Top 1000 geniuses: 101-200

In genius rankings, top 1000 geniuses refers to the greatest five-hundred geniuses of all time ranked by IQ or “relative brightness or intellect” (Cox, 1926); below are the second tier greatest geniuses of all time, numbers 101 to 200.

Geniuses | 101-200
The following are the geniuses "101 to 200" of the top 1000 geniuses (previous: 1-100, next: 201-300, 301-400, 401-500, 501-600, 601-700, 702-800, 801-900, 901-1000): [N1]


Geniuses 101 to 200




180

101
Strato 75Strato
(c.335-269BC) ↑

water spout droplets (acceleration)(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (FA:20) Greek philosopher; nicknamed the “physicist”; successor to Theophrastus;

“Equally intolerable is the inconsistency of Theophrastus, for at one moment he allots the divine primacy to mind, at another to the heavens, and yet another to the signs of the heavenly stars. Another figure unworthy of attention is Theophrastus’ disciple Strato, the one they call the ‘physicist’, for he proposes that all divine power lies in nature, which bears within it the causes of birth, growth, and diminution, but which lacks all sensation and shape.”
Cicero (45BC), On the Nature of the Gods

Strato taught in Lampsacus; where he might have known Epicurus; he attended Aristotle's school in Athens, after which he went to Egypt as tutor to Ptolemy (309–246 BC) (Ѻ), where he also taught Aristarchus (famed heliocentric theory pioneer) ↑; returned to Athens after the death (dereaction) of Theophrastus (c.287 BC), succeeding him as head of the Lyceum; he emphasized the need for exact research, and, as an example of this, he made use of the observation of how water pouring from a spout breaks into separate droplets as evidence that falling bodies accelerate; Hero’s 50AD Pneumatica, was said to overview the physics of Strato and Ctesibius, via outlining an atomic theory in which matter consists of particles mixed with distributed vacua; David Hume declared Strato’s brand of atheism to be: “the most dangerous of the ancients”; first-slating: 180|#105 (Feb 2018).
180

102
Lawrence Henderson 75Lawrence Henderson
(1878-1942)



Light bulb icon L \rightleftharpoons \, anti-chance

Harvard Pareto circle (new) 3(SN:8) (EvT:19|21+) (CR:250) American physiologist and physico-chemical sociologist;

Matter and energy have an original property, assuredly not by chance, which organizes the universe in space and time.”
— Lawrence Henderson (1913), The Fitness of the Environment

ran the Harvard Pareto circle; used a synthesis of Gibbs and Vilfredo Pareto for his pioneering "Sociology 23" course; the last great theory of all thing theorists or thing philosophers (following Henry Adams).
180

103
Cicero 75Cicero
(106-43BC)

(Cattell 1000:15) [RGM:116|1,500+] (Stokes 100:13|Stoics) (GPhE:#) [CR:200], aka "Tully", was a Roman philosopher and politician;

Cicero provided the ‘renaissance’ with its prime methods of philosophical dialogue, and its fullest knowledge about the ancient philosophical schools.”
Michel Montaigne (c.1580), Publication

noted for his 45BC On the Nature of the Gods, a discourse on Greek and Roman theologies, namely a dialogue on a comparison of the pros and cons of stoicism (character: Balbus), Epicurean theology (character: Velleius), and Platonic Academy based skepticism (character: Cotta); also known for thoughts on morals, society, the legal system, etc., as both religion and and Epicurean atomic theory would each see things; upgraded ↑ to 180|103 from previous IQ guesstimate of 175|#194 (Dec, 2017).
180

104
Leo Tolstoy 75Leo Tolstoy
(1828-1910)
 IQ_O \,=185 (Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:38|1,320+] (Murray 4000:10|WL) Russian literary philosopher; HMS pioneer (lightbulb icon white 25Buckle) a GLAE; Quote (1869): “A particle of matter cannot tell us that it is unconscious of the laws of attraction and repulsion and that the law is not true; but man, who is the subject of history, says bluntly: I am free, and am therefore not subject to laws”; a proselyte of Schopenhauer; quote: “Schopenhauer takes us as far as philosophy can”; found on one French person’s 2012 ten greatest geniuses ever list, who estimates him at IQ=185.
180

105
Bertrand Russell 75Bertrand Russell
(1872-1970)
IQ JP=180
IQ CE=180
 IQ_O \,=147
Bertrand Russell (on Religion)(RGM:145|1,500+) (Gottlieb 1000:593) (EPD:M2/F4) [HD:51] [FA:117] (GAE:21) (Stokes 100:77) (GPhE:#) [CR:165] British mathematician and philosopher; 20th century's greatest atheism advocate; considered his IQ to be 180, which he defined as the uberman cutoff IQ; cited with IQ:180 (2001) (Ѻ) and IQ:147 (2015) (Ѻ).
180

106
Darwin 75Charles Darwin
(1809-1882)
IQ JP=180
IQ CPB=173
 IQ_B \,=173
 IQ_{CB} \,=169
 IQ_C \,=165
 IQ_W \,=160
Molecules to man (evolution)(Cattell 1000:116) [RGM:19|1,500+] (Murray 4000:17|CS / 1|B) (Gottlieb 1000:7) (Glenn 20:10) (EvT:15|21+) [CR:514] English evolution theory pioneer;

“You have made a convert of an opponent in one sense [of your Hereditary Genius], for I have always maintained that, excepting fools, men did not differ much in intellect, only in zeal and hard work.”
Charles Darwin (c.1869), “Letter to Francis Galton

a reflective polished genius, who went after one of the biggest fishes in the sea; generally noted for his warm pond to man (see: molecules to man evolution) evolution by natural selection theory.
180

107
Napoleon Bonaparte 75Napoleon Bonaparte
(1769-1821)
 IQ_{CB} \,=163
 IQ_C \,=145
 IQ_B \,=180
 IQ_W \,=142
IQ U 2=186
(Cattell 1000:1) [RGM:149|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (CR:34) (HD:20) (FA:67) French military leader, emperor, and philosopher; Nietzsche uberman (IQ:186+); was the first to systematically query all leading French scientists about theory atheism belief (see: Napoleon Laplace anecdote); high military IQ; Goethe and Napoleon were mutual devotees of each other; read Goethe’s Sorrows of Young Werther over six times during his various campaigns; was on a philosophical bent ascertain (or disprove) the theory or location of the soul in the context of modern physical science.
180

108
Alexander Pope 75Alexander Pope
(1688-1744)
 IQ_C \,=180[RGM:N/A|1,310+] (Cattell 1000:82) Noted for his deeply reflective queries, namely: “shall gravitation cease when you go by” (digressed on by: John Mill, 1852; Balfour Stewart and Peter Tait, 1875; George Millin, 1896) and “Whatever IS, is RIGHT” (Voltaire vs Leibnitz); his Essay on Man was referred to by Voltaire as "the most beautiful, the most useful, the most sublime didactic poem ever written in any language"; commentator on the great chain of being.
180

109
Hendrik Lorentz 75Hendrik Lorentz
(1853-1928) ↑

Lorentz contraction (1892) f(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:1314|1,500+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (Odueny 100:84) Dutch physicist;

Lorentz is the greatest and most powerful thinker I have ever known. I never met Willard Gibbs, but, perhaps, had I done so, I might have placed him beside Lorentz.”
— Albert Einstein (1954), response to question about who were the greatest men, and most powerful thinkers he had known

a top ranked GPE; noted for his postulate that light derives from oscillating electrons in atoms; for his 1892 postulate of relativistic length contraction; many other deep-minded insights; first slating: 175|#244 (c.2017); upgraded ↑ to 180|#110 (Jun 2018).
180

110
Ludwig Buchner 75Ludwig Buchner
(1824-1899)




Light bulb icon L \rightleftharpoons \, anti-chance

Buchner man reacts with woman quote (c.1855)[RGM:N/A|1,310+] (SN:11|58+) (FA:110) (GA:7|35+) (CR:48) German physicist;

“Man react with woman like hydrogen reacts with oxygen.”

his Force and Matter (1855), which is a top-ranked atheist’s bible (#2|5+), read by Einstein at age 13; first-slated 190|#40 (Mar 2017); down-graded to 180|#110 (Jul 2018) after absorbing his Force and Matter.
180

111
David Hume 75David Hume
(1711-1776)
 IQ_C \,=180 Hume caricature(Cattell 1000:58) [RGM:109|1,500+] (Murray 4000:4|WP) (Gottlieb 1000:185) (SN:49) (GMG:7) (EPD|F2) (GPhE:#) [CR:90] Scottish philosopher;

“There is nothing to be learned from a professor, which is not to be met with in the books.”
— David Hume (1735), “Letter to Jemmy Birch”

aka “Newton of moral sciences” (Foley, 1990); noted for his 1740 A Treatise of Human Nature; his 1783 essay “On the Immortality of the Soul”, argued that “it appears difficult by the mere light of reason to prove the immortality of the soul”; Kant's 1788 Critique of Practical Reason and his categorical imperative, according to Miguel Unamuno, are both criticism launching points off the two latter works; his posthumous Dialog Concerning Natural Religion (1777) did a modern remake of Cicero’s The Nature of the Gods; famously-known, in atheist circles, for his encounter with Baron d’Holbach, wherein boasted “I do not believe in atheists, because I have never met one” (see: Hume-Holbach dinner party).
180

112
Photo needed 75Heraclides
(387-312BC)

earth rotating (GAE:#) Greek philosopher and astronomer; proposed that the earth rotates on its axis (compare: Ecphantus (c.500BC)); posited that the soul was light; did battle with Aristotle, supposedly, on the question whether the universe is finite or infinite; and is rumored, according to Simplicius (c.590AD), to have formulated heliocentrism (or at least the precursor model to what Aristarchus (c.240BC) (IQ:175|#244) put into book form); first draft slated at 180|#115, a grade above Aristarchus.
180

113
Jeremy Bentham 75Jeremy Bentham
(1748-1832)
 IQ_C \,=180 utilitarianism(Cattell 1000:327) [RGM:376|1,250+] (FA:87) was English jurist and philosopher;

Snow is the spokesperson for the technologico-Benthamite reduction of human experience to the quantifiable, the measurable, the manageable.”
Frank Leavis (1962), “The Significance of C.P. Snow”

noted for his 1789 Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, wherein he took ideas from: Helvetius, Denis Diderot, Voltaire, John Locke, and David Hume, while simultaneously discarding ideas from: Plato, Aristotle, and Immanuel Kant, e.g. his "categorical imperative" (1785), and therein introduced the so-called: ‘utilitarianism’ system of morality, wherein he suggested that we forget about parsing "good and evil" and work logically to minimize pain and increase pleasure; aimed at the greatest happiness for the greatest number; teacher of John Mill.
180

114
John Milton 75John Milton
(1608-1674)
 IQ_{CB} \,=177
 IQ_C \,=180
 IQ_B \,=173
(Cattell 1000:16) [RGM:325|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:53) (Bloom 100:4) (GLAE:#) (CR:25) English poet, polemicist, fabled "last persons to know everything", generally known fabled "last persons to know everything", and candidate, generally known for his 1667 epic poem Paradise Lost, on the biblical story of the "fall of man", i.e. the temptation of Adam and Eve by the fallen angel Satan and their expulsion from the Garden of Eden.
180

115
Bernhard Riemann 75Bernhard Riemann
(1826-1866)

[RGM:280|1,500+] (Murray 4000:10|M) (GME:11) (DN:1-2) (CR:14) German mathematician;

“The three greatest German mathematicians are: Gauss, Riemann, and Karl Weierstrass.”
Henri Poincare (c.1900)

(thread) his works were required reading for Albert Einstein's so-called Olympia Academy intellectual club (see: Filon-Pearson demon); first-slating: 180±|#100 (Nov 2014).
180

116
MichelangeloMichelangelo
(1475-1564)
 IQ_{CB} \,=178
 IQ_C \,=180
 IQ_B \,=175
(Cattell 1000:28) [RGM:11|1,320+] (Murray 4000:1|WA) Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet; a Nietzsche uberman; painter of the "Creation of Adam" (see: God vs Gibbs).
180

117
Anaximander 75Anaximander
(c.610-564BC)

Ionian model (evolution)[RGM:609|1,500+] (FA:2) (CR:44) Greek philosopher, astronomer, and evolutionist; characterized as “chief of the old atheistic philosophers” (Cudworth, 1678); immediate successor of Thales; taught that: fixed stars were the centers of other planetary systems (each inhabited just as is the earth); that the sun was a glowing mass; and that the earth moved around the center of the system; first-drafting: 170|#220 (c.2016); upgraded ↑ to 180|#120 (Feb 2018).
180

118
Emilie Chatelet 75Emilie Chatelet
(1706-1749)

[RGM:649|1,500+] (CR:20) French philosopher and physicist; eponym: "smartest woman ever"; combined Isaac Newton’s definition of energy (E=mv) with Gottfried Leibniz’ definition of energy (E=mv²) with Willem Gravesande’s brass balls clay surface impact experiments to synthesize the first version of the conservation of energy (vis viva into vis mortua); mistress of Voltaire (IQ=195); had immense library comparable to the Paris academy of science; ran the biggest research lab in France; very highly ranked "magnitude genius" (prolific output in short time); downgrade from 190|#41 to 185|#48 (Feb 2018) per reason that intuition deems her less of a genius than Hypatia; downgrade to 180|#119 (Apr 2018) after reading Julien la Mettrie's summary of her physics.
180

119
CurieMarie Curie
(1867-1934) ↓
IQ SS=205
 IQ_O \,=200
 IQ_B \,=180
[RGM:13|1,500+] (Murray 4000:14|P) (CR:29) Polish-born French physicist and chemist; noted for work in radioactivity; downgraded ↓ from 185|#76 to 180|#120 (Feb 2018) per reason (a) she seems to be more of a “over-rated genius”, e.g. her husband Pierre Curie, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity, has a higher Murray ranking (Murray 4000:10|P), but is hardly famous in genius ranking circles [RGM:N/N|1,330+]; if it was a man who did the same work she did, namely: help develop the theory of radioactivity (with another researcher) and discover two elements (polonium and radium), he would likely not get so-easily ranked in top 100 genius level, nor get ranked with purported IQ 200+ range estimates (e.g. it was Henri Becquerel who ACTUALLY discovered radioactivity) and (b) she is not known (compare: Hypatia) as a big question addressing genius.
180

120
Albertus Magnus 75Albertus Magnus
(1205-1280)

(Cattell 1000:601) (Gottlieb 1000:726) (Partington 50:40) (GCE:32) (MAG:2) (CR:26), German-born chemical philosopher;

“The aim of natural science is NOT simply to accept the statements of others, but to investigate the causes that are at work in nature.”
— Albertus Magnus (c.1270), “On Minerals” (De Mineralibus) (Ѻ)(Ѻ)

oft-classified "universal genius" (Waite, 1815); aka “Universal Doctor” (Doctor Universalis) for the extraordinary depth of his knowledge and learning (Ѻ); his affinity chemistry work marks the start of physical chemistry (Partington, 1937); cited by Mary Shelley (IQ:175|#225) as one of the three great pre-Newtonian “secrets of nature” probers, alongside Cornelius Agrippa (IQ:160|#550) and Paracelsus (IQ:175|194).
180

121
Pierre Teilhard 75Pierre Teilhard
(1881-1955)
 IQ_? \,=170-190± (Gottlieb 1000:809) [CR:153] French scientific-religious philosopher noted for his religious thermodynamics views on energy, consciousness, irreversibility, thermodynamics, the direction of evolution, and the conception of a person as a “human molecule”, which he considered as an evolved structure of atoms, as captured in his 1938 The Phenomenon of Man, and other post-humorously published works. ; cited by Thims (2014) in video (Ѻ|4:00-), as a "top 500 genius"; in contrast to other IQ fakers (see: feigned IQ); general point at which Thims started to add geniuses to the list.
180

122
Dostoyevsky 75Fyodor Dostoyevsky
(1821-1881)
IQ SS=215
 IQ_? \,=170+
Karamazov conjecture[RGM:49|1,500+] (Murray 4000:11|WL) (Gottlieb 1000:77) (GLA:30|43+) [CR:50] Russian novelist, psychologist (Nietzsche, 1887), and moral philosopher;

“If god does not exist, everything is permissible.”
— Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1880), The Brothers Karamazov

noted for his 1864 Notes From the Underground, his 1866 Crime and Punishment, wherein he employs Adolphe Quetelet’s social physics, and for his 1880 The Brothers Karamazov, which enters deeply into the ethical debates on the existence of god, free will, and morality, in which the character Ivan Karamazov espouses the Dostoyevsky dilemma.
180

123
Marcus Aurelius 75Marcus Aurelius
(121-180)

(Cattell 1000:50) [RGM:102|1,500+] (Stokes 100:16) (Perry 80:4|Li) (FA:24) (EPD:F3) (GPhE:#) [CR:46] Roman "philosopher king", politician, the 16th Roman emperor (Ѻ), thing philosopher, an adherent of stoicism, an oft-classified “anti-theist” (Ѻ), noted for his keen intellect and wisdom on a number of topics, such as atheism, nature, and change, to name a few, generally known for his Mediations (167AD), characterized as the "gospel of those who do not believe in the supernatural" (Zimmern, 1887), wherein he extols on a common sense practical Heraclitus-Zeno stylized stoicism; first slating: 180|#115 (2016).
180

124
Karl Marx 75Karl Marx
(1818-1883)
IQ CP c=189
 IQ_O \,=140-160
Marx and Engels (labeled)[RGM:237|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:14) (Becker 139:12) (Stokes 100:63) (Scott 50:23) (FA:120) [CR:204] German sociopolitical economic theorist;

“It is the ultimate aim of this work, to lay bare the economic law of motion of modern society.”
— Karl Marx (1867), Capital

Noted for his work with Friedrich Engels on dialectical materialism (which led to communism); a 2005 empires history forum poster (Ѻ) lists: “Leonardo Da Vinci (IQ=200), Adam Smith (IQ=170) , Aristotle (IQ=195), Julian the Apostate, Marx, Rene Descartes (IQ=195), Isaac Newton (IQ=215), Albert Einstein (IQ=220), Niels Bohr (IQ=185), Ludwig Wittgenstein (IQ=180), Georg Hegel (IQ=165) and Ludwig Beethoven (IQ=165)” as being the top 12 most intelligent figures of history; which when averaged yields IQ=189; another IQ estimate is 140-160 (Ѻ); first-slating: 180|#126 (c.2016).
180

125
image needed 75x99 headLeucippus
(c.500-450BC)

Atomic philosophy(GCE:10) (GPhE:#) [CR:212] Greek atomic physicist and philosopher;

“Nothing happens in vain, but everything from reason and by necessity.”
— Leucippus (c.460BC), On Mind (Fragment L1)

noted for conceiving of the atomic theory, which was a reactionary theory developed in response to Greek philosopher Parmenides’ 485BC denial of the void; first-slating: 180|#124 as "above" that of Parmenides, but below Epicurus and Democritus (Oct 2018).
180

126
Parmenides 75Parmenides
(510-450BC) ↑

[RGM:216|1,500+] (ACR:11) (GPhE:7) [CR:118] Greek physicist-philosopher; in his “On Nature” (485BC) he argued that a void or rather a vacuum, in nature, could not exist, per reason that “being” could not go into “non-being”; this riddled argument launched the famous 2,000-year plus nature abhors a vacuum debated and the Parmenides vs Heraclitus debate; first-slating: 180:#127 (20 positions below Heraclitus; intuition, however, said he could be in top 100 (~87 position)) (Mar 2018).
180

127
Paolo Sarpi 75Paolo Sarpi
(1552-1623)
 IQ_C \,=195
 IQ_W \,=187
(Cattell 1000:426) [RGM:N/A|1,350+] (FA:37) (CR:5) Italian theologian, free thinker, historian, prelate, scientist, lawyer, and statesman, characterized as the “first philosopher to develop systematic arguments for atheism”; published description of the universe that left no room for god or anything supernatural; argued that intelligent people can see past the myths of religion and have normal existences without recourse to fear of god or death; first-slating: 190|#52 (2016); down-grade #1 to 185|#88 (2017); downgrade #2 to 180|#129 (Apr 2018), generally per low CR, low Cattle, and no RGM.
180

129
Fritz Haber 75Fritz Haber
(1868-1934)

(Becker 160:92) (GCE:30) (CR:57) German physical chemist; noted for his pioneering 1905 work in gas reaction thermodynamics, wherein he formerly organized data on free energy, and for his later 1907 solving of the problem of ammonia synthesis, via the Haber process, namely how to the strongly bonded nitrogen molecule N2 to break apart, i.e. to break its triple bond (three covalent bonds), and to recombine with three hydrogen atoms, according to the following process:
Haber process (ammonia synthesis)
which, in May 1909, working together with English technical engineer Robert Le Rossignol, they were able to achieve, in a process that produced 6 percent yield of ammonia NH3 at about 300°C and 200 atm pressure, using osmium as a catalyst, a feat par excellence of using thermodynamic prediction methodology to obtain desired products, at a given equilibrium state; first-slating: 180|#129 per his GCE ranking, midway between Faraday and Rutherford (Mar 2020).
180

129
Avicenna 75Avicenna
(980-1037) ↑

(Cattell 1000:364) [RGM:307|1,500+] (GPhE:20±) (GCE:40±) (CR:20) (MAG:3) Persian physician, philosopher, chemist, and general polymath; Da Vinci claimed to disprove his child birth soul origin theory; first draft slating: 75 to 125 tier (Dec 2016).
180

130
Oliver Heaviside 75Oliver Heaviside
(1850-1925)

(CR:9) English electrical engineer, mathematician, and physicist; the person who reduced Maxwell’s equations, with 20 variables, down to just two equations in two variables; played a significant role in the Gibbs-Heaviside vector algebra method supplantment of the older less-congruous Hamilton-Tait quaternion method; battled Max Planck in the 1903 "what is entropy?" debate, on the question of "choice" in nature or by nature, citing Goethe; first-slating: 185|#86 (c.2015); down-graded ↓ to 180|#129 (Apr 2018).
180

131
Arthur Doyle 75Arthur Doyle
(1859-1930)
 IQ_B \,=182 [RGM:140|1,240+]; Sherlock Holmes writer.
180

132
icon 75 (test)Anaxagoras
(500-428 BC)

Evidence (labeled) (Cattell 1000:703) (ACR:4) (FA:7) (EvT:4|21+) (CR:50) Greek philosopher; teacher of Socrates; held the view that the sun was NOT a god (was imprisoned for this), but a hot or fiery stone, based on the examination of fallen meteors; that moon light was reflected sunlight; postulated the existence of the element “aether”, which he conceived of as being in constant rotation and carried with it the celestial bodies; promoted geocentric nebular hypothesis like origin of things; atomic theory promoter; person behind the concept of “nous”, or mind of the cosmos, conceptualized as an ordering force.
180

133
Augustine 75 newAugustine
(354-430)
 IQ_O \,=180 [RGM:286|1,245+]; Estimated IQ:180 (2008) (Ѻ);
180

134
Lord Byron 75Lord Byron
(1788-1824)
 IQ_C \,=180A Cattell 1000 (top 30); Ranker Greatest Mind (#337|1200+); quote: “adversity is the path to truth”; father of Ada Lovelace (IQ=160); Tom Stoppard’s 1993 juxtaposition of times play Arcadia compares Byron, in a way, to Goethe, intermixed with heat, sex, the second law, and the “attraction that Newton left out” (chemical affinity/human chemical affinity).
180

135
Alexander Bell 75Alexander Bell
(1847-1922)
 IQ_B \,=180 [RGM:45|1,245+] Scottish-born American scientist, inventor, engineer, and innovator who is credited with patenting the first practical telephone and founding the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (1885).
180

136
Montaigne 75Michel Montaigne
(1533-1592) ↑
 IQ_C \,=165Montaigne medallion(Cattell 1000:171) [RGM:222|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:432) (HD:2) (FA:29) (GPhE:#) (CR:73) French atomic theory based realism philosopher;

Montaigne was the first Frenchman who dared to think.”
Julien la Mettrie (1751), “Anti-Seneca” (pg. 129)

noted for his three-volume sharp quote filled 1580 Essays; wore a medallion around his neck that said "what do I know?" and "I hold back, or reserve judgment" around his neck; first-draft gauged at 175+ (mid 2017); upgraded to 180|#136 (Feb 2018).
180

137
William Harvey 75William Harvey
(1578-1657)
 IQ_C \,=180 (Cattell 1000:227) [RGM:N/A|1,320+] (Simmons Scientific 100:38) (Hart 100:49) (Glenn 20:4) (Murray 4000:7|B) (CR:22) English physician; noted generally for his mechanics of heart blood flow circulation models.
180

138
Frederick Rossini 75Frederick Rossini
(1899-1990)
↑↑↓

Freedom and security equation (Rossini, 1970)[SN:7] (RE:91) [CR:175] American physical chemist and chemical thermodynamicist;

“In 1971, Rossini received the Priestley Medal, the highest distinction conferred by the American Chemical Society, during which, in his address ‘Chemical Thermodynamics in the Real World’, he made a clever comparison of the counterplay of enthalpy and entropy in thermodynamics with that of security vis-à-vis freedom in the world at large.”
— Ernest Eliel (1999), “Frederick Rossini”

student of Gilbert Lewis, argued that chemical thermodynamics applies to society, and explains the inverse relation between freedom and security in social systems; down-graded from 185|#83 (original) to 180|#140 per creationism comments (Feb 2018) .
180

139
Thomas Paine 75Thomas Paine
(1737-1809)

Common Sense(Cattell 1000:583) [RGM:138|1,400+] (RMS:24) (HD:15) (FA:44) (GA:28) (Stokes 100:52) (founding father:6) English-born American political activist, philosopher, irreligionist, atheism-inclining free thinker, and revolutionist;

“I can still remember the flash of enlightenment that shone from its pages.”
Thomas Edison (c.1915), reflection on Paine’s [1794] Age of Reason

Paine’s [49-page] Common Sense [1776] pamphlet [selling some 500,000 copies in the mid 1770s] became the biggest seller per capita in American publishing history and almost single-handedly sparked the [American] revolution.”
— Scott Smith (2013), “Thomas Paine’s Writing Sparked the American Revolution” (Ѻ)

Inspiration to George Washington; befriended by: Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and James Monroe; first-slated at 175|#225 (May 2017); upgraded to #139 per Edison genius recognizes genius quote (Jun 2017).
180

141
Joseph FourierJoseph Fourier
(1768-1830)

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (GPE:76) (Eells 100:16) (CR:34) French physicist and mathematician; his The Analytical Theory of Heat (1822), wherein he outlined a heat flow theory based his reasoning on Newton’s law of cooling, namely, that the flow of heat between two adjacent molecules is proportional to the extremely small difference of their temperatures, was read like gospel by William Thomson and James Maxwell in youth, therein being instrumental in the later development of thermodynamics; the book also provided the foundation for the Fourier transform; first-draft gauged at 180±(#138) (Jan 2018).
180

142
Nicholas of Cusa 75 Nicholas of Cusa
(1401-1464)

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:241|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A) Proposed the earth was a sphere, spinning daily on its axis orbiting the sun—also, in opposition to Aristotle’s circular orbit theory, argued that perfect spherical orbits are impossible, thus predating the elliptical orbit theories of Johannes Kepler; that heavenly bodies were made of the same material as the earth; proposed dropping objects from towers to see why they fell as they did; described rules for experimentation; took the pulse; forecast the weather; argued for an infinite universe; invented reading glasses; wrote on squaring the circle, among other mathematical subjects; his best known work is his Learned Ignorance, according to which a person of learned ignorance is not a person of erudition (Ѻ); Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Giordano Bruno, and Kepler were all, supposedly, aware of his writings, the latter citing him in the first paragraph of his first published work; commonly labeled as a polymath also many-sided genius; first-draft gauged at 170-185 (2016).
180

143
George Green 75George Green
(1793-1841)

English mathematical physicist; at age 35, a self-educated miller (read books via the Nottingham Subscription Library), having had almost no formal schooling, self-published his 1828 “An Essay on the Application of Mathematical Analysis to the Theories of Electricity and Magnetism”, wherein starting from the work of Pierre Laplace, he introduced the concept of “potential function”, i.e. the potential as a function of Cartesian coordinates V(x,y,z), particularly the potential energy of an arbitrary static distribution of electric charges; he also derived the divergence theorem independent of Carl Gauss; is the eponym of the Gauss-Green-Stokes theorem (fundamental theorem of calculus); downgraded (Mar 2017) from #40 to #140 of top 500 genius rankings per intuition (supplanted by Buchner inclusion).
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144
Andre Ampere 75Andre Ampere
(1775-1836)

Amps gif(Cattell 1000:557) [RGM:558|1,500+] [Kanowitz 50:32] (Eells 100:93) (GPE:54) (SIG:6) (CR:15) French physicist and mathematician;

“The experimental investigations by which Ampere established the laws of mechanical action between electric currents is one of the most brilliant achievements in science. The whole, theory and experiment, seems as if it had leaped, full grown and full armed, from the brain of the ‘Newton of electricity’. It is perfect in form, and unassailable in accuracy, and it is summed up in a formula from which all the phenomena may be deduced, and which must always remain the cardinal formula of electro-dynamics.”
James Maxwell (1873), Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Volume 2

Dubbed the “father of electrodynamics” (Heaviside, 1888); founder of electrodynamics, the study of currents and dynamical movements; a “tortured genius” who had the phrase “Tandem felix” (“Happy, at last”) engraved on his tombstone; gauged at 180-190 (c.2015).
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John Dalton 75John Dalton
(1766-1844)

Dalton (elements) 2 [RGM:435|1,500+] (Murray 4000:7|C) (Gottlieb 1000:248) (Simmons 100:74) (Hart 100:26) (Partington 50:14) (GCE:19) (CR:29) English chemist;

“It was from Dalton’s instruction, that I first formed a desire to increase my knowledge of original research.”
James Joule (c.1870)

A main pioneer of atomic theory; first to give the basics of the periodic table, with hydrogen as element one; upgrade from 170|#314 to 180|#142 (Apr 2018).
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Berkeley 75George Berkeley
(1685-1753)
 IQ_C \,=190 (Cattell 1000:289) [RGM:302|1,310+] (Murray 4000:14|WP) (Stokes 100:44) (SN:56) Irish-born English philosopher, noted for a blurry god-based Newtonian sociology gravitation like description of the of sous; that was ridiculed by Baron d’Holbach (1770) ↓↓, but, ironically, derogated by Pitirim Sorokin (1928) ↑, but later defended, in some sense, by Bernard Cohen (1994); down-graded from 185|#89 to 180|#145 (Mar 2018).
180

147
Ivan Pavlov 75Ivan Pavlov
(1849-1936)
 IQ_B \,=180Pavlov response(RGM:257|1,310+) (Glenn 20:14) His 12 years of research, from 1885-1897, on digestive glands and conditioned response, wherein he showed that by ringing a bell he could get a dog to salivate, set the foundation for the later work of John Watson and behaviorism (a thematic forerunner to many two cultures namesakes fields).
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148
James Madison 75James Madison
(1751-1836)
 IQ_C \,=160
IQ Simonton c=160
(Cattell 1000:476) [RGM:177|1,305+] American political leader; one of the chiefs of Princeton School of Social Physics; used Newtonian government in the construction of the US Constitution, such as the principle of separation of powers, as found in celestial mechanics.
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149
Rousseau 75Jean Rousseau
(1712-1778) ↑↑↑
 IQ_C \,=150 (Cattell 1000:43) [RGM:118|1,320+] (Murray 4000:18|WP / 6|WL) (CR:49) Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer; upgraded from 150|#437 to 175|#225 (Jun 2017) per RGM ranking, EPD genius, Goethe universal genius precursor quote (Curtis, 1949), and “Rousseau’s ‘I felt before I thought’, which opposed Descartes ‘I think therefore I am’, brings a new idea” (Badre, 2006); upgraded to 180|#145 (Jan 2018) per Murray 4000 ranking, Kant photo, and his “system of being” quote.
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150
Gustave Coriolis 75Gustave Coriolis
(1772-1843)

Coriolis work principle(SIG:9) (CR:35) French physicist; noted for his 1829 Calculation of the Effect of Machines, wherein he introduced the modern formulaic definition of work as force times distance; some references assert, of note, that also in this book he introduced the introduced the factor ½ in German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz’s 1686 vis viva for the sake of mathematical convenience (others say it was Joseph Lagrange who did this in 1811); also noted for his 1835 paper, wherein he stated that “any particle moving in the northern hemisphere is deflected to the right, and any particle moving in the southern hemisphere is deflected to the left”, aka the Coriolis effect, according to which explains why toilets drain clockwise in the northern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere; first-slating: 180|#150 (Feb 2019).
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151
Jean Fernel 75Jean Fernel
(1497-1558)

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (MAG:5) French physician, coiner of the term ‘physiology’, and also "pathology", the study of the body's disease; noted for his On the Hidden Causes of Things (1542), which overthrows Aristotle, e.g. “Did not Aristotle well and truly say, and leave it written for all posterity, that: ‘Heat is the condition of life’?”, was used by Charles Sherrington (IQ:180|#100) as the platform of his defunct theory of life plowing Man on His Nature (1938) lecture; first-draft gauged at #175 of top 500 geniuses (May 2017) per consequence of Sherrington inclusion.
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Franklin 75Benjamin Franklin
(1706-1790)
 IQ_{CB} \,=173
 IQ_C \,=160
 IQ_B \,=185
 IQ_W \,=160
Franklin kite (1752)(Cattell 1000:45) [RGM:27|1,500+] (Murray 4000:14|T) (Gottlieb 1000:54) [Kanowitz 50:25] (GPE:96) (HD:16) (FA:72) (CR:31) American politician, a founding father (see: founding fathers fallacy), diplomat, scientist, and irreligion philosopher, an oft-ranked universal genius; pioneer in the science of electricity; famously noted for his key on kite lightening experiment; upgraded ↑ from 210|#175 to 200|#180 (Feb 2018); upgraded from ↑ to 180|#152 (Nov 2019).
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Berzelius 75Jacob Berzelius
(1779-1848)
 IQ_C \,=160 Berzelius acid base model (1831)(Cattell 1000:424) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (Murray 4000:2|C / 18|CS) (EPD:F4 / M9) (GCE:3) (CR:41) Swedish chemist;

“Chemical signs ought to be letters, for the greater facility of writing. I shall take therefore for the chemical sign, the initial letter of the Latin name of each elementary substance: but as several have the same initial letter, by writing the first two letters of the word.”
— Jacob Berzelius (c.1810) (Ѻ)

noted for his 1806 book on animal chemistry, for his 1808 coining of the term "organic chemistry" (and seemingly the terms organic vs inorganic), his 1811 theory of electric dualism of affinity, his 1831 charge distribution atomic structure model, and his 1836 postulate of the “catalytic force” (catalyst), different from that of the force of affinity, possessed by some materials, and is the person who introduced the two letter nomenclature of elements, helium as "He"; upgraded from 165|#390 to 180|#150 (Apr 2018).
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Alexander the Great 75Alexander the Great
(356-323BC)
 IQ_O \,=200
 IQ_B \,=180
(Cattell 1000:17) [RGM:83|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (GMG:1) Greek emperor-warlord; tutored by Aristotle; by age of thirty, he had created one of the largest empires in ancient history; established the Library of Alexandria, unified Greek science with Egyptian theology to form the forerunner religion to what, in the Roman recension would become Christianity (some argue, that via a reformulation of Osiris-Horus, he was prototype to Jesus); carried the works of Homer and Aristotle into battle (Ѻ); cited by some (Ѻ) with IQ of 200.
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155
Giacomo Leopardi 75Giacomo Leopardi
(1798-1837)
 IQ_C \,=185
 IQ_W \,=185
(Cattell 1000:494) [RGM:79|1,310+] (Murray 4000:N/A) Italian philosopher, poet, essayist, and philologist;

“No one thing shows the greatness and power of the human intellect or the loftiness and nobility of man more than his ability to know and to understand fully and feel strongly his own smallness. When, in considering the multiplicity of worlds, he feels himself to be an infinitesimal part of a globe which itself is a negligible part of one of the infinite number of systems that go to make up the world, and in considering this is astonished by his own smallness, and in feeling it deeply and regarding it intently, virtually blends into nothing, and it is as if he loses himself in the immensity of things, and finds himself as though lost in the incomprehensible vastness of existence, with this single act of thought he gives the greatest possible proof of the nobility and immense capability of his own mind, which, enclosed in such a small and negligible being, has nonetheless managed to know and understand things so superior to his own nature, and to embrace and contain this same intensity of existence and things in his thought.”
— Giacomo Leopardi (c.1825), Miscellany of Thoughts (Zibaldone di pensieri) (Ѻ)(Ѻ)

a Heinegg 55 (Ѻ) mortalist.
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Honore Mirabeau 75Honore Mirabeau
(1749-1791)
 IQ_C \,=185 (Cattell 1000:55) [RGM:N/A|1,320+] [FA:63] French revolution hero; excelled at mathematics early on; at age 15, found that he “needed” John Locke’s Essay on Human Understanding; when the anonymous The System of Nature (1770) appeared, secretly written by Baron d’Holbach, people attributed it Mirabeau or Helvetius.
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157
Carl Linnaeus 75 Carl Linnaeus
(1707-1778)
 IQ_C \,=165 (Cattell 1000:128) [RGM:88|1,310+] noted for his 1753 binomial nomenclature classification of species scheme; for his 1758 centigrade thermometer work; upgrade for being a mentor to Torbern Bergman, who used the scheme in his 1775 physical chemistry textbook; and upgrade for being a great influence to Johann Goethe in his early 1780s botanical studies in search of his moving order metamorphosis of form theory; upgrade from 170|#275 to 180|#150 (Jan 2018).
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158
John Bardeen 75John Bardeen
(1908-1991)

[RGM:N/A|1,330+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (EPD|M12) (CR:7)(CR:7) American physicist and electrical engineer, a dual Nobel prize recipient Nobel Prize iconNobel Prize icon, noted for invention of the transistor (Nobel Prize physics, 1956) and for the theory of superconductivity (Nobel Prize physics, 1972); see True Genius: the Life and Science of John Bardeen: the Only Winner of Two Nobel Prizes in Physics (2002); first-slated: 180|#130 (c.2016).
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159
Marquis Condorcet 75Marquis Condorcet
(1743-1794)
 IQ_C \,=180 (Cattell 1000:288) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] (FA:79) French mathematician, philosopher, and political scientist; inventor of the “curly d” (∂) symbol for partial differential equations (see: history) (1770); his social mathematics, supposedly, served as a platform for Adolphe Quetelet’s later “social physics”; Thomas Jefferson praised his genius.
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160
John Tukey 75John Tukey
(1915-2000)

(SN:13) American chemist, mathematician, and statistician; noted for his 1966 free energy theory of attitude state changes, based on the theory of absolute reaction rates in chemistry; first-slating: 180|#158 (see: IQ:200+ HCT prodigies) (c.2016).
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161
PlutarchPlutarch
(c.46-120)

(Cattell 1000:134) [RGM:204|1,500+] (FA:31) (GPhE:19) [CR:116] Greek-born Roman historian and philosopher, noted for his commentary on the Osiris resurrection theory (100AD), i.e. Egyptian state religion, for his discussions on the theory of the cold element (118AD) and for his Theseus’s ship (see: turnover rate) paradox discussions; first slating: #150 (Dec 2017); upgrade from previous IQ:175|#217 position (c.2019).
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James Froude 75James Froude
(1818-1894)

His 1849 Nemesis of Faith, wherein he digresses on the “will of the copper” in relation to heated and cooled magnets, was burned in moral philosophy class at Oxford; in 1854, he became the first English translator of Goethe’s Elective Affinities, done anonymously per reasons of caution as to its Christianity overthrowing contents; first-draft slated at #150 (Dec 2017).
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Torbern Bergman 75Torbern Bergman
(1735-1784)

Moral symbols(Partington 50:31) (GCE:24) (CR:209) Swedish chemist;

“The moral symbols in the natural sciences—for example that of the elective affinities invented and used by the great Bergman—are more intelligent and permit themselves to be connected better with poetry, even connected with society better than any others, which are, after all, even the mathematical ones, anthropomorphic. The thing is that the former (the chemicals) belong with the emotions, the latter (mathematics) belong with the understanding.”
— Johann Goethe (1809), “Comment to Friedrich Riemer”, Jul 24

His 1775 textbook A Dissertation on Elective Attractions, the epitome and culmination of 18th century affinity chemistry, initiated via Newton's last and final "Query 31" (1718), generally, marks the start of what in the 19th century became physical chemistry.
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Ernest Rutherford 75Ernest Rutherford
(1871-1937)

Gold foil experiment[RGM:151|1,360+] (Murray 4000:3|P / 15|CS) (CR:40) New Zealand-born British physicist;

“When we have found how the nucleus of atoms is built up we shall have found the greatest secret of all — except life.”
— Ernst Rutherford (c.1898)

Noted for his discovery/identification of the alpha particle (1899), aka “gold foil experiment”, shown adjacent, nucleus (1909/1911), proton (1919), and for predicting/proposing the “neutron” (1920); first-slating: 180|#160 (Apr 2018).
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165
John Nash 75John Nash
(1928-2015)
IQ CP=200±
 IQ_O \,=180
[RGM:324|1,500+] (YCG:32) (DN:7) (CR:29) American economist; described, at age 20, as “a genius” in his letter of recommendation by Carnegie Tech professor R.L. Duffin; based his 1949 “Nash equilibrium”, and supposedly game theory, supposedly, on the statistical interactions of reacting molecules from his studies of chemical engineering and chemistry at Carnegie Tech; some rank Nash at the IQ=200+ level and compare his genius to that of Nikola Tesla or John Neumann (Ѻ); famously known for his mixture of genius and madness (e.g. A Beautiful Mind, 2001); a Discovery.com top 5 mad genius (Ѻ); (V) Quote: “It is believed that mathematician John Forbes Nash had an IQ around 180” (Evans, 2010). (Ѻ)
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John Toland 75John Toland
(1670-1722) ↑

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (FA:62) First person ever called a "free thinker" (Molyneux, 1697); characterized by Jonathan Swift as the “great oracle” of the anti-Christians; first citation in Baron d’Holbach’s “Motion and its Origin” chapter, referred to by Denis Diderot as the “celebrated Toland”; characterized a “modern Lucian” in his obituary; first draft slated: 170|#250 (May, 2017); upgraded ↑ to 180|#160 (Jan 2018) per Holbach-Diderot endorsement, his 1704 pantheism upgrade attack on the system of Spinoza, etc.
180

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James Joule 75James Joule
(1818-1889)

Mechanical equivalent of heat (Joule)(Murray 4000:16|P) [Kanowitz 50:17] [Cropper 30:3|T] (GPE:28) English physicist and engineer;

“The height of the pulleys from the ground was twelve yards, and consequently, when the weights had descended through that distance, they had to be wound up again in order to renew the motion of the paddle. After this operation had been repeated sixteen times, the increase of the temperature of the water was ascertained by means of a very sensible and accurate thermometer.”
— James Joule (1845), “On the Existence of an Equivalent Relation between Heat and the Ordinary Forms of Mechanical Power” (Ѻ)(Ѻ)

together with Hermann Helmholtz and Robert Mayer, are the three main derivers of the mechanical equivalent of heat (aka the conservation of energy) the big three thinkers of Thomas Kuhn’s group of 12 independent formulators of the conservation of energy paradigm change theory; gauged at IQ 175-190 (c.2015).
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Robert Mayer 75Robert Mayer
(1814-1878)

Together with Hermann Helmholtz and James Joule, are the three main derivers of the mechanical equivalent of heat (aka the conservation of energy), or the big three thinkers of Thomas Kuhn’s group of 12 independent formulators of the conservation of energy paradigm change theory; gauged at IQ 175-190 (c.2015).
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Henry Bray 75Henry Bray
(1846-1922)

(SN:18) English-born American polymath; last thinker to intelligibly argue for the “living universe” hypothesis (Goethean elective affinities inclusive); first Hmolpedia scholar wherein "social Newton term analysis" was performed; a technique later called Beg analysis (Thims, 2014); first-draft slated at 180|#159 (Jan 2018).
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Socrates 75Socrates
(c.469-399BC)
IQ SS=235
 IQ_O \,=185+
 IQ_B \,=160
(Cattell 1000:29) [RGM:10|1,500+] (Murray 4000:12|WP) (FA:11) (GPhE:4) [CR:122] Greek philosopher, student of Anaxagoras; Nietzsche uberman (IQ[mean]:186+); objected to atomic theory; leader of the Plato-Aristotle school of philosophy; famously denied that he was the smartest person in Athens, per reason, after interviewing all the presumed smart men in town, finding that they knew very little, that he “knew nothing”; quote: “the beginning of wisdom is the definition of terms”.
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Jonathan Swift 75Jonathan Swift
(1667-1745) ↑
 IQ_O \,=186
 IQ_C \,=155
(Cattell 1000:64) [RGM:194|1,500+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (CR:17) Anglo-Irish satirical writer, religion vs free thinking commentator, and unlearn expositor (mean IQ: 186);

“When a true genius appears in this world, you may know him by this sign, that the dunces are all in confederacy against him.”
— Jonathan Swift (1706), “Thoughts on Various Subjects, Moral and Diverting”

generally known for his Gulliver’s Travels (1726), noted for commentary on John Toland, who he called the "great oracle of the anti-Christians", and for his Cicero-like digression on whether the mind was formed by god or by the Epicurean fortuitous concourse of atoms origin of things; upgrade for his views on “true genius”; first slating: 180|#156 (c.2016).
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172
Joseph Black (75px)Joseph Black
(1728-1799)

(Murray 4000:9|C) (Partington 50:13) (GCE:14) [CR:76] Scottish physicist and chemist;

Joseph Black was the preeminent man of science in the Scottish enlightenment.”
— David Wilson (2009), Seeking Nature’s Logic

notable for his scientific investigations into the nature of heat, for being a mentor and financier to Scottish mechanical engineer James Watt, and for his discovery of the phenomenon of “latent heat”, calculations of which were later used by French chemist Antoine Lavoisier and Pierre Laplace in their 1782 invention the “ice calorimeter”, which was used to determine the heat evolved in various chemical reactions. ; first-slating: 180|#171 (Nov 2019).
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Priestley 75 Joseph Priestley
(1733-1804)
 IQ_C \,=165 (Cattell 1000:338) [RGM:503|1,500+] (Murray 4000:4|C) (Gottlieb 1000:137) (Becker 160:81) (GCE:7) (CR:45) English chemist, physicist, philosopher, and general polymath; noted for his expansion of gases experimentation; for his 1774 phlogiston as the driving force for chemical reaction theory, said (Woodcock, 2005) to be forerunner to Gibbs energy as driving force; deduced Coulomb’s law (1767) nearly two decades before Coulomb; digressed on “will”, religion, philosophy. upgrade ↑ from 170:#333 to 180|#173 per his general intellectual stature, covering many fields (Apr 2020).
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Heinrich Hertz 75Heinrich Hertz
(1857-1894)

Hertz experiment 2[RGM:151|1,500+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (Gottlieb 1000:453) (Kanowitz 50:24) (SIG:11) (GPE:36) German physicist;

“It's of no use whatsoever. This is just an experiment that proves Maestro Maxwell was right—we just have these mysterious electromagnetic waves that we cannot see with the naked eye. But they are there.”
— Heinrich Hertz (1887), Publication (Ѻ)

noted for his 1886 experimental proof, via detection of radiowaves, of Maxwell's electromagnetic theory, via experimental setup as shown adjacent; first-slating: 180|#185 (Dec 2017).
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Edward Gibbon 75Edward Gibbon
(1737-1794)
 IQ_C \,=180 Rise and fall of Rome (Cattell 1000:60) [RGM:495|1,400+] (Murray 4000:N/A) [HD:12] (FA:76) (GHE:2) (CR:18) English historian; noted for his six-volume The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, peer reviewed by David Hume (1776), wherein he openly criticized organized religion, telling the story of the rise and fall of Roman, without the intervention of god, as was previously the standing historical modus operandi, but instead from the point of view of Rome’s decline as due the “disease of Christianity” spreading through the Roman empire and rotting it.
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Etienne Geoffroy 75Etienne Geoffroy
(1672-1731)

Geoffroy's 1718 affinity table (1000px)
(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,350+] French physician and chemist; noted for his Table Concerning the Different Affinities Observed in Chemistry between Different Substances, wherein, starting with verbal descriptions of reaction powers, as described in Newton’s “Query 31”, he first stated the following affinity law:

“Whenever two substances are united that have a disposition to combine and a third is added that has a greater affinity with one of them, these two will unite, and drive out the other.”

and therein made the world’s first affinity table (adjacent); ushering in the science of affinity chemistry, the forerunner to physical chemistry; first-slating: 180|#170 (Apr 2018).
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Beethoven 75Ludwig Beethoven
(1770-1827)
 IQ_{CB} \,=165
 IQ_C \,=165
 IQ_B \,=165
(Cattell 1000:220) [RGM:17|1,330+] (Murray 4000:1|WM) (MG:1) (RBCC:2|275+) met with Goethe (see: Goethe and Beethoven); Otto Weininger dereacted (died) in the same room he did; upgraded from 170|#309 to 180|#170 (Feb 2018).
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Augustin Fresnel 75Augustin Fresnel
(1788-1827)

wave theory of light(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,330+] (Murray 4000:N/A) French engineer-physicist;

“By the genius of Young and Fresnel the wave theory of light was established in a position so strong that hence forth the corpuscular hypothesis was unable to recruit any adherents among the younger men.”
— Edmund Whittaker (1987), A History of the Theory of Aether and Electricity (Ѻ)

co-founder, with Thomas Young, of the wave theory of light; 2018 missing (Ѻ) GPE candidate; first-slating: 180|#170 (Mar 2018).
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Denis Diderot 75 Denis Diderot
(1713-1784) ↑↑
 IQ_C \,=165 Voltaire and Diderot(Cattell 1000:169) [RGM:448|1,360+] (HD:11) (FA:68) (CR:26) was a French philosopher, art critic, encyclopedist, and "physician" (Mettrie, 1747), aka the "father of the encyclopedia" (Stark, 2006), noted for his views on determinism, atheism, anti-chance, among others; the main editorial driving force between the famous 32-volume Encyclopedie (1751-1772), co-written with Jean d’Alembert; involved in atheism (e.g. against Julien la Mettrie's supposed amorality); involved in the Maupertuis-Diderot debate; noted for his Diderot-Barthelemy dialogue; upgrade ↑ from 170|#304 to 180|#179 (Apr 2018).
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George Shaw 75 newBernard Shaw
(1856-1950)
IQ JP=180 [RGM:N/A|1,330+] (Murray 4000:N/A) [HD:45] (GLE:28) Irish playwright, critic, polemicist, and political activist; an Andrew Robinson (2010) “missing Cox 300” genius (Ѻ); a top 20 Jabari “smartest atheists” (Ѻ); John Platt, in "The Coming Generation of Genius" (1962); first-slating: 180|#172 (c.2017).
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180
Henri Poincare 75 Henri Poincare
(1854-1912)
IQSB=35[RGM:476|1,500+] [LPKE:12] (GME:9) (GPE:63) [CR:76] w French mathematical physicist; known for: Poincare conjecture, relativity, thermodynamics, mathematics; scored so poorly on the Binet IQ, to note, that he was judged an imbecile (IQ:35); first slating: 185-195|#40 (c.2016); down-grade to 180|#180 (Apr 2020).
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180
Soren Kierkegaard 75Soren Kierkegaard
(1813-1855) ↓

[RGM:58|1,260+] (Stokes 100:69) (CR:16); an oft-cited GPE candidate; one of the founders of existentialism, noted for very ripe inside the mind quotes on nature of genius and introspection on existence; downgrades ↓↓ , from position #98 to #160 (May 2017), for the lacking in logic and absurdism promoting “Fear and Trembling” (1843) and “Crowd is Untruth” (1846).
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Melanchthon 75 Philipp Melanchthon
(1497-1560)
 IQ_C \,=190
 IQ_W \,=180
[RGM:241|1,500+] (Cattell 1000:137) (CR:15) German child prodigy, a youngest college graduate, and university head, noted for being the second most important individual behind the Lutheran reformation, behind Martin Luther, via acting as restraint on Luther's more "counterproductive impulses"; knew Johann Faust; downgrade for describing Copernicus’ 1514 heliocentric theory as an “old joke” (see: crackpot), implying that it was a superfluous revival of a frivolous circa 250BC suggestion by Aristarchus.
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Jacques Bossuet 75Jacques Bossuet
(1627-1704)
 IQ_C \,=180
 IQ_W \,=177
His Discourse on Universal History (1681) (Ѻ) is regarded by many as a “second edition” or actualization of Augustine’s City of God (426AD), which had addressed theological puzzles, such as suffering of the righteous, the existence of evil, the conflict between free will and divine omniscience, and the doctrine of original sin. (Ѻ)
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John Locke 75John Locke
(1632-1704)

(Cattell 1000:35) [RGM:108|1,500+] (Murray 4000:7|WP) (Gottlieb 1000:11) (Stokes 100:38) [HD:7] (FA:63) (GPhE:#) (CR:67) English physician and social philosopher; noted for his 1690 Essay Concerning Human Understanding, wherein, he made, supposedly, the first serious attempt to explain the functioning of the mind in purely naturalistic terms, WITHOUT the need for divine intervention in the development of reason;

Bacon, Locke, and Newton are the three greatest men that have ever lived, without any exception.”
Thomas Jefferson (1789), “Letter to John Trubull”

close friends with Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton; oft-classified as dominant materialist alongside Thomas Hobbes; influential to the Lausanne school of physical economics; characterized by Baron d’Holbach as “profound”; upgraded ↑ from 170|#347 to 180|#172 (Feb 2018).
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Charlemagne 75Charlemagne
(c.742-814)

[RGM:176|1,500+] Frankish king; noted for his rulee of much of Western Europe from 768 to 814; classified with Alexander the Great (IQ:180|#138), Napoleon (IQ:180|#106), and Genghis Kahn (IQ:180|#161), by Morris Zucker (1945), in The Philosophy of American History: The Historical Field Theory (pg. 57), the four dominate examples of “purely synthetic creations of individual genius”, in respect to great man theory of history.
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Denis PapinDenis Papin
(1647-1712)

Papin digestor and Papin engine(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (Murray 4000:18|T) (CR:95) French physicist and engineer; his operational Papin digester (1679), which spurred Boerhaave's law and later Antoine Lavoisier and caloric theory, and Papin engine (1690), which seeded the all all later steam engines and Carnot engine, and thereafter thermodynamics, are scientific linchpins, to say the least; first-slating: 180±|#150-250 (2015).
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Athanasius Kircher 75Athanasius Kircher
(1602-1680)

TLMWKE (Athanasius Kircher)[RGM:366|1,500+] (CR:30) German theologian, Egyptologist, physicist, philosopher, and general polymath;

“Nothing is more beautiful than to know all.”
— Athanasius Kircher (c.1670) (Ѻ)

Known as: aka "Incredible German" (Germanus Incredibilis), a fabled last persons to know everything, noted for his 1667 The Nature of the Magnetic Universe: with Psychological Discussions, wherein he outlined a magnetic cosmology, according to which magnetism governed the movements of everything, animate to inanimate, plants, animals, and planets; Goethe, during his researches of optics and other subjects, commented “thus, entirely unexpected, Father Kircher is here again”; was present at the 1641 Gasparo Berti test of the "nature abhors a vacuum" experiment (which he denied); coined the term electromagnetism; one of the first Egyptologists; first slating: 180-195|#41 (c.2015); downgrade ↓ to IQ:185|#85 for denying (1656) the existence of the vacuum in Otto Guericke’s experiments (Feb 2019); down-grade ↓ to: 180|#185 (Apr 2020) per more anti-vacuum argument.
180

18#
Alexander Humboldt 75Alexander Humboldt
(1769-1859) ↓
 IQ_C \,=185 (Cattell 1000:94) [RGM:83|1,310+] (Murray 4000:N/A) Prussian geographer, naturalist, explorer, romantic philosopher, oft-characterized polymath and fabled "last persons to know everything"; younger brother to Wilhelm Humboldt (1767-1835); noted for being one of the first to propose that South America and Africa were both joined; down-graded from 185|#82 to 180|#175 pre reasoning (a) reading of his Cosmos, Volume One, filled with closeted-theistic anthropomorphic descriptions of nature, and (b) no-once cited him anymore (Feb 2018).
180

187
Genghis Kahn 75Genghis Kahn
(c.1162-1227)
 IQ_B \,=180
 IQ_O \,=120-125
Mongol Empire[RGM:313|1,300+] Founder of the Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire (Ѻ) in history; the secret of their power, was said to be their drinking of mare’s milk, which heightened their intellect and warrior power; IQ Quora gauged (Ѻ) at 120-125 (2017); Hmolpedia gauged (Ѻ) as intellectually comparable to: Adolf Hitler (155|#573), Alexander the Great (180|#152), and Napoleon Bonaparte (180|#108), and Charlemagne (179|#180), by Morris Zucker (1945).
180

188
Torquato Tasso 75Torquato Tasso
(1544-1595)
 IQ_C \,=180Voltaire (1728), in commentary on his poetry, coined the term “christian mythology”.
180

189
Victor Hugo 75Victor Hugo
(1802-1885)
 IQ_C \,=180(Cattell 1000:142) [RGM:413|1,320+] (Murray 4000:13|WL) (CR:3) French romantic poet, novelist, and dramatist; his Les Miserables (1862) is ranked as having an “enormous” influence on Leo Tolstoy, in the age range of 35 to 50, in his reading list rankings.
180

190
Francis Edgeworth 75Francis Edgeworth
(1845-1926)

(SN:40|58+) Irish mathematical economist; gauged at 180|#175 (Jun 2016) per repercussion of Virgil IQ:170|#310 inclusion.
180

191
Francois Arago 75Francois Arago
(1786-1853)
 IQ_C \,=180 (Cattell 1000:259) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (Murray 4000:N/A) French physicist and astronomer;

“Such is the privilege of genius; it perceives, it seizes relations where vulgar eyes see only isolated facts.”
— Francois Arago (c.1830), Publication (Ѻ)

Studied the phenomenon of magnetic rotation and the fact that a wire coil could be magnetized by passing electrical current through it; discovered, along with, along with Augustin Fresnel, the principles governing the polarization of light and established the theory of light as a wave; studied the velocity of sound, and made it possible to invent the polariscope. Began the studies of the velocity of light which lead to discoveries by Leon Foucault. (Ѻ)
180

192
Joseph Thomson 75Joseph Thomson
(1856-1940)

Plum pudding model (Thomson, 1904)(RGM:404|1,500+) (Murray 4000:8|P) [Kanowitz 50:33] (GPE:19) (CR:22) English physicist;

“The atoms of the elements consist of a number of negatively electrified corpuscles [see: electron] enclosed in a sphere of uniform positive electrification [see: proton].”
— Joseph Thomson (1904), “On the Structure of the Atom”, Mar

noted for his 1897 paper “On Cathode Rays”, wherein he discussed some of the results his cathode-ray experiments done to test some of the consequences of the so-called “electrified-particle theory”, as he called it, wherein he posited the existence of “negatively electrified particles”, previously dubbed “electrons”, a theory about which, in 1904, using the geometrical pattern results of Alfred Mayer’s 1878 “floating magnets” experiment, he famously posited the so-called “plum pudding” model of the atom, according to which negatively charged particles were embedded within a sea of positive charge; ranked by Time magazine (1923) as the "greatest living physicist" (see: greatest physicist ever); first-draft gauged at position IQ:180|#170 (May 2017)
180

193
Johann Helmont 75Johann Helmont
(1579-1644)

Van Helmont oak tree experiment (1639-1644)(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,360+] (Murray 4000:17|C) (GCE:15) (CR:6) French iatrochemist, physician, and philosopher; noted for his c.1610 “oak tree experiment”, wherein, after growing an oak tree, in a barrel, for 5-years, to a weight of 62 lbs, he burned the tree, and measured 1 lbs of ash remaining, concluding that the 61 lost pounds transformed into “gas”, a term he coined; Leonardo da Vinci, of note, did the same experiment, previously, with a pumpkin; ranked by Boyle (185|#59), along with Aristotle (195|#11), Epicurus (185|#52), Paracelsus (175|#221), Harvey (180|#135), as one of the five main expositors of the “book of nature”; first slating: 180|#185 (Apr 2018).
180

194
Louis de Broglie 75Louis de Broglie
(1892-1987)

[GPE] (CR:21) French physicist; noted for his 1924 proof that any kind of particle, whether atom, electron, photon, or even a bullet or a planet must have associated with it a wave, which is not material, but whose strength tells the probability of its presence first-draft gauged at #175 of top 500 geniuses (May 2017)
180

195
Euripides 75Euripides
(c.480-406BC)
 IQ_B \,=173 (Cattell 1000:99) [RGM:81|1,500+] (FA:10) (ACR:7) (CR:19) Greek philosopher; introduced the term "bios", the etymological root of "bio-" prefix; known for his general "question everything" philosophy, for his view that god was was an invention of a wise man, and for his views on the natural admixture of good and evil.
180

196
Wernher von Braun 75Wernher von Braun
(1912-1977)

Man on moon[RGM:104|1,280+] The person behind the term "aerospace engineer"; in 1925, age 14, read the work of Hermann Oberth (who himself had read, at age 11, the work of Jules Verne [RGM:85|1,280+], specifically his science fiction novel From the Earth to the Moon (Ѻ) and his sequel Around the Moon (1870)), particularly his By Rocketry into Planetary Space, and thereafter began to excel in physics and chemistry, focused on rocketry; in the 1960s, under NASA, Braun served as director of the newly formed Marshall Space Flight Center and as the chief architect of the Saturn V launch vehicle, the superbooster that propelled the Apollo spacecraft to the Moon. In 1969, astronaut Neil Armstrong, on Apollo 11, became the first human to put foot on the moon; an Alex Bickle (Ѻ)(Ѻ) top 500 genius candidate suggestion (Ѻ); first-draft gauged at #150 (Nov 2017).
180

197
Brunelleschi 75Filippo Brunelleschi
(1377-1446)
 IQ_B \,=190 (Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:233|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:85) Italian architect, designer, and engineer.
180

198
Henry Brougham 75Henry Brougham
(1778-1868)
 IQ_C \,=180 (Cattell 1000:194) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:N/A) British statesman; noted for his prominent role in passing the 1832 Reform Act and 1833 Slavery Abolition Act.
180

199
Barthold Niebuhr 75Barthold Niebuhr
(1776-1831)
 IQ_C \,=185 (Cattell 1000:250) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:777) German historian; noted for his 1832 three-volume History of Rome, wherein, building on Goethe’s concept of “tatige’ (skepsis), aka ‘constructive skepticism’, he showed how to analyze the strata in a source, particularly poetical and mythical tradition, and how to discard the worthless and thereby lay bare the material from which the historical facts could be reconstructed (Ѻ); a founding father of historiography.

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Top 1000 geniuses: 1-100 | IQ: 225-180
Top 1000 geniuses: 101-200 | IQ: 180-180
Top 1000 geniuses: 201-300 | IQ: 180-175
Top 1000 geniuses: 301-400 | IQ: 175-170
Top 1000 geniuses: 401-500 | IQ: 170-165
Top 1000 geniuses: 501-600 | IQ: 165-160
Top 1000 geniuses: 601-700 | IQ: 160-150
Top 1000 geniuses: 701-800 | IQ: 150-140
● Top 1000 geniuses: 801-900
● Top 1000 geniuses: 901-1000
Top 1000 geniuses (candidates)

Notes
N1. Note: see "IQ key" page for IQ subscript symbol meaning.

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