Top 1000 geniuses: 201-300

In genius rankings, top 1000 geniuses refers to the greatest five-hundred geniuses of all time ranked by IQ or “relative brightness or intellect” (Cox, 1926); below are the third tier greatest geniuses of all time, numbers 201 to 300.

Geniuses | 201-300
The following are the geniuses "201 to 300" of the top 1000 geniuses (previous: 1-100, 101-200, next: 301-400, 401-500, 501-600, 601-700, 702-800, 801-900, 901-1000): [N1]

Geniuses 201 to 300


Boerhaave 75Herman Boerhaave
 IQ_C \,=165Ball and ring (Boerhaave's law)(Cattell 1000:368) [RGM:N/A|1,360+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (Partington 50:37) (Farber 114:11) (GCE:26) (CR:89) Dutch physician, chemist, and botanist;

Chymistry is the art whereby sensible bodies contained in vessels … are so changed, by means of certain instruments, and principally fire, that their several powers and virtues are thereby discovered, with a view to philosophy or medicine.”
— Herman Boerhaave (c.1724) (Ѻ)

characterized a "great genius" (Mettrie, 1747), notable for his 1724 textbook Elements of Chemistry, sometimes referred to as Traite du feu or “Treatise on fire”, an outgrowth of his lectures at Leiden University, in which he outlined influential theories on heat, fire, and expansion of bodies (see: Boerhaave's law), which is said to mark the start of the modern concept of chemistry; noted for comparing the force of affinity with “love, if love be the desire for marriage” (1732); mentor to Andrew Plummer, whose ideas on attractive and repulsive forces involved in chemical affinity had influence on his successors William Cullen and Joseph Black; and for his 1736 ball and ring experiments with Willem Gravesande (as reported by Voltaire).

Ernst Haeckel 75Ernst Haeckel

Haeckel evolution(Murray 4000:16|B) (FA:74) (GPhE:11) [CR:127] was a German physician, turned Goethe-promoting, Darwin-promoting zoologist;

“The fundamental unit of affinity in the whole of nature, from the simplest chemical process to the most complicated love story, [as] was recognized by Empedocles [and] Goethe, [can be] reduced, on logical analysis, to matter (space filling substance) and energy (moving force), [which] are but two inseparable attributes of one underlying substance.”
— Ernest Haeckel (1899), The Riddle of the Universe

Characterized an "unabashed atheist" (Brix, 1992), noted for his "physico-chemical monism" philosophical conception "of the world" (1892); a rare Goethe and Empedocles scholar; first-slating: 175|#190 (c.2017); upgraded to 180|#198 (Mar 2018).

Francois Fenelon 75Francois Fenelon
 IQ_C \,=180 (Cattell 1000:102) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (Gottlieb 1000:N/A) French Roman Catholic theologian, poet, and writer;

“The god of a Socrates, or of a Fenelon, may be suitable to minds as gentle as theirs; but he cannot be the god of a whole nation, in which it will always be extremely rare to find men of their temper.”
Baron d’Holbach (1770), The System of Nature (pg. 295)

Noted for his Refutation of the System of Malebranche on Nature and Grace (c.1689), wherein he rebuts the theology of Nicolas Malebranche; and for his Adventures of Telemachus (1699), a retake on Telemachus, son of Ulysses, of Homer’s Odyssey, a work that was influential to Jean Rousseau, Charles Montesquieu, Thomas Jefferson, Johann Herder, and Alfred Tennyson.

Joseph Scaliger 75Joseph Scaliger
 IQ_C \,=180(Cattell 1000:461) [RGM:N/A|1,330+] (Murray 4000:N/A) French religious leader and scholar; expanded the notion of classical history from Greek and ancient Roman history to include Persian, Babylonian, Jewish, and ancient Egyptian history.

Mimar Sinan 75Mimar Sinan
 IQ_B \,=180(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:733|1,500+] (Murray 4000:N/A) Turkish architect.

icon 75 (test)Phidias
 IQ_B \,=180(Cattell 1000:402) [RGM:222|1,330+] (Murray 4000:N/A) Greek sculptor; noted for statue of Zeus at Olympia, considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Leon Alberti 75Leon Alberti
 IQ_B \,=180(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,300+] (Murray 4000:N/A) Italian humanist author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher and cryptographer; epitomized the ‘renaissance man’; Da Vinci’s personal library (Ѻ) contains a number of books by Alberti.

Thomas WolseyThomas Wolsey
 IQ_C \,=200(Cattell 1000:390) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:N/A) English churchman, statesman and a cardinal.

Pitt (the Younger) 75 William Pitt (the Younger)
 IQ_C \,=190(Cattell 1000:18) [RGM:N/A|1,300+]

Jean Bailly 75Jean Bailly
 IQ_C \,=180 (Cattell 1000:407) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:N/A) French Astronomer, mathematician, freemason, and political leader of the early part of the French Revolution.



William Clifford 75William Clifford

English mathematician, philosopher, and panpsychist (Skrbina, 2005), a top ten unsung genius (Siegfried, 2014) (Ѻ);

“If a man, holding a belief which he was taught in childhood or persuaded of afterwards, keeps down and pushes away any doubts which arise about it in his mind, purposely avoids the reading of books and the company of men that call in question or discuss it, and regards as impious those questions which cannot easily be asked without disturbing it — the life of that man is one long sin against mankind.”
— William Clifford (1879), “Article” (Ѻ), Contemporary Review

noted for his monism views on “mind-stuff” at the inorganic molecular level; for his unlearn advocation; for his ethics of belief views; and for his proto-views on geometrical gravity; first-slating: 175|#206 (Mar 2018).

Shannon 75Claude Shannon
 IQ_O \,=180 [CR:180] American electrical engineer; noted for his age 21 penned 1937 MS thesis “A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits” (Ѻ) mapped Boolean algebra into circuit language; he later went on to invent information theory; guestimated IQ (2012) of 180± (Ѻ); forum (2017) cited IQ (Ѻ) at 180; down-graded ↓ to 170|#212 (Apr 2020) per the amount of modern-day Shannon bandwagon confusion, per repercussion of his "poor" terminology choice.

Abraham LincolnAbraham Lincoln
 IQ_{CB} \,=160
 IQ_C \,=150
 IQ_B \,=170
 IQ_W \,=147
IQ Simonton c=150
(Cattell 1000:40) [RGM:49|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A) American president [See: American Presidents by IQ];

“Towering genius disdains a beaten path. It seeks regions hitherto unexplored.”
— Abraham Lincoln (1838), Speech, Jan 27 (Ѻ)

noted for his Emancipation Proclamation (1863) which ended slavery and brought a close to the civil war; made decisions using Euclidian logic.

Henry Buckle 75Henry Buckle

Parallelogram of Social Forces Model(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,300+] (Library:21,000) (GHE:2) (CR:34) English social physics themed historian;

“The actions of men are in reality never inconsistent, but however capricious they may appear only form part of one vast system of universal order.”
— Henry Buckle (1861), History of Civilization in England

Focused on solving the question of whether the actions of people operate by (a) fixed laws, (b) chance, or (c) supernatural interference, via physical science means, i.e. strong positivism; his work was praised by Maxwell and Boltzmann; first slating: 175|#198 (c.2017).

Pierre Bayle 75Pierre Bayle
(1647-1706) ↑↑
 IQ_C \,=165 (Cattell 1000:413) [RGM:N/A|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (FA:61) French philosopher and progressive encyclopedist; his Various Thoughts on the Occasion of the Comet, is the “first-ever all-out defense of the morals of an atheist” (Hecht, 2003) (see: atheistic morality); his 3,000-entry Historical and Critical Dictionary, wherein each entry is accompanied by lengthy footnotes, themselves up to 20-pages per note, and these footnotes have footnotes, has been aptly characterized as the "arsenal of the enlightenment".

David Hilbert 75David Hilbert

[RGM:421|1,500+] (Murray 4000:11|M) (GME:12) German mathematician;

Mathematics is a presuppositionless science. To found it I do not need god, as does Kronecker, or the assumption of a special faculty of our understanding attuned to the principle of mathematical induction, as does Poincaré, or the primal intuition of Brouwer, or, finally, as do Russell and Whitehead, axioms of infinity, reducibility, or completeness, which in fact are actual, contentual assumptions that cannot be compensated for by consistency proofs.”
— David Hilbert (c.1920), Die Grundlagen der Mathematik (Ѻ)

considered by some as the “greatest mathematician of the 20th century” (Ѻ); mentor of Emmy Noether, Ernst Zermelo, and Hermann Weyl; a 2013 missing genius IQs candidate (Ѻ); first slating: 175|#216 (Jan 2019).

Hippocrates 75Hippocrates

(Cattell 1000:165) [RGM:27|1,500+] (Murray 4000:2|Med) (FA:17) (CR:43) Greek physician;

“Men think epilepsy divine, merely because they do not understand it. We will one day understand what causes it, and then cease to call it divine. And so it is with everything in the universe.”
— Hippocrates (c.400BC)

His IQ has been Quora intuited (Ѻ) as being in the neighborhood, above, below, or within, of Galen (130-210AD) (IQ:170|#370) (Cattell 1000:443) [RGM:290|1,500+] (Murray 4000:4|Med) (CR:11) and Avicenna (980-1037) (IQ:180|#127) (Cattell 1000:364) [RGM:325|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (MAG:17) (GPhE:20±) (GCE:40±) (CR:13); first-slating: 175|#214 (Dec 2018).

Watt 75James Watt
 IQ_C \,=165 Watt engine (Cattell 1000:225) [RGM:130|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:110) (Murray 4000:1|T) (EP:30) (SIG:8) (CR:97) Scottish instrument maker, natural philosopher, chemist, and engineer;

“James Watt was equally distinguished as a natural philosopher and chemist; his inventions demonstrate his profound knowledge of those sciences, and that peculiar characteristic of genius, the union of them for practical application.”
Humphry Davy (1824), “Address to Royal Society” (Ѻ)(Ѻ)

noted for a number of inventions and design improvements to the functionality of the steam engine, including: separate condenser (1765), the fly-ball governor (1788), the definition of "pony power" (or horse power), all embodied in what came to be known as the Watt engine (adjacent); upgraded ↑ from 170|#325 to 175|#218 per inconsistency in SI unit geniuses rankings, e.g. in respect to Amedeo Avogadro (Feb 2019).

Ralph Emerson 75Ralph Emerson
(1803-1882) ↑↑
 IQ_C \,=155 (Cattell 1000:408) [RGM:286|1,500+] [HD:23] (FA:115) American Goethean philosopher;

GOETHE is the most powerful of all mental reagents—the pivotal mind in modern literature—for all before him are ancients, and all who have read him are modern.”
— Ralph Emerson (1852), commentary on Margaret Fuller

associate of Thomas Carlyle and Margaret Fuller; mentor of Henry Thoreau; in 1836, he proclaimed “make your own Bible” (Ѻ); one of the promulgators of the Goethean calendar; upgrade ↑ from 170|#347 to 170|#292 (Feb 2018); upgrade ↑ from 170|#314 to 175|#215 per discovery of his 1877 moral power is variant of material power theory (Oct 2018).

Francis Crick 75Francis Crick
 IQ_B \,=173DNA[RGM:200|1,500+] (DN:6) (FA:152) (RE:88) (CR:107) English molecular chnopsologist (biologist), neuroscientist, atheism advocate, and anti-vitalism philosopher;

“Let us abandon the word ‘alive’.”
— Francis Crick (1966), Of Molecules and Men

generally famous for his 1953 DNA co-discoverery, with James Watson; in his anti-vitalism debates (1966), he suggested “we should abandon the world alive” (see: abioism); and atheism pro and Bible as mythology advocate.


Ptolemaic system gif(Cattell 1000:80) [RGM:98|1,500+] (Murray 4000:12|CS / 6A) (Eells 100:23) (GAE:3) (CR:45) Greco-Egyptian mathematician and astronomer; in his 130AD Syntaxis Mathematica, he supposedly the first to introduce the zero number; his 150AD Aristotle-based Ptolemaic "geocentric model" (adjacent), was not superseded for some thirteen centuries, namely until Nicolaus Copernicus established the heliocentric model (1543); first-draft slating: 170-175± (c.2016).

Lazare Carnot 75 Lazare Carnot
 IQ_C \,=170 (Eells 100:58) (CR:36) was a French engineer, mathematician, and politician, father of thermodynamics founder Sadi Carnot (and his brother Hippolyte Carnot), who in 1794, working in coordination with French mathematician Gaspard Monge, founded École Polytechnique the hotbed of science in the early 19th century.

Joseph Gay-Lussac 75 Joseph Gay-Lussac
 IQ_C \,=175 (Cattell 1000:248) [RGM:N/A|1,330+] (Murray 4000:8|C) French chemist; Noted for his formulation of Charles law (volume-temperature gas law) (1802), Gay-Lussac’s law (pressure-temperature gas law), both precursors to the ideal gas law, and the law of combining volumes (1808).

Boethius 75Boethius

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (Time 100:23) (Eells 100:96) (CR:10) Roman philosopher, mathematician, and senator; view: “there was an intelligence to the universe, which was once called fate, and now we understand it to be a universal force”; discoursed on the laws of love and the problem of evil; first-slating: 175|#211 (Mar 2018).

Pierre Fermat 75Pierre Fermat

(Cattell 1000:893) [RGM:628|1,500+] (Murray 4000:5|M) (GME:14) (CR:8) French mathematician and lawyer; his so-called “last theorem”, which he scribbled as a note in the margins of one of his writing books, was proved (Ѻ) by Andrew Wiles (1993), himself cited (Ѻ)(Ѻ) at IQ of 170; first slating: 175|#211 (c.2017).

Charles Montesquieu 75Charles Montesquieu
 IQ_C \,=165 (Cattell 1000:308) [RGM:164|1,500+] (SN:46) [HD:8] (CR:57) French political philosopher;

Newton, Bacon, Leibniz, Montesquieu, and myself are the five greatest men I can name.”
Buffon (c.1780), when asked how many great men he could name

noted for his John Locke based The Spirit of the Laws (1748) which influenced James Madison in his penning the separation of powers logic of the US Constitution; first-slating: 175|#200 (c.2017); upgraded from 175|#243 to 175|#220 (Apr 2018).


Earth rotation theoryGreek physicist, astronomer, and philosopher, supposedly a Pythagorean, noted for his earth-as-wheel rotation theory (compare: Heraclides), according to which the earth rotates like a wagon wheel, and that this explains the apparent motion of the stars; posited some type of early atomic theory, wherein he employed a motive force in addition to atoms and void, and declared that monads of Pythagoras were corporeal; first-slating: 175|#225 (Jan 2019).

Wolfgang Pauli 75Wolfgang Pauli

Pauli exclusion principle[RGM:N/A|1,500+] (CR:65) Austrian theoretical physicist; noted for being the first to propose the concept of “spin” (see: Pauli exclusion principle); for proposing (1930) the existence of the neutrino (see: particle); for his 1949 letter to Ralph Kronig on his dream about “Ehrenfest's sermon on the love” and how love can be seen as a force of nature, e.g. in the context of Goethe’s Elective Affinities; and for his 1952 discussion with Werner Heisenberg on the nature of the soul (see: Heisenberg-Pauli dialogue); considered a top 10 physicist (Springer, 2008) (Ѻ); first-slating: 175|#220 (Dec 2019).

Stanley Jevons 75Stanley Jevons

Jevons logic machine (1869)English economist, natural philosopher, and oft-cited polymath;

“There exists much prejudice against attempts to introduce the methods and language of mathematics into any branch of the moral sciences. Most persons appear to hold that the physical sciences form the proper sphere of mathematical method, and that the moral sciences demand some other method, I know not what.”
— Stanley Jevons (1871), Theory of Political Economy (pg. 3)

noted for his theories on utility, for his no origin theory of life ideas, and for his statement of the three moral body problem; in 1869, he built a logic machine (shown) for doing Boolean algebra like truth tables; his Theory of Political Economy (1871), supposedly, employed a physics-based “particle theory” of people and firms in economics (Ѻ); first-slating: 175|#151 (2015).

Xenophanes 75Xenophanes

Horse drawing god(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (FA:4) (EvT:3|21+) (CR:28) Greek philosopher, anti-theist, and evolutionist; disciple of Anaximander (Ѻ) (IQ:180|#120) (FA:2) and also, supposedly, of the lineage of Pythagoras or the Pythagorean school; taught that all organisms originate from earth and mud; observed fossil fishes and shells, and concluded that the land where they were found had been underwater at some time; he taught that the world formed from the condensation of water and ‘primordial mud’, and was the first person known, supposedly, to have used fossils as evidence for a theory of the history of the earth (Ѻ); noted for his famously-quoted religion ridicule that ‘if horses and oxen could draw, their gods would look like horses and oxen’; first-slated: 175|#220 (Feb, 2018).

Edgar Poe 75Edgar Poe
 IQ_O \,=145 [RGM:55|1,330+] [GLA:14] American writer, editor, and literary critic; best-known for his poem “The Raven” (1845) noted for its musicality, stylized language, and supernatural atmosphere, which tells of a talking raven's mysterious visit to a distraught lover, tracing the man's slow fall into madness, as he is lamenting the loss of his love; sitting on a bust of Pallas, the raven seems to further instigate his distress with its constant repetition of the word "Nevermore"; The poem makes use of folk, mythological, religious, and classical references; Yahoo Answers IQ estimated (Ѻ) at 145; his interpolated IQ per GLA position is 170 to 180; his comments on Margaret Fuller (IQ:#|#), madness and intelligence (similar to Aristotle), and true genius, would seem to align him higher ↑
in rankings; position 175|#190 guestimate (Jun 2017).

Richard Wagner 75Richard Wagner
 IQ_C \,=170
 IQ_O \,=175
IQ estimate 175 (Ѻ); a Ranker greatest mind (#77|652) (Ѻ), a Cattell 1000 (#337), a semi-ranked “universal genius” (T.K. Seung, 2006); read Schopenhauer four times in 1853, which switched his mind from Feuerbachian atheism to an Schopenhauerian atheism.

Georges Leclerc 75Buffon
 IQ_C \,=175
In response to how many great men he could name, he replied: “Five: Newton (IQ:220|#2), Bacon (IQ:180|#86), Leibniz (IQ:195|#14), Montesquieu (IQ:175|#221), and myself”, therein self-estimating his own IQ as 193.

Justus Liebig 75 newJustus Liebig
 IQ_C \,=180(Cattell 1000:382) (Murray 4000:11|C) (Partington 50:2) (GCE:4) (CR:37) German chemist; first to publish Robert Mayer’s 1842 controversial mechanical equivalent of heat paper (previously rejected elsewhere); his use of vitalism (Animal Chemistry, 1842), which was quickly attacked by the Helmholtz school, gives him a down grade.

Erasmus Darwin 75Erasmus Darwin

Zoonomia 2(EvT:9|21+) (CR:41) English physician, poet, philosopher, botanist and naturalist, stylized "singular genius" (Thurston, 1878), patriarch of the great "Darwin family", grandfather of naturalist Charles Darwin and great-great grandfather of physicist C.G. Darwin;

“Would it be too bold to imagine, that in the great length of time, since the earth began to exist, perhaps millions of ages before the commencement of the history of mankind, would it be too bold to imagine, that all warm-blooded animals have arisen from one living filament, which the great first cause endued with animality, with the power of acquiring new parts, attended with new propensities, directed by irritations, sensations, volitions, and associations; and thus possessing the faculty of continuing to improve by its own inherent activity, and of delivering down those improvements by generation to its posterity, world without end!”
— Erasmus Darwin (1794), Zoonomia: the Laws of Organic Life (pg. 397)

noted for his 1791 evolution theories, preceding those of Saint-Hilaire (1833) and following those of Goethe (1784), and for his 1794 Zoonomia: the Laws of Organic Life, in which he argued that organic matter may be the matrix of new life; first-slating: 175|#235 (Mar 2020).

Paracelsus 75Paracelsus

(Cattell 1000:553) [RGM:255|1,500+] (Murray 4000:5|M) (Gottlieb 1000:108) (GCE:25) [CR:72] Swiss physician-chemist noted for his early formulations of chemical affinity (Geoffroy's first law of affinity) and for his 1524 combination of Aristotle’s circa 350 BC four element theory with Geber’s circa 790 three principles.

Al-Marri 75Al-Marri
IQ CP c=178 Al-Marri (1944 and 2013) 2(Murray 4000:3|AL) (FA:32) (CR:10) Syrian-born blind philosopher, poet, skeptic, and irreligionist, aka the "Arab Lucretius" (Issa, 2016); ; is oft-compared to the following:

Lucretius (99-55 BC) (IQ:180|#92) [RGM:N/A|1,260+] (Cattell 1000:209)
Lucian (c.120-190AD) (IQ:175|#250) [RGM:N/A|1,250+] (Cattell 1000:387)
John Milton (1608-1674) (IQ:180|#111) [RGM:330|1,250+] (Cattell 1000:16)
Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) (IQ:175|#218) [RGM:51|1,260+] (Cattell 1000:42)

would yield him (Jun 2017) a four-person genius comparison synthesis intelligence of (IQ:178|#164) [RGM:191|1,260+] (Cattell 1000:164); which, rounding down on the safe side of genius ranking guesstimation, yields an first draft IQ of 175 mean position #173 (which falls in the 180 IQ ranges); therefore #206 intuited.

Eratosthenes 75Eratosthenes

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:201|1,350+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (Eells 100:99) Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, music theorist, and chief librarian of the Library of Alexandria; did work on the antipode earth model (Virgil of Salzburg was later condemned to be burned for teaching this); originator of the science of geography, from Egyptian Geb- “earth god” + Greek -graphia “description of” or “to scrape, scratch” (on clay tablets with a stylus) (Ѻ), including the terminology used today; popularly known for his measurement of the circumference of the earth, which was accurate to about 1-16% of modern value (40,000 km); first-slating: 175|#225 (Feb 2008).

Helvetius 75Helvetius
(1775-1771) ↑
 IQ_C \,=160 (Cattell 1000:467) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] French philosopher; approved of by Jean Sales; friend of Voltaire and Denis Diderot (Ѻ), noted for his 1758 On Mind, which espoused atheistic, utilitarian, and egalitarian doctrines; ran one of the biggest intellectual salons in France; when the anonymous The System of Nature (1770) appeared, secretly written by Baron d’Holbach, people attributed it either Honore Mirabeau or Helvetius.

George Boole 75 (right) George Boole

[RGM:424|1,280+] [GME:77] was English mathematician, educator, philosopher and logician; born to a poor cobbler who self-taught himself mathematics, by studying Newton, among others; invented Boolean algebra, the basis of computer logic, with the publication of his 1847 Mathematical Analysis of Logic; his 1854 book The Laws of Thought, one of the first books in human mathematics, showed how to reduce human reasoning (logic) to a symbolic form resembling ordinary numerical algebra; was a college professor in mathematics by age thirty-four (despite holding no university degree); published a treatise on differential equations (1859).

Walther Nernst 75Walther Nernst

(Odueny 100:65) (Cropper 30:7/T) (CR:120) German physical chemist; main curator behind the third law of thermodynamics; first-slating: 175|#231 (Nov 2018).

Thomas Browne 75Thomas Browne
Library: 2,000+

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (CR:4) English physician, philosopher, encyclopedist; coiner of the term electricity; first slating: 175|#222 (Jan 2018).

Evangelista Torricelli 75Evangelista Torricelli

Torricellian vacuum[Kanowitz 50:46] (GPE:89) (Eells 100:85) (CR:46) Italian physicist and mathematician;

“To us Torricelli's incredible genius seems almost miraculous.”
Marin Mersenne (c.1647) (Ѻ)

noted for his 1643 investigation of the pump problem, suggested to him by his mentor Italian physicist Galileo Galilei, wherein he invented the world’s first barometer, therein proved that atmospheric pressure exists, and experimentally demonstrated the vacuum (see: Torricelli vacuum); this later put the idea into the head of Blaise Pascal (1648) to climb a mountain with the barometer, to see if it's height went down as one climbed, which he had someone do, therein proving that atmospheric pressure decreases with height; first-slating: 175|#241 (Jan 2019).

Cullen 75William Cullen

Chemical reaction diagram (history) 2(GCE:18) (CR:69) Scottish physician and chemist; noted as the inventor of the chemical reaction diagram (1757), aka chemical equation (see: history of chemical equations), via his use of the bonding bracket ‘{’, to signify a chemical bond, and affinity dart or reaction arrow ‘→’ to signify the force of attraction or of chemical affinity, done in his chemistry lectures to illustrated to student the nature of the affinity table, as devised by Etienne Geoffroy (1718), as based on Newton's Query 31; student of the works of Herman Boerhaave and Georg Stahl; mentor to Joseph Black; first-slating: 175|#241 (Nov 2019).

Gravesande 75Willem Gravesande

ball and clay experiment (labeled)(GPE:97) (CR:31) Dutch physicist, experimenter, mathematician, lawyer and philosopher;

Gravesande is to be ranged among the most important expounders of Newtonian physics in Europe.”
— Andrea Strazzoni (2013), Dutch Cartesianism and the Birth of Philosophy of Science (pg. 174)

noted for his circa 1718 brass ball clay surface experiments, data from which, showing that the moving ball has an energy of E = mv², rather than E = mv, as many argued, was used to resolve the vis viva controversy; did 1736 ball and ring experiments with Herman Boerhaave (as reported by Voltaire). ; first-draft slotted at #125 (Jun 2017); down-grade ↓to 175|#245 (Apr 2020).

Eliot 75George Eliot
 IQ_B \,=185
 IQ_O \,=160
[RGM:212|1,500+] (GFG:4) (SWE:3) (CR:34) English realism philosopher and novelist; noted, in human chemistry, for her 1872 novel Middlemarch, described by those including Martin Amis and Julian Barnes as the “greatest novel” in the English language, a novel based on Johann Goethe’s 1809 physical chemistry based novella Elective Affinities (Die Wahlverwandtschaften); first-slating: 180|#108 (c.2016).

Alfred Wallace 75 Alfred Wallace

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:449|1,330+] (Murray 4000:N/A) English naturalist; noted for his “On the Law which has Regulated the Introduction of New Species”, outlined a theory of evolution according to which organisms have resulted from long and uninterrupted series of changes; this prompted Darwin to publish his On the Origin of Species; first-slating: 175|#230 (Mar 2018).

John Witherspoon 75John Witherspoon

Political mechanics s(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (CR:12) Scottish-born American political philosopher, a signatory of the Declaration of Independence (1776), 6th president of Princeton University; noted for having “taught” James Madison (IQ:180|#150), in 1769, a primitive form of “social physics” at Princeton, based on the Newtonian-based political philosophy work of Charles Montesquieu; in 1771 he bought an orrery, such as shown adjacent, for Princeton University, some logic of which, e.g. separation of powers, went into Madison's formulation of the US constitution; first-slating: 175|#225 (Feb 2018).

Ludwig Wittgenstein 75Ludwig Wittgenstein
 IQ_O \,=190
IQ EM=170
Wittgenstein icon[RGM:219|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:634) (Stokes 100:78) (CR:38) Austrian-British philosopher; noted for comments on Schopenhauer’s “elective affinity will” or “will to power” (attacking one’s fears); his two biggest works are Philosophical Investigations and Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, which according to some “show more raw intellect than anything Shakespeare has written”; downgrade for having so many “god-this” and “god-that” quotes attributed to him; some have ranked him above Bertrand Russell.

Johann Herder 75Johann Herder
 IQ_C \,=165 (Cattell 1000:264) (CR:37) German philosopher; noted for his evolution theory of language; he was the person to whom Goethe wrote in 1784 that he had found morphological evidence of human evolution (discovered the human intermaxillary bone), of humans and lower animals being related; a date which marks the start of evolution theory, according to Darwin.

Alessandro Volta 75Alessandro Volta

Voltaic pile(Cattell 1000:684) [RGM:140|1,500+] (SIG:13) (CR:18) Italian physicist;

“What is possible to do well, in physics in particular, are those things that can be reduced to degrees and measures.”
— Alessandro Volta (c.1800) (Ѻ)

noted for his famous 1776 “animal electricity” debated with his friend Luigi Galvani on the topic of the mechanism of the twitching of dead frog legs in an electric circuit, in respect to what separates a “living thing” from a “dead thing”, moved by purely electro-physico-chemical means; which resulted in Volta inventing the battery, or “Voltaic pile”, in 1800, so to prove Galvani wrong about his animal electricity theory; first-slated 175±|#156 (c.2015).

Guillaume Amontons 75Guillaume Amontons

(GPE:55) (CR:14) French physicist and engineer;

“It appears that the ‘extreme cold’ [absolute zero] of this thermometer is that which would reduce the air by its ‘spring’, to sustain no load at all.”
— Guillaume Amontons (1703), Publication

Noted, after becoming deaf at an early age, for his constant-volume air thermometer, which he made building on the work of building on Galileo, Robert Boyle, and Edme Mariotte, wherein he gave one of the first verbal formulations of the ideal gas law, and more importantly, argued that there was a zero point of temperature characterized by the absence of heat, which he calculated to be −239.5° C (or 33.65° K), the modern values being: −273.15° C (or 0° K); first-slating: 175|#250 generally per GPE ranking and “sense” of things (Apr 2020).

James Thomson 75James Thomson

First-draft guesstimated (Jul 2017) at ten IQ points lower than his brother William Thomson (IQ:185|#56).

Ernst Mach 75Ernst Mach

Turning tendencies(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:198|1,350+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (CR:16) Austrian physicist and philosopher; popularly known for his 1885 work on supersonic speed; he rejected the existence of god, as well as Isaac Newton’s concept of absolute time and space; he argued that no statement in science is admissible unless it is empirically verifiable, which led him to reject atomic theory, which put him in the energetics school which did battle with Boltzmann and Planck (Mach lost); Einstein (1930) said that Mach’s ideas should be considered the precursor of the general theory of relativity; first to document turning tendencies (pictured) in human movement; first slating: 175|#235 (Mar 2018).

Herodotus 75Herodotus

(Cattell 1000:202) [RGM:171|1,500+] (GHE:4) (ACR:28) [CR:81] Greek historian; noted for his 435BC Histories, wherein he discusses the Egyptian origin of Greek religio-mythologies, e.g. phoenix; first draft at 175|#210 (Jul 2017).

Tommaso Campanella 75 Tommaso Campanella
 IQ_C \,=185 (Cattell 1000:446) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:N/A) Italian philosopher, theologian, astrologer, and poet; By age 13, had master all the Latin master presented to him; between ages 17 to 26, he read and compared the works of leading philosophers and checked their results by evidences of nature; in 1590, age 22, disenchanted with Aristotelian orthodoxy, penned Philosophy Demonstrated by the Senses, wherein, he defended the matter and force theories of Bernardino Telesio (1509-1588) (Ѻ); defended Galileo during his inquisition; down-graded from 180|#152 to 175|#250 (Nov 2019).

Jean Champollion 75Jean Champollion

Rosetta stoneThe main translator of the Rosetta stone, following Thomas Young; an Andrew Robinson (2010) “missing Cox 300” genius (Ѻ).

Geber 75Geber

Three principles[RGM:630|1,500+] (CR:20) Arabian chemist, noted for his ‘three principles’ theory of generalized chemical properties, one of which, sulphur representative of combustion, was a precursor to the formulation of entropy; first-slating: IQ:175 (c.2017).

Mendeleyev 75 newDmitri Mendeleyev

Mendeleyev (periodic table sketch) (Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,350+] (Murray 4000:16|C) (GCE:20) (CR:34) Russian chemist;

“We could live at the present day without a Plato, but a double number of Newtons is required to discover the secrets of nature, and to bring life into harmony with the laws of nature.”
— Dmitri Mendeleyev (c.1880) (Ѻ)

main formulator of the periodic table (1869); an Andrew Robinson (2010) “missing Cox IQ 300” genius (Ѻ);first-slating: 175|#213 (c.2017).

Edmond Halley 75Edmond Halley

(Cattell 1000:594) [RGM:425|1,350+] (Murray 4000:8|A) (Eells 100:92) (CR:10) English physicist and astronomer; noted for the prediction of Halley’s comet, for solved the riddle of accurate navigation for all sea-going vessels; for having produced a primitive form of social physics (1693); and for spurring Newton into writing his Principia; first-slating: 175|#241 (Mar 2018).

Averroes 75Averroes
 IQ_B \,=175(Cattell 1000:347) [RGM:503|1,500+] (FA:38) (CR:16) Andalusian polymath, Aristotle commentator, and middle ages genius; his work on atheism was influential to those including: Siger of Brabant, Lucilio Vanini, and Salman Rushdie; he is associated with the “three impostors” hypothesis.

icon 75 (test)Theodorus

Atheism (symbol)(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] (FA:19) The world’s “first atheist” (Cicero, 45BC); penned On the Gods, which is where Epicurus, as some say, borrowed most of what he wrote on the subject (Laertius, c.225); first draft-gauged at #225 (Dec 2017).

icon 75 (test)George Gore

(SN:42) First-draft seemingly under-gauged at 175|#250 (Nov 2018) based on about 5-6 hours of reading, research, and writing on his 1880 to 1906 publications on “materialist morality”, which is incredibly sharp, for a new find.

Adolphe Quetelet 75Adolphe Quetelet

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] (SN:25) His social physics work, building on the social mathematics of Marquis Condorcet (IQ:180|#149) (Cattell 1000:288), inspired the proposed Nightingale Chair of Social Physics; first-draft gauged at #225 (Dec 2017).

John Adams 75John Adams
 IQ_C \,=155
IQ Simonton c=155
[RGM:188|1,250+] (HD:14) (Cattell 1000:182) (founding father:3) (American President:2) was an American politician and thinker; patriarch of the so-called Adams family (or Adams political family): his son, John Quincy Adams, was 6th president, and his great grandson was Henry Adams, the leading social Newton, behind Goethe.

Imhotep 75 Imhotep
 IQ_O \,=170-200
IQ SS=150, 170, 190
Egyptian polymath, first architect, engineer, and physician in early history, who served under third dynasty king Djoser (Zoser) as chancellor to the pharaoh and high priest of the sun god Ra at Heliopolis, architect of the world’s first pyramid, the Step Pyramid at Saqqara; a possible main theorist behind the current world dominating Anunian theologies.

Thomas More 75Thomas More
(1478-1535) ↑↑
 IQ_C \,=155 (Cattell 1000:106) (RGM:772|1,500+) (Gottlieb 1000:345) (Becker 139:115) Stokes 100:28) (GPhE:39) (CR:13) English lawyer and social philosopher; noted for his 1516 Utopia, a name that means “no-place” in Greek, an imaginary island, wherein its inhabitants were allowed to pursue pleasure, in the Epicurean "pleasure principle" atomic theory sense of the matter, so long as they don’t deny the existence of divine providence, i.e. think that chance rules the universe, or deny the afterlife, i.e. think that the soul dies with the body; close correspondent of Desiderius Erasmus; upgraded ↑ from 155|#488 to #175|#240 (Feb 2018).

William Shockley 75William Shockley
 IQ_O \,=125-129Transistor[RGM:N/A|1,350+] (Murray 4000:N/A) American physicist and electrical engineer, aka the “visionary”; noted for being the Bell Labs research group manager of John Bardeen, aka the “thinker”, and Walter Brattain, aka the “tinkerer”, who together invented the “transistor” (1947) pictured; at age 8 he scored IQ:125 on the Stanford-Binet and 129 at age 9; these early IQ scores frustrated him, and he would later frequently joke about how he could win a Nobel Prize in physics, but not qualify for Terman’s gifted study; see: Broken Genius: the Rise and Fall of William Shockley, Creator of the Electronic Age (2008); first-slating: 150-175|#248 (c.2016).

Wilhelm Humboldt 75Wilhelm Humboldt
 IQ_C \,=175 In 1797, in Jena, with his brother Alexander Humboldt, Friedrich Schiller, and Johann Goethe, the four discussed, in Goethe's own words, “all of nature from the perspectives of philosophy and science”.

Hipparchus 75Hipparchus

Hipparchus(Cattell 1000:781) [RGM:637|1,330+] (Murray 4000:10|A) (GAE:8) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician;

Hipparchus was a lover of truth (phila-lēthēs).”
Ptolemy (c.150), Publication (Ѻ)

founder of trigonometry; famous for his incidental discovery of precession of the equinoxes; first-slating: 175|#250 (Mar 2018).

Godfrey Higgins 75Godfrey Higgins

(RMS:49|155+) (CR:23) English lawyer, religious historian, and mythologist;

“I came to a resolution to devote six hours a day to this pursuit for ten years. Instead of six hours daily for ten years, I believe I have, upon the average, applied myself to it for nearly ten hours daily for almost twenty years. In the first ten years of my search I may fairly say, I found nothing which I sought for; in the latter part of the twenty, the quantity of matter has so crowded in upon me, that I scarcely know how to dispose of it.”
— Godfrey Higgins (c.1830), Publication (Ѻ)

First-slating: IQ:175|3268 (Apr 2020).

Gustav Kirchhoff 75Gustav Kirchhoff

Kirchhoff with spectroscope(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,350+] (Murray 4000:11|P) (CR:34) German physicist; noted for calling the energy (or internal energy) of the body by the name “function of activity” (wirkungsfunction), as cited by Clausius in his formulation of the first law; he used spectroscopy, previously developed in joint effort with Robert Bunsen, to explain the dark lines seen in the spectrum of the sun, from which he determined the chemical composition of the sun, therein ushered in a new era of spectrum analysis in astronomy (photo: Kirchhoff with his spectroscope); Max Planck's 1900 reformulation of his equations on black body radiation started the quantum revolution; also noted for fundamental work in understanding electrical circuits; first slating 175|#250 (Apr 2018).

Pitirim Sorokin 75Pitirim Sorokin

Mechanistic school (1928)(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,350+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (Scott 50:38) Russian-born American sociologist; founder of Harvard Sociology Department; noted for his all-out well-honed closet theism attack on the historical views of what he calls the "mechanistic school of social thermodynamics" AND for his attack on contemporary formulations, such as found in his battle with Lawrence Henderson and the Harvard Pareto circle; first-slating: 175|#250 (Mar 2018).

Lucilio Vanini 75 Lucilio Vanini

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (FA:57) (Re:34) (EvT:7|21+) (CR:28) Italian lawyer, philosopher, and free-thinker, characterized a “genius burned at the stake” (Gross, 2009) (Ѻ); noted for his Of the Marvelous Secrets of the Queen and Goddess of the Mortal Ones, Nature, building on Pietro Pomponazzi and Gerolamo Cardano, outlined doubts on every aspect of Christianity, and posits some type of evolution model where Africans evolved from apes; had, supposedly, some type of “the greatest perfection is imperfection” model of perfectionism (Ѻ), supposedly, derived from Joseph Scaliger, and in turn Empedocles; had his tongue ripped out and was burned at the stake for the crime of atheism; down-grade ↓ for recanting and admitting belief in the trinity before he was burned; first slating: 175|#250 (Feb 2018).

Danti 75Dante Alighieri
 IQ_B \,=175 (Cattell 1000:42) [RGM:53|1,310+] Italian poet noted for his c.1310 Divine Comedy, wherein he tells the story of how he and Latin poet Virgil travel through the nine circles of hell towards, the ninth of which is frozen and at the center of the earth, where Satan resides, the location to which all heavy sinful matter is attracted; a logic based on an Aristotelian universe conception of things, where fire, being the lightest of the four elements, rises to the outer circles of the earth, in geocentric terms

Srinivasan Ramanujan 75 Srinivasa Ramanujan
IQ CP c=199 [RGM:393|1,260+] Indian auto-taught mathematics prodigy and autodidact;

“An equation for me has no meaning unless it expresses a thought of god.”
— Srinivasa Ramanujan (c.1910) (Ѻ)

who, with almost no formal training in pure mathematics, made extraordinary contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series and continued fractions; G.H. Hardy ranking of him in the same league as Gauss, Euler, Cauchy, Newton, and Archimedes, yields mean comparison to person IQ of 199; god-babble downgraded ↓ from 180|#114 to 175|#251 (Feb 2018).

Person icon 75Aristarchus

(Cattell 1000:N/A) (RGM:172|1,310+) was a Greek astronomer noted for being the first person to popularization of heliocentrism, a view which he adopted from Pythagoras; arguing that the earth rotates on its axis, that the earth orbits the sun, and devised methods for estimating relative distances of sun and moon from earth; first-draft gauged at #230 (Nov 2017).

Hans Orsted 75Hans Orsted
 IQ_C \,=180 electromagnatism(Cattell 1000:523) [Kanowitz 50:40] (GPE:73) (CR:11) Danish physicist, chemist, and natural philosopher; noted for his 1820 discovery that when a compass is brought near a current-carrying wire, that the needle deflects, i.e. he discovered that electric currents create magnetic field, aka aka “Orsted law” (Ѻ), later shown to operate according to the “right-hand rule” (Ampere, c.1831); mentor to Ludwig Colding; supposedly shaped post-Kantian philosophy; downgrade ↓ from 180|#165 to 175|# per Buchner ridicule of his “eternal intelligence” (aka god) theory, and generally for reason that his discovery, while notable, is not as profound as followup work, e.g. Ampere, Maxwell, Faraday, etc., based this simple discovery (Feb 2019).

Nicolas Malebranche 75Nicolas Malebranche
(1638-1715) ↓
 IQ_C \,=180 (Cattell 1000:295) [RGM:N/A|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A) French natural philosopher; in 1664, a chance reading René Descartes' Traité del l'Homme, moved him so deeply that (it is said) he was repeatedly compelled by palpitations of the heart to lay aside his reading; and was from that hour consecrated to Cartesian philosophy; was inspirational in the development of physiocracy.

“Those who wish to form an idea of the shackles imposed by theology on the genius of philosophers born under the ‘Christian dispensation’, let them read the metaphysical romances of Leibniz, Descartes, Malebranche, Cudworth, etc., and coolly examine the ingenious but rhapsodically systems entitled: the pre-established harmony of occasional causes; physical pre-motion, etc.”
Denis Diderot (1770), note to Baron d’Holbach’s The System of Nature (pgs. 51-52)

Downgrade from 180|#121 to 175|#245 per Diderot quote (Jan 2018).

Alhazen 75Alhazen

[RGM:616|1,500+] (GME:58) (CR:10) Arabic polymath;

“The seeker after the truth is not one who studies the writings of the ancients and, following his natural disposition, puts his trust in them, but rather the one who suspects his faith in them and questions what he gathers from them, the one who submits to argument and demonstration, and not to the sayings of a human being whose nature is fraught with all kinds of imperfection and deficiency. Thus the duty of the man who investigates the writings of scientists, if learning the truth is his goal, is to make himself an enemy of all that he reads, and, applying his mind to the core and margins of its content, attack it from every side. He should also suspect himself as he performs his critical examination of it, so that he may avoid falling into either prejudice or leniency.”
— Alhazen (c.1020) (Ѻ)

Noted for work in astronomy and optics, and for his semi “scientific method” like experimental work on light; first-slating: IQ:175 (c.2017).

Homer 75Homer
[Note: possibly not real person]
 IQ_B \,=175 (Cattell 1000:13) (RGM:37|1,500+) (Hart 100:88) (ACR:2) [CR:51] Greek writer, a universal genius claimant, the purported author of the Iliad, focused on a quarrel between king Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles, and the Odyssey, focused on journey of Odysseus, king of Ithaca, after the fall of Troy.

Samuel Coleridge 75Samuel Coleridge
 IQ_C \,=175 (Cattell 1000:283) [RGM:427|1,310+] Noted for his involvement in the 1833 Whewell-Coleridge debate, with English science historian William Whewell, revolving around the question of what exactly someone who works ‘in the real sciences’, as Coleridge had phrased it, should be called, and what exactly are the real sciences, in the context of the tree of knowledge; a result of which the term "scientist" was coined.

Robert Bunsen 75Robert Bunsen
 IQ_C \,=175 Bunsen Burner(Cattell 1000:266) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (Murray 4000:20|C) (CR:25) German chemist;

“I am made from the C-H-N-O-S-P combination from which a Bunsen, Helmholtz, Kirchhoff came.”
Wilhelm Ostwald (1926), Lifelines: an Autobiography

semi-ranked as a greatest chemist ever; eponym of the Bunsen burner, noted for being the mentor of a number of thinkers, including: August Horstmann, Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes, and Sofia Kovalevskaya, famous or his 1860 flame spectrum element prediction analysis work together with Gustav Kirchhoff.

Adrien Legendre 75Adrien Legendre

(Murray 4000:16|M) (GME:21) (Eells 100:11) (CR:3) known for the Legendre transform (or Legendre transformation), in which one specific variable of a state function equation can be converted into a more convenient form; established the modern notation for the partial differential; first-draft gauged at 175|#235 (Nov 2017).

Robert Taylor 75Robert Taylor

The Devil's Pulpit(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,350+] (RMS:39) (FA:106) (EPD product) English surgeon, radical clergyman (dubbed the "devil's chaplain"), free thinker (or “infidel missionary”, as he characterized himself), a product of the genius hiatus effect (three years in prison);

Bind it about thy neck, write it upon the tablet of thy heart: ‘everything of Christianity is of Egyptian origin’.”
— Robert Taylor (1829), Oakham Gaol; cited by Gerald Massey (1883) in Natural Genesis, Volume One (pg. iv)

“It is easy to trace almost all the Grecian fables and mythologies from Egypt.”
— Robert Taylor (1829), The Diegesis (pg. 180)

ranked, by Dorothy Murdock (2014), with Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine as having initiated “our great age of enlightenment” (Ѻ); noted for his 1829 The Diegesis: a Discovery of the Origin, Evidences, and Early History of Christianity, written in his prison cell, wherein, on the basis of comparative mythology, he attacked Christianity and attempting to expound it as a scheme of solar myths; while attending one of his lectures, a young Charles Darwin was shaken in his boots by watching the backlash from his pronouncements, and therein learned to caution his later theories; first-slating: 175|# (Apr 2018).

Frederick Sanger 75Frederick Sanger

Nobel Prize iconNobel Prize icon[DNP]; Nobel Prize in chemistry (1958) for the structure of the insulin molecule; Nobel Prize in chemistry for virus nucleotide sequencing; quote: “I and my colleagues have been engaged in the pursuit of knowledge.”

Frederick IIFrederick II

(Cattell 1000:204) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] (FA:34) Italian-born German king who became the head of the Holy Roman Empire during its greatest territorial extent; purportedly originated of the Treatise on the Three Impostors (see: three impostors theory); conducted human experiments to test the truths of various religious models, e.g. that Adam and Eve were the first two humans (language deprivation experiments) and soul detection experiments; first-slating: 175|#250 (Mar 2018).

Thomas Macaulay
 IQ_C \,=175
 IQ_W \,=180


Lucian 75Lucian

(Cattell 1000:387) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (FA:28) Roman satirist, skeptic, Epicurean admirer, Greek scholar, retrospectively classified atheist; one of the first secular (real) person’s to label and ridicule Christianity as an actual sect (see: silent historians problem); first-draft slating: 175|#250 (Jan 2018).

Simon Stevin 75Simon Stevin

Decimal table(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (GME:#) (CR:6) Dutch mathematician, engineer, and polymath;

“Speaking freely of the great use of this invention; I call it great, being greater then any of you expect to come from me. Seeing then that the matter of this Disme (the cause of the name whereof shall be declared by the first definition following) is number, the use and effects of which your selves shall sufficiently witness by your continual experiences. In these numbers we use no fractions.”
— Simon Stevin (1585), Disme or De Thinde (The Dime), The Arts of Tenths or Decimal Arithmetike (Ѻ)

Noted for his The Dime (1585), the first printed treatise on decimal fractions, e.g. see adjacent image (Ѻ) of his decimal table, and the notation was instrumental in the development that followed, e.g. Thomas Jefferson adopted it of the US currency; his Statics and Hydrostatics (1586), wherein he is said to have given the first complete statement of the impossibility of perpetual motion, and also derived the notion of the vectorial decomposition of forces, according to which force that must be exerted along the line of greatest slope to support a given weight on an inclined plane; gave one of the first accurate calculations of the earth (Guericke, 1663); his fluid mechanics work, is said to precursored the later work of Blaise Pascal; first-slating: 175|#282 (Feb 2019).

Margaret Fuller 75Margaret Fuller

(GFG:4) American forced prodigy turned journalist, editor, critic, women’s rights advocate, and transcendentalism and Goethean philosopher;

“Romantic attractions result from unalterable chemical affinities and should be obeyed regardless of marital ties.”
— Margaret Fuller (c.1835), paraphrase of her view, by Megan Marshall, following her 1832 reading of Goethe’s Elective Affinities

“I now know all the people worth knowing in America, and I find no intellect comparable to my own.”
— Margaret Fuller (c.1840), publication (Ѻ)

Praised by Edgar Poe and Ralph Emerson as being an intellect among intellects.

Haller 75 Albrecht Haller
 IQ_C \,=190(Cattell 1000:253) (Simmons 100:42) (CR:5) Promoted vitalism and calculated, rather humorously, that god put 200 billion germs of men into the ovary of Eve 6,000 years ago.

Lope de Vega
 IQ_C \,=175 (Cattell 1000:232) [RGM:241|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:551) Spanish playwright, poet, novelist and marine; reputation in the world of Spanish literature is second only to that of Cervantes.

Petrarch 75Petrarch

(Cattell 1000:52) [RGM:150|1,310+] Italian scholar, poet, and philosopher; regarded by humanists as their first master; his discoveries of the lost works of Cicero were said to have initiated the Italian renaissance; quote: Written in the land of the living; on the right bank of the Adige, in Verona, in the year of that god whom you never knew the 1345th” (compare: Goethean calendar); first-draft gauged at #240 (Dec, 2017).

Lord BolingbrokeLord Bolingbroke

(Cattell 1000:115) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (FA:65) (CR:9) English politician, government official, political philosopher, an unlearn expositor, and religio-mythology scholar; noted as early Bible debunking scholar; Voltaire, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and James Madison praise him, e.g. Adams claimed to have read all of his works five times; first-slating at [IQ:175|#240] based on the fact that he is an unlearn expositor (mean IQ:188; mean RGM:115) (c.2018).

Amedeo Avogadro 75Amedeo Avogadro

Mol (labeled)(GCE:21) (CR:11) Italian physical chemist;

“The invariable number N is a universal constant, which may appropriately be designated Avogadro’s constant.”
Jean Perrin (1909), “Brownian Motion and Molecular Reality”

noted for his 1811 hypothesis, based on the earlier work of Joseph Gay-Lussac (1809), that equal volumes of all gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure, have the same number of molecules; in 1858, two years after his dereaction (death), Stanislao Cannizzaro (1826-1910) showed how the use of Avogadro's number could solve many of the problems in chemistry (Ѻ); in 1909, Jean Perrin calculate the “mol” to be 7.05x10E23 (modern value: 6.022x10E23); First-slating: 175|#285, generally gauged near Dmitri Mendeleyev (see: GCE rankings), the Cox IQ estimate of Joseph Gay-Lussac, and general SI unit geniuses rankings (Feb 2019).

Louis Agassiz
 IQ_C \,=175 (Cattell 1000:388) [RGM:N/A|1,330+] (Murray 4000:8|ES) Swiss-born American naturalist, geologist, and teacher who made revolutionary contributions to the study of natural science with landmark work on glacier activity; downgrade quote: “The glacier was god's great plough set at work ages ago to grind, furrow, and knead over, as it were, the surface of the earth”; upgrade quotes: “I cannot afford to waste my time making money” and “Facts are stupid until brought into connection with some general law.”

Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes 75Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes

Discoverer of superconductivity; coiner of “enthalpy”, one of the chiefs of the physical laboratory of the famous Leiden University school; first-draft intuited at #230 genius level, give or take (Oct 2017).

Marie Bichat
 IQ_C \,=175 (Cattell 1000:397) [RGM:N/A|1,330+] (Murray 4000:N/A) French anatomist and pathologist; known as the father of histology.

Luigi Galvani 75Luigi Galvani

Galvini frog legs(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:318|1,350+] (Murray 4000:N/A) Italian physician-physicist noted for his circa 1771 discovery of the phenomenon of animal reanimation—via electricity, spark or electrochemical circuit contact—of severed frog legs, eponym of Galvanism; in 1803, Giovanni Aldini, his nephew, reanimated a human corpse, hung for murder, getting him to sit up and open his eye; these were the experiments behind Mary Shelley's 1817 Frankenstein; first slating: 175|#270 (Mar 2018).

Gerolamo CardanoGerolamo Cardano
 IQ_C \,=175 (Murray 4000:14|M) (GME:13) (Eells 100:10) (CR:8), aka “Cardan” or "Cardanus", was an Italian mathematician, physician, chnoposologist (biologist), physicist, chemist, astronomer, philosopher, gambler, an “accused atheist” (Lessing, c.1755) (Ѻ)(Ѻ), and generally classified polymath, characterized a “tormented towering renaissance figure” (Ѻ); influential to Lucilio Vanini (1616).

Polybius 75Polybius

(Cattell 1000:289) [RGM:N/A|1,350+] (Murray 4000:N/A) was a Greek historian and cryptographer;

Polybius is one of the few great minds that the turbid human species has managed to produce. Damage to his Histories is without question one of the gravest losses that we have suffered in our Greco-Roman heritage.”
Jose Ortega (c.1940), Meditations On Hunting

Influential to: Diodorus, Livy, Cicero, Plutarch, Arrian, Niccolo Machiavelli, Jacques Thou, Paolo Sharpi, Charles Montesquieu, John Adams, Louis L’Amour, to name a few; first-slating: 175|#280 (Mar 2018).

Robert MillikanRobert Millikan

Oil drop experiment[RGM:N/A|1,330+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (Kanowitz 50:29) (CR:8) American physicist, known for his 1910 oil drop experiment (Ѻ), conducted with Harvey Fletcher, wherein they calculated the charge on a single electron (1.6 × 10E-19 C); for his 1914 work on proving Einstein’s 1905 photoelectric effect correct; downgrade for his 1928 cosmic ray anti-entropy heat death religious theory; first-slating: 175|#271 (Mar 2018).

Marcus Varro 75Marcus Varro

(Cattell 1000:427) (RGM:N/A|1,310+) ranked by Montaigne as being as knowledgeable about “things” as Aristotle; his 41-volume Antiquities of Human and Divine Affairs was praised by Cicero as follows: “Your books led us home, when we were wandering like strangers in our own city. You have revealed to us the names, types, duties and origins of all things divine as well as human”; his AUC dating system was how Roman empire dated years until it was switched to AD/BC during the reign of Charlemagne (c.800AD); quote: “The poets, through the conjunction of fire and moisture, are indicating that the vis, ‘force’, which they have is that of Venus [Aphrodite]. Those born of vis have what is called vita, ‘life’, and that is what is meant by Lucilius [c.120BC] when he says: ‘life is force you see: to do everything force doth compel us’.” First-drafted gauged at #250 (Dec 2017).


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Top 1000 geniuses: 1-100 | IQ: 225-180
Top 1000 geniuses: 101-200 | IQ: 180-180
Top 1000 geniuses: 201-300 | IQ: 180-175
Top 1000 geniuses: 301-400 | IQ: 175-170
Top 1000 geniuses: 401-500 | IQ: 170-165
Top 1000 geniuses: 501-600 | IQ: 165-160
Top 1000 geniuses: 601-700 | IQ: 160-150
Top 1000 geniuses: 701-800 | IQ: 150-140
● Top 1000 geniuses: 801-900
● Top 1000 geniuses: 901-1000
Top 1000 geniuses (candidates)

N1. Note: see "IQ key" page for IQ subscript symbol meaning.

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