500+] (RMS:103) (CR:3) American literature professor, comparative religion and mythology scholar, popularly known as the world’s most famous mythologist;
81.Wilhelm Weber 75Wilhelm Weber

In 1856, through his studies of electrical charges and magnetics, showed that light moves at a constant speed of 300,000 kilometers per second.
82.Ramon Llull 75Ramon Llull

Spanish polymath;

Cusanus owned more works by Lull than any other single author.”
— Pauline Watts (1982), Nicolaus Cusanus: a Fifteenth-Century Vision of Man (pg. 16)

83. Johannes Widmann

German mathematician; noted for his 1489 Mercantile Arithmetic, wherein the “+” and “-“ symbols first appeared in print, albeit, in the sense of “surplus” and “deficit”.
84. Henricus Grammateus

German mathematician; noted for his 1518 A New Skill Book, wherein the “+” and “-“ symbols were first used in the modern mathematical sense.
85.Hans Bethe 75Hans Bethe

[RGM:1234|1,500+] (Landau scale:1.5|Vote) German-born American physicist noted for his work, with Enrico Fermi, on the development of exchange force theory.
86.Robert Grosseteste 75Robert Grosseteste

[RGM:758|1,500+] (Siegfried 10:5) English polymath, statesman, scholastic philosopher, theologian, scientist, Bishop, oft-classified middle ages genius;

“Few have attained to consummate wisdom in the perfection of philosophy: Solomon attained to it, and Aristotle in relation to his times, and in a later age Avicenna, and in our own days Robert, Bishop of Lincoln, and Adam Marsh. The latter two were aware that the power of mathematics is capable of unfolding the causes of all things, and of giving a sufficient explanation of human and divine phenomena; and the assurance of this fact is to be found in the writings of those great men, as, for instance, in their works on the impressions on the rainbow and the comets, on the generation of heat, on the investigation of geography, on the sphere, and on other questions appertaining both to theology and to natural philosophy.”
Roger Bacon (c.1267), Opus Tertium (Ѻ)

as first chancellor of Oxford, he engaged in commentary on Aristotle’s works and translated his Nicomachean Ethics from Greek into Latin.
87.Harlow Shapley 75Harlow Shapley


Greco-Roman Epicurean philosopher; characterized as “very learned” (Cicero, 55BC) (Ѻ); author of 35 books of varied subjects.
89.Pietro Pomponazzi

90. Petrus Peregrinus

Influential to Roger Bacon, who called him the “master of the experiment”, William Gilbert, and Johannes Kepler; top 1000 candidate (Philoepisteme, Jun 2018) (Ѻ)
91. John Atanasoff

[RGM:N/A|1,300+] American physicist, mathematician, and inventor; credited with being the first to invent the digital computer (1930s); top 1000 candidate (Bickle, May 2018).
92. Oswald Avery 75Oswald Avery

[RGM:N/A|1,300+] Canadian-born American physician and genetics researcher;

“In 1944, Avery did the experiment proving that DNA was how traits are inherited.”
— Craig Venter (2017), “100 Greatest Living Business Minds”, Forbes

Proved, via experiment, that it is DNA, and not protein, that transmits heredity; characterized as the most-deserving scientist to not have received the Nobel Prize (Tiselius, 2007).
93. John Eriugena 75John Eriugena

Irish pantheist theologian and philosopher; penned The Division of Nature, based on aggregate of the ideas of Plato, Plotinus, Proclus, and Origen; Meister Eckhart and Nicholas of Cusa are considered his successors (Ѻ); Schopenhauer ranks (Ѻ) him, pantheistically, with Giordano Bruno, Nicolas Malebranche, and Benedict Spinoza; considered a neglected middle ages genius whose works are “finally coming into their own after centuries of neglect and condemnation (Carabine, 2000) (Ѻ); an "interesting" potential top 1000 candidate (Philoepisteme, Jun 2018) (Ѻ)
94. Hammurabi

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (Time 100:5) Babylonian king; devised the Code of Hammurabi, a collection of 282 rules, established standards for commercial interactions and set fines and punishments to meet the requirements of justice (Ѻ); Quora gauged (Wyze, 2015) (Ѻ) as top 10 intelligent mind of history;
95. [Untitled]Buckminster Fuller
 IQ_O \,=132+ [RGM:504|1,300+] (CR:13) American architect and philosopher;

“I live on earth at present, and I don’t know what I am. I know that I am not a category. I am not a thing — a noun. I seem to be a verb, an evolutionary process – an integral function of the universe.”
— Buckminster Fuller (1970), I Seem to Be a Verb

President of Mensa second World President of Mensa (IQ:132+) from 1974 to 1983; Top 1K candidate nominee (Philoepisteme, Jun 2018) (Ѻ); a “possible real genius” (SpergingKermit, Apr 2019) (Ѻ).
96. Rumi 75 2Rumi

[RGM:552|1,300+] Persian poet;

“As you start to walk on the way, the way appears.”
— Rumi (c.1260)

Often name-dropped; influential, e.g. to Hamdi Ulukaya (2017), Chobani Yogurt founder, and his motto: “there’s something magical in movement, in action—it allows you to ‘think’, to discover new ideas, and to feel like you’re making progress. Don’t sit around waiting—act.” (see: Goethendipity) [2]
97. Walt Whitman 75Walt Whitman

[RGM:335|1,600+] (WorldCat 100:17) American poet, essayist, and humanist;

“There will soon be no more priests (see: Jean Meslier). Their work is done. They may wait awhile ... perhaps a generation or two ... dropping off by degrees.... A new order shall arise and they shall be the priests of man, and every man shall be his own priest. The churches built under their umbrage shall be the churches of men and women. Through the divinity of themselves shall the cosmos and the new breed of poets be interpreters of men and women and of all events and things. They shall find their inspiration in real objects today, symptoms of the past and future.... They shall not deign to defend immortality or god or the perfection of things or liberty or the exquisite beauty and reality of the soul. They shall arise in America and be responded to from the remainder of the earth.”
— Walt Whitman (1855), Leaves of Grass (1st edition preface)

influenced by: Ralph Emerson, Robert Ingersoll, Thomas Carlyle, Alfred Tennyson, John Burroughs, William Shakespeare, Homer, Dante Alighieri (Ѻ); cited in Stephen Gould’s The Mismeasure of Man (pg. 124) (Ѻ) in respect to his brain weight; noted for []
98. Robert Noyce

American physicist; independent co-inventor (1959), along with Jack Kilby, of the microchip, which he said (Ѻ) he invented out of "laziness"; co-founder of Fairchild semi-conductor (1957) and Intel (1968).
99. Jack Kilby

American electrical engineer; independent co-inventor (1959), along with Robert Noyce, of the microchip; co-inventor of the handheld calculator, called “Cal Tech” (1967).
100. Chester Carlson

XeroxAmerican physicist, inventor, and patent attorney; invented (Ѻ)(Ѻ) the xerox “dry way” photocopy method (1938), in his kitchen, while simultaneously going to law school, studying science books in the public library, and working his day job; Quora gauged (Wyze, 2015) (Ѻ) as top 10 intelligent mind of history;
101. Stan Lee 75Stan Lee

[RGM:590|1,500+] American comic book writer, editor, publisher, and producer; a “50 Greatest Living Geniuses” (2015) (Ѻ); supposedly, not considered a genius according to Quora (Ѻ)
102. Jules Verne 75Jules Verne

[RGM:85|1,500+] French novelist, poet, playwright, and science fiction writer;

Science, my lad, is made up of mistakes, but they are mistakes which it is useful to make, because they lead little by little to the truth.”
— Jules Verne (1864), A Journey to the Center of the Earth

“We may brave human laws, but we cannot resist natural ones.”
— Jules Verne (1870), 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea 2.15: Accident or Incident)

His science fiction novel From the Earth to the Moon (Ѻ), followed by the sequel Around the Moon (1870), influenced Wernher Braun and his latter NASA guided trip to the moon; ranked (Ѻ) as second or third Robert Heinlein, along with Herbert Wells, as greatest sci-fi writer; a top 1000 suggested candidate, in respect to great playwrights, by oye777 (8 Jan 2019).
103 George Orwell 75George Orwell
 IQ_O \,=120-125 [RGM:56|1,500+] (GLA:43) English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic; noted, supposedly, for work that is marked by awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism, and outspoken support of democratic socialism; a noted dystopian theorist; his novels Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949) [RGN:1|1,200+], Animal Farm (1945) [RGN:1|1,200+], are crowd-ranked high; a 2010 top 50 genius candidate (Ѻ); a 2013 Cox-Buzan style “missing genius” (Ѻ); guesstimated at 120-125 (Ѻ).
104.Neil Armstrong

[RGM:371|1,300+] American astronaut and aeronautical engineer; noted for being first person to step on moon; top 1000 candidate (Bickle, May 2018).
In 2018, Hmolpedia user Philoepisteme, in the top 1000 Candidates thread (Ѻ), commented to Thims “many of the figures you have already written about are equally deserving of being counted as interesting, potential candidates”, after which, following a few weeks thought on the matter, he produced the following list (the check mark Green tickindicates that the individual has been added since post; the red red x icon indicates that the individual's main opus has been reviewed, and they have been disqualified):

1. Max Born (1882-1970) (RGM:509|1,400+) (CR:3)
2. Pierre Duhem (1861-1916) (CR:28)
3. Sextus Empiricus (c.160-210) (CR:15)
4. Protagoras (c.490-420BC) (FA:8) (CR:8)
5. Georg Simmel (1858-1918) [RGM:1,358|1,500+] (Scott 50:35) (CR:13)
6. Jacobus van’t Hoff (1852-1911) (CR:75)
7. Alfred Whitehead (1861-1947) (CR:26) red x icon
8. Carl Clausewitz (1780-1831) (IQ:155|#605) [RGM:226|1,500+] (CR:9) Green tick
9. Walther Nernst (1864-1941) (CR:118)
10. Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782) (IQ:170|#350) [RGM:1309|1,500+] (CR:52) Green tick

Recent candidate suggestions, by Philoepisteme, include:

11. Emil Reymond (1818-1896) (CR:4) | Jul 2019 add


On 25 Sep 2019, user hedkandi2, messaged me the following list of potential top 1000 candidate suggestions:

1. Isidore of Seville (c.560-636) (IQ:#|#) [RGM:862|1,500+] (GMAG|#) (CR:3)
2. Pope Sylvester II (c.946-1003) (Ѻ)
3. Shen Kuo (1031-1095) (Ѻ)
4. Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179) (IQ:160|#553) [RGM:209|1,500+] [GMG:14]Green tick
5. Nicole Oresme (c.1320-1382) (GMAG|#) (Ѻ)
6. Michael Servetus (c.1510-1553) (IQ:#|#) (Cattell 1000:642)
7. Fausto Veranzio (c.1551-1617) (Ѻ)
8. Nicolas Peiresc (1580-1637) (Ѻ) | supporter of Pierre Gassendi
9. Jeronimo Beaumont (1553-1613) (Ѻ) | supposedly invented a steam powered water pump, for draining mines, for which he was granted a patent in 1606.
10. Ivan Sollertinsky (1902-1994) (Ѻ)
11. Andres Bello (1781-1865) (Ѻ)

Per force of this list, among other implications, e.g. many already have influence and citation momentum, I add Servetus and Isidore to the above candidate listing.

According to one view (Lynam, 2015) (Ѻ), “all the Bernoullis” (see: Bernoulli genealogy), were guesstimated as top 10 most intelligent people in history.
(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (Murray 4000:N/A)
See also
Why does Libb Thims make genius lists?
N1. Feel free to suggest potential candidates in threads.
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