Top 1000 geniuses: 301-400

In genius rankings, top 1000 geniuses refers to the greatest five-hundred geniuses of all time ranked by IQ or “relative brightness or intellect” (Cox, 1926); below are the fourth tier greatest geniuses of all time, numbers 301 to 400.

Geniuses | 301-400
The following are the geniuses "301 to 400" of the top 1000 geniuses (previous: 1-100, 101-200, 201-300, next: 401-500, 501-600, 601-700, 702-800, 801-900, 901-1000): [N1]


Geniuses 301 to 400




175

301
Mary Shelley 75Mary Shelley
(1797-1851)

[RGM:N/A|1,500+] (EPD:0M) (GFG:6) (CR:47) English philosopher and novelist; noted for her 1818 fictional character “Vicktor Frankenstein”, who discovers the “principle of life” (see: life principle), and thereby reanimates, revives, or brings to life a dead corpse with electricity, i.e. creates laboratory produced life; for her 1839 discussions of the atheist-based "Church of Elective Affinities", in which she alluded to have married her husband Percy Shelley; top “female genius” (Ѻ); an About.com top 100 (#49) Women of History (Ѻ); first-slating: #225 (below Paine) (Jun 2017).
175

302
Louis Pasteur 75Louis Pasteur
(1822-1895)
IQ JP=180+
 IQ_O \,=175
[RGM:52|1,250+] (Simmons Scientific 100:5) (Partington ranking:49) (Hart 100:6); supposed an advocate of biogenesis theory; supposedly (Ѻ) expressed some type of belief of god; Singh (2014) estimate (Ѻ) as top 100 genius (#82); Yahoo Answer IQ estimated (Ѻ) at 155-160 or 177 to 185.
175

303
Antonie Leeuwenhoek 75Antonie Leeuwenhoek
(1632-1723)

Leeuwenhoek microscope(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:1336|1,500+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (Simmons 100:55) (Hart 100:30) Dutch scientist;

“In the year of 1657 I discovered very small living creatures in rain water.”
— Antonie Leeuwenhoek (c.1670)

noted for his c.1672 modified single lens 200x microscope, with which he became the first to observe single-celled organisms, which he called "animalcules"; mentor to Nicolaas Hartsoeker; first-slating: 175|#280 (Apr 2018).
175

304
Pherecydes 75Pherecydes
(c.580-520BC)

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,330+] (Murray 4000:N/A) Greek cosmologist, mythicist, theologian, and miracle-mongerer (Ѻ); teacher of Pythagoras; oft-cited, e.g. by Cicero, as the “inventor” of the “soul”, or at least the Egyptian-adopted Greek version of it, and or metempsychosis (Ѻ), aka transmigration of souls; first-slating: 175|#280 (Mar 2018).
175

305
William Whewell 75William Whewell
(1794-1866) ↑↓

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,330+] (Murray 4000:N/A) English polymath; noted for his involvement in the 1833 Whewell-Coleridge debate, with English romantic philosopher Samuel Coleridge, revolving around the question of what exactly someone who works ‘in the real sciences’, as Coleridge had phrased it, should be called, and what exactly are the real sciences, in the context of the tree of knowledge; a result of which Whewell coined the term "scientist"; guesstimated at 180±|#121 (c.2016); down-graded to 175|#290 (Feb 2018) pre reason that he us more of a side-line figure.
175

306
Rene Lubicz 75Rene Lubicz
(1887-1961)

French-German artist, chemist, esoteric physicist, Egyptologist, religio-mythology scholar, and neo-Pythagorean thing philosopher of sorts, noted for his 1949 two-volume The Temple in Man, wherein he defines life as the “faculty of reaction”, which he applied to everything, animals, vegetables, and minerals; first slating: 175|#270 (Jan 2018).
175

307
Salvador Dali 75Salvador Dali
(1904-1989) ↓
 IQ_B \,=175Melting clocks[RGM:170|1,300+] (Murray 4000:N/A) Spanish surreal artist; noted for melting clock painting, i.e. The Persistence of a Memory (1931); when asked by Ilya Prigogine whether this art piece had something to do with Einstein’s relativity theory, Dalí replied that the soft watches were not inspired by the theory of relativity, but by the surrealist perception of a Camembert (cheese circle) melting in the sun; considered himself a “genius” as describes in his Diary of a Genius (1964) (Ѻ), akin to a striving to be “Nietzsche of the irrational” or an “almost divine genius like Raphael”, or something to this effect.
175

308
Pablo Picasso 75Pablo Picasso
(1881-1973)
 IQ_B \,=175
IQ SS=175
[RGM:347|1,500+] Spanish-born French painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright.
175

309
Sidis 75William Sidis
(1898-1944)
 IQ_P \,=250-300
 IQ_O \,=200
[RGM:694|1,500+] (LR:9) (RE:46) (CR:165) was an American mathematical physicist, famously known as a forced prodigy; person behind both the 10% myth (the reserve mental energy theory was used, by his father, in his accelerated upbringing) and the character of Good Will Hunting (excelling in math, physics, chemistry, law); down-grade for his magnum opus: The Animate and the Inanimate, a rather convoluted second law based "no origin" theory of life, utilizing a two-section universe model, which results to being a patched-together mess of an argument, in spite of his legendary genius prodigy fame status; IQ downgraded ↓ from 180|#149 (2016) to 175|#303 per realization of his empathetic to situation based over-estimated genius status as compared to the actual content of his so-called magnum opus The Animate and the Inanimate (Jan 2019).
175

310
George Stephenson 75George Stephenson
(1781-1848)
 IQ_B \,=173George Stephenson rocket(Murray 4000:19|T) (EP:30) (CR:3) English engineer, noted for the invention of the Invented the miner's safety lamp, and for his development of passenger steam engine to pioneer mass public train transportation.
175

311
Aeschylus 75Aeschylus
(c.523-456BC)
 IQ_B \,=173(Cattell 1000:238) [RGM:70|1,310+] Greek tragedian playwright; author of Oresteia the only trilogy in Greek drama that survives from antiquity, which tells the story of the bloody chain of murder and revenge of the royal family of Argos.
175

312
Honore Balzac 75Honore Balzac
(1799-1850)
 IQ_C \,=155Feelings and affinity dialogue (1834) 7 (IQ:175|#306) (Cattell 1000:448) [RGM:293|1,500+] (CR:37) French science intersecting religion themed philosophical fiction author;

“These two stories, The Ban (L'Interdiction) and The Atheist’s Mass (La Messe de l' Athee), would, if they existed entirely by themselves, and if we knew nothing else of their author's, and nothing else about him, suffice to show any intelligent critic that genius of no ordinary kind had passed by there.”
— George Saintsbury (1896), “Preface” to The Atheist’s Mass and Other Short Stories

student of Francois Rabelais (FA:42); a GLAE candidate; HIGHLY noted for his 1834 Search for Absolute Truth (see: feelings and affinity dialogue), where the character “Professor Balthazar” (note: some Iranians call Libb Thims “Prof. Balthazar”, per cartoons of him played on Iranian television, in the 1990s), a chemist, debates with Josephine, his wife, on the nature of "feelings" from their respective views, the scientific chemical affinity view and the romantic view; refers to himself as an affinity-controlled gas particle like "electrical mechanism”; upgrade ↑ from 170|#204 (2016) to 175|#284 (Feb 2018).
175

313
Jacob Bernoulli 75Jacob Bernoulli
(1654-1705)

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,320+] (Murray 4000:12|M) (GME:20) (Eells 100:28) (Allen 100:53) Swiss mathematician, older brother to Johann Bernoulli (see: Bernoulli genealogy), both of whom were earlier developers of German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz' version of differential calculus, uncle to Daniel Bernoulli, the famed Hydrodynamia author, student of Gottfried Leibniz, general secondary PhD advisor to Leonhard Euler (see: Euler genealogy); first draft slating: 175|#275 (Jan 2018).
175

314
Arnold Sommerfeld 75Arnold Sommerfeld
(1868-1951)

[RGM:N/A|1,330+] German theoretical physicist ; Nominated a record eighty-one times [Nobel Prize icon:81] for the Nobel Prize; served as PhD supervisor for more Nobel Prize winners in physics than any other supervisor before or since; introduced the 2nd quantum number (azimuthal quantum number), 4th quantum number (spin quantum number), the fine-structure constant, and pioneered X-ray wave theory; original slating: 180|#86 (c.2016).
175

315
Alfred Musset 75Alfred Musset
(1810-1857)
 IQ_C \,=180 (Cattell 1000:464) [RGM:N/A|1,350+] (Murray 4000:N/A) French dramatist, poet, and novelist; non-notablity downgrade from 180|#205 to 175|#286 (Feb 2018).
175

316
Theophrastus 75Theophrastus
(c.371-287BC)

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] (FA:19) Greek philosopher, not to be confused with the Anon Theophrastus (c.1609-1665), pupil and successor to Aristotle, characterized as “the most elegant and erudite of philosophers “ (Cicero, c.45BC) and a "universal genius" (Cap, 1851), noted for now lost essay, entitled “On Gods” (Περì ῶεῶν), wherein, supposedly, he debunks religion and proves gods non-existent; first-slating:175|#306 (Jun 2018).
175

317
Robert Peel 75Robert Peel
(1788-1850)
 IQ_C \,=180 (Cattell 1000:176) [RGM:N/A|1,350+] (Murray 4000:N/A) British statesman; non-notablity downgrade from 180|#204 to 175|#287 (Feb 2018).
175

318
Arnauld 75Antoine Arnauld
(1612-1694)
 IQ_C \,=190(Cattell 1000:447) [RGM:N/A|1,330+]
175

319
Sophocles 75Sophocles
(498-406)
 IQ_B \,=173 (Cattell 1000:181) [RGM:49|1,500+] Greek tragedian playwright;

“A man, though wise, should never be ashamed of learning more, and must unbend his mind.”

slated at: 173|#312 (Feb 2019).
175

320
Andrew Carnegie 75Andrew Carnegie
(1835-1918) ↓
 IQ_B \,=180Scottish-born American industrialist, business magnate, and philanthropist;
175

321
Marcel Duchamp 75Marcel Duchamp
(1887-1968) ↓
 IQ_B \,=180French-American painter, sculptor, chess player and writer;
175

322
Jacques Thou
(1553-1617)
 IQ_C \,=175 (Cattell 1000:417) [RGM:N/A|1,330+] (Murray 4000:N/A) French statesman, bibliophile, and historiographer whose detached, impartial approach to the events of his own period made him a pioneer in the scientific approach to history.







175+




170

323
Jean Meslier 75Jean Meslier
(1664-1729)

Meslier meteor(FA:63) (GA:3) (CR:71) French “ultra-intelligent” (Ѻ) abbot and closet extreme atheist;

“Meslier’s Testament is the most singular phenomenon ever seen among all the meteors fatal to the Christian religion.”
Voltaire (1766)

first-slating at 170|#310 (May 2018) per read-through of his Testament, up to the point (pgs. 362-65) when he starts digging into matter, motion, and force as the replacement for god and creation; very prescient for this date in history; very influential to Voltaire, Holbach, and other French renaissance intellectuals.
170

324
Zeno of Citium 75Zeno of Citium
(c.334-c.262BC)

Slave stealing parable 2(Cattell 1000:859) [RGM:792|1,500+] (GPhE:#) (CR:44) Greek natural philosopher, noted for employing a determinism philosophy of action, particularly in regards to crime and punishment (see: slave stealing parable; flower stealing model), and also the founder of stoicism, a philosophy which holds that the wise man should be free from passion, unmoved by joy or grief, and submissive to natural law and or one apparently or professedly indifferent to pleasure or pain; slated at #275 (Jan 2018).
170

325
Charles Coulomb 75Charles Coulomb
(1736-1806)

Coulomb’s law(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,350+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (SIG:15) French physicist and military engineer; noted for his 1785 construction of a built a torsion balance (Ѻ), as shown, wherein, in an effort to prove Joseph Priestley 1766 inference that the force of attraction or repulsion between two small charged spheres would be inversely proportional to the square of the separating distance, using Hooke’s spring law, and showed quantitatively that charged spheres haven an inverse proportionality relationship, which he explained formulaically (see: Coulomb’s law); first-slating: 170|#291 (Mar 2018).
170

326
Georg Lichtenberg 75Georg Lichtenberg
(1742-1799)

Lichtenberg statue(FA:84) German physicist, philosopher, and satirist;

“I thank the lord a thousand times for having made me become an atheist.”
— Georg Lichtenberg (c.1768), Notebook E 252, 1765-1770 (compare: George Shaw)

one of the first scientists to introduce experiments with apparatus in their lectures; Volta and Gauss sat in on his lectures; associates with Goethe and Kant; from 1765 (age 23) to 1799 (age 56), he kept a series of personal notebooks, quotations that struck Lichtenberg, titles of books to read, autobiographical sketches, and short or long reflections, including keen observations on human nature, à la the 17th-century French moralists, which gained him posthumous fame as one of the best aphorists in Western intellectual history; greatly influential to other later atheists, e.g. Schopenhauer (he is one of those who "think for their own instruction", who are "genuine 'thinkers for themselves' in both senses of the words"), Feuerbach (cites him in “The Natural Sciences and the Revolution”, 1850), Tolstoy (I’m perplexity "why the Germans of the present day neglect this writer so much"), Nietzsche, and Freud (who his “Why War?” letter to Albert Einstein) mentioned Lichtenberg's invention of a “Compass of Motives” in a discussion on the combination of human compounded motives and quoted him as saying, “The motives that lead us to do anything might be arranged like the thirty-two winds and might be given names on the same pattern: for instance, ‘food-food-fame’ or ‘fame-fame-food’,”); an enlightenment figure nonbeliever (Haught, 1996); first-slating: 170|#313 (Jan 2019).
170

327
Simeon Poisson 75Simeon Poisson
(1781-1840)

(Eells 100:39) (CR:2) French mathematician, physicist, and engineer; noted for his early attack on the difficult problem of induced magnetization; his’s name, in the history of classical electrodynamics (Errede, 2007), from 1812, to 1867, appears at least twelve times (in very dense intellectual areas); his genius is difficult to summarize; first-draft at 170|#321 (Nov 2019) based on general intuition.
170

328
Akhenaten 75Akhenaten
(c.1380-1335BC)
 IQ_O \,=215Aten(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (Time 100:2) (FA:1) (CR:39) Egyptian pharaoh and religion reformer;

Ikhnaton, who sought to reform religious conceptions in the light of reason is the ‘first individual’ in history.”
— J.H. Breasted (c.1910), Publication; cited by Roderick Seidenberg (1950) in Post-Historic Man (pg. 86)

noted as monotheism founder; the person who moved the world, or at least Egypt, from a henotheism-based state religion, i.e. one supreme god (see: supreme god timeline) + lesser gods, to monotheism-based state religion, one god (Aten), where god became, a few anthropomorphisms aside (e.g. Aten's finger), the heat or energy of the sun; he is the main mind behind the Old Testament of the Bible, in short; oft-cited as the person behind the character “Moses” (Freud, 1939); IQ fictionally stated to be 215 (Ѻ); first-draft guestimated at 170|#250 per “greatest black geniuses” page start (Jun 2017).
170

329
Jean-Baptista Lamarck 75 Jean Lamarck
(1744-1829)




Light bulb icon L \rightleftharpoons \, anti-chance

Lamarck vs Darwin(Cattell 1000:681) [RGM:342|1,500+] (Murray 4000:3|B) (EvT:10|21+) (CR:13) French anti-chance based naturalist; noted for his 1800 evolution theory (see: Lamarckian theory) that employed several mechanisms as drivers of evolution, drawn from the common knowledge of his day and from his own belief in (pre-Lavoisier) chemistry namely he envisioned two forces as comprising evolution; a force driving animals from simple to complex forms, and a force adapting animals to their local environments and differentiating them from each other; believed that these forces must be explained as a necessary consequence of basic physical principles, favoring a materialistic attitude toward biology; slight down-grade for his mistaken idea that giraffes grew longer necks by reaching for leaves, and that this trait could be passed on to offspring; he the doctrine that all species, including man, are descended from other species; first-slating: IQ:175|#320 (Jan 2019).
170

330
Regiomontanus 75Regiomontanus
(1436-1467)

(Eells 100:25) (CR:6) German astronomer and mathematician;

“You, who wish to study great and wonderful things, who wonder about the movement of the stars, must read these theorems about triangles. Knowing these ideas will open the door to all of astronomy and to certain geometric problems.”
— Regiomontanus (1464), On Triangles of Every Kind (De Trianguis Omnimodis) (Ѻ)

Noted for his Epitome of the Almagest, wherein he stated that Ptolemy was wrong; was the main shoulder genius of Copernicus; first-draft slotted at #250 (Jun 2017).
170

331
Edwin Hubble 75Edwin Hubble
(1889-1953)

[RGM:85|1,500+] (Cropper 30:3|NP) (Murray 4000:12|A) American astronomer; first-slating: 170|#324 (Feb 2019).
170

332
Thomas Savery 75Thomas Savery
(c.1650-1715)

(EP:#) (CR:23) English engineer, and “commissioner of sick and wounded” (Switzer, 1729), noted for his 1698 construction of his "Savery engine", aka Miner’s friend, a suction pump type of steam engine designed for the removal of water from mines, the world’s first operational steam engine; first-slating: 170|#325 (Oct 2019).
170

334
Max Weber 75 Max Weber
(1864-1920)

Durkheim vs Weber[RGM:133|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:806) (HCR:8) (CR:61) German sociologist, Goethean philosopher, oft cited last person to know everything and considered the "last universal genius of social science", noted for his so-called Weberian elective affinities theory, namely the use of Goethe’s human elective affinity theories in the development of his social theories; oft-compared to Emile Durkheim (IQ:170|#351), shown adjacent; first slated at 170|#187 (c.2015) per mistaken confusion with Cox IQ citation of composer Karl Weber (1786-1826) at IQ:165 (mistake noticed in Feb 2019).
170

335
Adam Smith 75 Adam Smith
(1723-1790)
 IQ_C \,=170
Invisible Hand (Adam Smith)
(Cattell 1000:318) [RGM:80|1,500+] (GEE:#) (CR:56) Scottish social philosopher and political economist; noted early HP pioneer, his 1759 invisible hand theory and 1776 Wealth of Nations were said to have been inspired by Newtonian mechanics.
170

336
Seleucus
(c.190-120BC)

Greek heliocentrismGreek philosopher and astronomer, a follower of Aristarchus; noted for beyond hypothesizing proofs that the earth revolves around the sun; first slating: 170|#325, tentatively gauged as grade below Aristarchus, whose work he expanded on (Jan 2019).
170

337
Thomas Huxley 75Thomas Huxley
(1825-1895)

Huxley (Evolution, 1863)[RGM:530|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:799) (CR:126) English evolutionist and natural philosopher;

“Every society, great or small, resembles ... a complex molecule, in which the atoms are represented by men, possessed of all those multifarious attractions and repulsions which are manifested in their desires and volitions, the unlimited power of satisfying which we call freedom ... the social molecule exists in virtue of the renunciation of more or less of this freedom by every individual. It is decomposed, when the attraction of desire leads to the resumption of that freedom the expression of which is essential to the existence of the social molecule. The great problem of social chemistry we call politics, is to discover what desires of mankind may be gratified, and what must be suppressed, if the highly complex compound, society, is to avoid decomposition.”
— Thomas Huxley (1871), “Administrative Nihilism”

nicknamed “Darwin’s bulldog”, noted for his argumentative advocacy of Darwin's theory of evolution; social chemistry philosophy; atheism discussion; materialism logic; coining of the term "agnostic" (1869); among other erudition; first-slated at 170|#284 (c.2016)
170

338
Constantin Volney 75Constantin Volney
(1757-1820)

(Cattell 1000:785) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] (RMS:29) French religio-mythologist; his The Ruins: a Survey of the Revolutions of Empires (1791), wherein he connects the main characters of Judaism and Christianity to Hinduism, and both, in some sense, back to Egyptian mythology, was influential to Thomas Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln; first-draft gauged at 165|#350 (Dec 2017); upgraded from 165|#432 to 170|#321 (Sep 2018) per reading up through §8 plus noted of Mary Shelley influence.
170

339
Karl Pearson 75Karl Pearson
(1857-1936)

(CR:55) English mathematician-physicist, philosopher, lawyer, statistician, evolutionist, Germanic literature scholar;

“There is, for example, the principle of inertia, the statement that no physical corpuscle need be conceived as changing its motion except in the presence of other corpuscles, that there is no need of attributing to it any power of self-determination (p. 287). There are probably those who think some power of self-determination must be ascribed to the elementary organic corpuscle, but this seems very doubtful. Placed in a certain field, environed with other organic or inorganic corpuscles, the life-germ moves relatively to them in a certain manner.”
— Karl Pearson (1892), The Grammar of Science (pg. 343); cited in ‘self-’ [TR:116]

noted for his 1885 lecture "Matter and Soul", wherein he puts the extrapolate down argument in the form of an Aunt Sally in regards to consciousness and life (as a mechanism), supposedly, arisen from "dead mechanism", and for his 1892 book Grammar of Science, the first book read in German physicist Albert Einstein's 1902 "Olympia Academy" study group, which expands on the former in regards to what physics has to say about life; first-draft gauged at 165|#350 (Mar 2017); upgraded to 170|#331 (Oct 2019).
170

340
Christopher Hitchens 75Christopher Hitchens
(1949-2011)
 IQ_O \,=160
 IQ_O \,=130-145
 IQ_O \,=137
Hitchens (Halo)[RGM:298|1,500+] (FA:215) (CR:54) English-born American political, literature, and religion commentator; an anti-theist (auto-characterization); the most powerful of the four horseman of new atheism; characterized as a “debate genius” and “linguistic genius”; 75% Debate.org ranking as a genius (2018), e.g. that he had a “intellect that couldn't be less than 1 out of a 100,000 or so” (Ѻ)

“You find me a state or society that threw off theocracy and threw off religion and said we adopt the teachings of Lucretius and Democritus and Galileo and Spinoza and Darwin and Russell and Jefferson and Thomas Paine, and we make those what we teach our children. We make that scientific and rational humanism our teaching. You find me that state, that did that, and fell into tyranny, and slavery, and famine, and torture, and then we’ll be on a level playing field.”
Christopher Hitchens (2008), “Debate with Peter Hitchens on Iraq War and Religion” (Ѻ), Grand Valley State University, Apr 3

IQ estimates: 130-145 (Yaqub Alizada, 2017) (Ѻ), 137 (Eusebius Clay, 2017) (Ѻ), 160 (Alan Hoffman, 2016) (Ѻ); first-slated: 170|#296 (Jan 2018); down-slated: 165|#435 (Feb 2018); up-slated to 170|#321 (Nov 2018) per this “top 10 Hitchens” (Ѻ) video and his #5 ranking on the 193 person voted “Greatest Atheist of All Time” (Ѻ) rankings.
170

341
Virgil 75Virgil
(70BC-19BC)

(Cattell 1000:57) (RGM:79|1,260+) (Murray 4000:4|WL) Roman poet;

“Happy is he who is able to know the causes of things.”
— Virgil (29BC), Georgics; cited by Julien la Mettrie (1750) in “The System of Epicurus”

first-slating: 170|#310 (c.2017) interpolated as mix of RGM and Cattell ranking plus the lower end mean IQ [178] of John Milton (IQ:180|#104), Alexander Pope (IQ:180|#104), and Homer (IQ:175|#220), the three authors that Francis Edgeworth (IQ:180|#175) could quote from memory in old age; upgraded from 170|#392 to 170|#321 (Apr 2018).
170

342
Hegel 75 Georg Hegel
(1770-1831)
 IQ_C \,=165(Cattell 1000:51) [RGM:51|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:59) (Murray 4000:5|WP) (Stokes 100:48|Idealists) (Perry 80:3|Art) (GPhE:#) [CR:79] German natural philosopher;

Philosophy, if one still wants to call it that, has had to sink lower and lower, until it finally reached the lowest level of abasement in the ministerial creature Hegel, who in order to smother again the ‘freedom of thought’, which Kant had struggled for and won, made of ‘philosophy’, the daughter of reason and the future mother of truth, a tool of state aims, obscurantism, and Protestant Jesuitism. In order to cover up the disgrace and at the same time to bring about the greatest possible stupefaction of minds, he drew over it a cloak of the emptiest word rubbish and silliest gallimathias that have ever been heard outside the insane asylum.”
Arthur Schopenhauer (1839), Essay on the Freedom of the Will (pgs. 85-86)

semi-classified a “modern Aristotle” (Ladlier, 2000) (Ѻ), specifically in "young Marx's eyes" (McBride, 1977) (Ѻ).
170

343
Johann Fichte 75Johann Fichte
(1762-1814)
 IQ_C \,=165(Cattell 1000:150) [RGM:187|1,350+] (Murray 4000:20|WP) (CR:13) was a German philosopher; noted for the development of some type of non-romantic idealism; was part of Goethe's circle.
170

344
Lope de Vega
(1562-1635)
 IQ_C \,=175
170

344
Henry Cavandish 75Henry Cavendish
(1731-1810)

Cavandish experiment(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:514|1,500+] (Murray 4000:6|P) (GCE:9) English experimental physicist, theoretical chemist, and natural philosopher; noted for his 1766 discovery of hydrogen; for his 1798 determination, via experiment (adjacent photo), of Newton’s gravitational constant; Was the first to determine the electrical conductivity of salt solutions; rejected the material theory of heat; experimentally proved the inverse square law; did work on latent heat and specific heat; first-slating: 170|#335 (Feb 2019).
170

345
Raphael 75Raphael
(1483-1520)
 IQ_{CB} \,=170
 IQ_C \,=170
 IQ_B \,=170
(Cattell 1000:22) [RGM:60|1,320+] (Murray 4000:3|WA) Italian painter and architect; best known for The School of Athens (1511).
170

346
Posidonius 75Posidonius
(185-109BC)

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,300+] a scholar of “almost Aristotelian stature” (Walsh, 1998), characterized the “greatest polymath of antiquity” (Dodds, 1973) (Ѻ); taught Cicero Stoicism; built orrery; calculated distance to sun to be 39M miles (actual: 93M miles); first draft gauging at 170|#275 (Dec 2017).
170

347
Georg Stahl 75Georg Stahl
(1659-1734)

matter of heatGerman chemist and physician; a "great genius" (Mettrie, 1745), noted for his 1703 phlogiston theory of heat, wherein he viewed heat as being comprised of small particles with mass which he termed as "phlogiston"; and for his 1708 discussions of soul and movement.
170

348
William James 75William James
(1842-1910)

Ten percent myth (overview)[RGM:360|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:543) (DN:1) (CR:86) American psychologist;

“Ideas, whether for arousing or for stopping belief, may fail to be efficacious, just as a wire at one time alive with electricity, may at another time be dead.”
— William James (1907), “Energies of Men”

a "famous American thinker" (1912); theorist behind the reserve energy theory of the mind, a theory famously tested in the raising of William Sidis (aka Will Hunting); a theory which has since come to be known as the 10 percent myth; was an anti-positivist who attempted to do battle with Herbert Spencer (1904) and his social force theory and with Henry Adams (1910) and his second law theory of history; first-slating: 160|#435 (c.2016) → upgraded to: 170|#302 (Feb 2018).
170

349
Francois Rabelais 75Francois Rabelais
(c.1489-1553)

(Cattell 1000:121) [RGM:N/A|1,350+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (FA:42) was French writer, physician, humanist, and Greek scholar, characterized an “aggressive atheist” (Abel Lefranc, c.1890), “ape of Lucian”, “Democritus reborn” (du Bellay, c.1550), and or “secular sage” (Hecht, 2004); intellectual teacher of Honore Balzac; first slating at 170|#318 (Feb 2018) per Balzac ranking.
170

350
James Hutton 75James Hutton
(1726-1797)

(Murray 4000|#2ES) Scottish geologist;

“The past history of our globe must be explained by what can be seen to be happening now. No powers are to be employed that are not natural to the globe, no action to be admitted except those of which we know the principle.”
— James Hutton (1785), “Theory of the Earth”

noted for 1785 Theory of the Earth, wherein he disabused six day creation myth, replacing it with “laws observable in the composition, dissolution and restoration of land upon the globe”; first-slating: 170|#350 (Mar 2020).
170

350
Howard Hughes 75Howard Hughes
(1905-1976)

[RGM:1,221|1,320+] American entrepreneur; see: why is this site here; genius and diet; “There is no doubt he was a genius, he helped design numerous aircraft, created and directed a number of films, and even made a prototype hospital bed that was the basis of those used today” (Ѻ); first-slating: 160-180 (c.2015).
170

351
Caesar 75Julius Caesar
(I00-44BC)
 IQ_B \,=170 (Cattell 1000:8) [RGM:131|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A) Roman general, statesman, Latin prose author; noted for his critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman republic and the rise of the Roman empire; Nietzsche uberman (IQ:186+).
170

352
Wolfgang Mozart 75Wolfgang Mozart
(1756-1791)
 IQ_{CB} \,=163
 IQ_C \,=165
 IQ_B \,=160
(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:8|1,310+] (Murray 4000:2|WM) (MG:3) (RBCC:3|275+) Austrian classical era composer;

Love, love, love, that is the soul of genius.”
— Wolfgang Mozart (c.1780), response when queried (Ѻ) how to become a genius at something

Upgrade from 165|#406 to 170|#320 (Feb 2018).
170

353
Lev LandauLev Landau
(1908-1968)

Landau genius scale(CR:25) Russian physicist noted, in thermodynamics, for his low-temperature work and for free energy calculation theory; noted, in physics, for his multi-volume Course of Theoretical Physics (Ѻ), much of which was composed in his head while in an NKVD prison in 1938-1939, later written with the co-authorship assistance of his student Evgeny Lifśhitz, which some consider to the the “bible of physics” (see: scientific bibles); known popularly for his so-called Landau genius scale, a personal logarithmic ranking of physics geniuses that he kept in his pocket, changing from time to time; first-slating: 170|#340 (Feb 2019).
170

354
Julien la Mettrie 75Julien la Mettrie
(1709-1751)

Man a Machine (Mettrie, 1747)(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (CR:28) (FA:75) (GA:11) French physician, materialist philosopher, and extreme atheist;

Man is a machine and in the whole universe there is but a single substance, matter, variously modified.”
— Julien la Mettrie (c.1747) (Ѻ)

noted for his 1745 The Natural History of the Soul, in which he argued for a mechanist materialistic position, according to which there was no need of the soul to animate matter, that life was a property of matter, not something breathed into; for his The Human Machine (1747), wherein he differentiated between “little geniuses”, e.g. those who study parts of nature, e.g. insects or bones of fish, and “great geniuses”, like Newton and Descartes, who study nature as a whole; Frederick the Great considered him to be a genius; first slating: 180|#167 (Jan 2018); downgraded ↓ to 170|#320 (Apr 2018) after reading his Man: a Machine (1747) and Treatise on the Soul (1745), per reason that his "extreme atheism" stature was more hype than reality, say as compared to a genuine genius like Holbach.
170

355
William Fairburn 75 2William Fairburn
(1876-1947)

Human Chemistry (1914)(HCP:24) (SN:22) (CR:60) English-born American naval architect, marine engineer, chemical engineer, and industrial executive;

“As each chemical element is an entity, differing and distinct (see: individuality problem) from any other, so is each human element and entity and a personality, which, when guided by a human chemist to do work and perform his peculiar function in life, feels and acquires what no inert substance can ever acquire, namely moral stimulus of responsibility. No chemical element is in a state of harmony unless it is in contact with other elements or influences which do not antagonize or irritate, and no human chemical or worker can ever by truly happy in his work unless he is fitted by nature for the work which he is performing, and unless his general temperament are in harmony with his specific duties and environment.”
— William Fairburn (1914), Human Chemistry (pgs. 21-22)

His 1914 Human Chemistry, based on his experience as chemist and president of Diamond Match Company, is the first ever book on the science of human chemistry, wherein he discusses forward thinking concepts such as human catalyst and human entropy; first-slating: 170|#341 (Jan 2019).
170

356
Carl Sagan 75Carl Sagan
(1934-1996)
 IQ_O \,=130-175 (RGM:123 |1,230+) [FA:125]; an “I am” atomic theorist (like Wilhelm Ostwald); Isaac Asimov (IQ:170±|#231) (RGM:133|1230+), a self-defined know-it-all, stated that Marvin Minsky, an IQ:200+ missing candidate (Ѻ), and Sagan were two people he conceded were smarter than he was; IQ estimates at 130-175 (Ѻ); a frequent (Ѻ)(Ѻ) unanswered Quora query.
170

357
Eudoxus 75Eudoxus
(c.390-337BC)

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A) [Allen 100:52] Greek mathematician, astrophysicist, and philosopher; studied under Plato; some say he was teacher to Aristotle; supposedly discovered the leap year and invented an early form of calculus; some rank him second to rank him second only to Archimedes in antiquity genius stature; 1st slating: #295 (Jan 2018).
170

358
Isaac Asimov 75Isaac Asimov
(1920-1992)
 IQ_O \,=215
 IQ_O \,=180
 IQ_O \,=160
 IQ_O \,=165-175
(RGMM:133|1230+); stated, in “Thinking About Thinking” (Ѻ), that he scored IQ of 160 on some test; he was in Mensa (140+) on and off; other IQ estimates at 165 (Ѻ) to 175 (Ѻ); upgrade ↑ for his Hari Seldon character conceived “psychohistory” and for his atheism-advocation; Sigma Society IQ: 180 (Ѻ); IQ ranked, by AI zealot (2016), at 215 (Ѻ).
170

359
Oswald Spengler 75Oswald Spengler
(1880-1936)
IQ EM=170 (RGM:245|1,500+) (GHE:5) (CR:15) German philosopher and historian; noted for his two-volume The Decline of the West (1922), wherein he outlines a Goethean-Nietzschean view of rise and falls of civilization.
170

360
Thomas Aquinas 75Thomas Aquinas
(1225-1274)
 IQ_B \,=165(Cattell 1000:384) [RGM:110|1,500+] (Murray 4000:6|WP) (Gottlieb 1000:8) (GPhE:#) (CR:54) Italian theological philosopher;
170

361
Emile Durkheim 75Emile Durkheim
(1858-1917)

[RGM:333|1,500+] (Scott 50:9) (HCR:22) (CR:34) French sociologist;

“This obligation is the proof that these ways of acting and thinking are not the work of the individual but come from a moral power above him, that which the mystic calls ‘god’ but which can be more scientifically explained.”
— Emile Durkheim (1898), “Individual and Collective Representations”; in Sociology et Philosophie (1924) (pgs. 32-35); cited by Jennifer Hecht (2003) in Doubt (pg. 411)

“Religious forces spread out and diffuse with extreme facility in the same way in which heat or electricity which a body has received from some external source may be transmitted to the surrounding medium.”
— Emile Durkheim (1912), The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (pg. 322)

First-slating: 170|#325 per Scott 50 and RGM (Mar 2018).
170

362
Plotinus 75Plotinus
(207-270) ↑

(Cattell 1000:773) [RGM:500|1,500+] (Stokes 100:18) (Murray 4000:19|WP) (GPhE:#) (CR:27) Greek-Egyptian born Italian anti-atomicist philosopher, characterized a "non-Christian" (Copleston, 1948), founder of the neoplatonic school, noted for his circa 265 collected works set Enneads, wherein he attempts to grapple with phenomena such as "passions" and concepts such as "soul" in terms of atomic theory, something rarely seen in modern time; first-slating: 165|#350 (Jan 2018); upgrade to 170|#325 (Feb 2018).
170

363
Anthony ShaftesburyAnthony Shaftesbury, 3rd Earl
(1671-1713)

Universal morality sEnglish philosopher and politician; grandson of Anthony Shaftesbury, 1st Earl (1621-1683) (Cattell 1000:365) (IQC:165); educated by John Locke; noted for his philosophies on virtue, merit, and universal morality; influential to John Toland, Denis Diderot, and Benjamin Franklin; added in per formerly confused confluence of 1st Earl Cox IQ calculation and Cattell 1000 ranking + 3rd Earl moral philosophy genius influence sphere name dominance (c.2018)
170

364
Lao-Tzu 75Lao-Tzu [not real?]
(c.625-575BC)
 IQ_B \,=173(Cattell 1000:552) Supposed author of Tao Te Ching, the book that founded of Taoism ("Daoism"); possibly not a real person, but rather a synthesis of mythologies and legends, similar to the way Jesus is a re-write of Osiris mythology (Ra theology).
170

365
Origen 75Origen
(185-254AD)

(Cattell 1000:145) [RGM:N/A|1,240+] (RMS:9) Alexandrian-born heretical theologian, referred to as the "great" (Voltaire, 1764), in comparison to Augustine and St. Clement of Alexandria; one of the first to call out the creation myth of Genesis as nonsense, albeit he kept god as logos model of things; first-slating: 175|#263 (c.2018); down-grade ↓ to 170|#350 per Guericke quote on his angel layered heavens theory (Jan 2019).
170

366
Daniel Bernoulli 75 (new)Daniel Bernoulli
(1700-1782)

[RGM:1309|1,500+] (CR:52) Dutch-born Swiss mathematician, physicist, and physician noted for his 1738 Hydrodynamica in which he outlined the basics of the ideal gas law, the precursors for the kinetic theory of gases, and gave the first basic definition of pressure; a missing “top ten” top 1000 candidate (Philoepisteme, 2018) (Ѻ); “all the Bernoullis” (see: Bernoulli genealogy) were guesstimated as top 10 most intelligent people in history (Lynam, 2015) (Ѻ); compare: Jacob Bernoulli (175|#307); first-slating: 170|#350 (Jan 2019).
170

367
Alfred Tennyson 75Alfred Tennyson
(1809-1892)
 IQ_C \,=170 (Cattell 1000:133) [RGM:N/A|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A) English poet.
170

368
Francois Vayer 75Francois Vayer
(1588-1672)

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,360+] French writer, skeptic, and anti-religious philosopher, characterized as the "one of the leading exponents of French Pyrrhonism" (Ѻ) (see: Pyrrho), tutor of Louis XIV, a close friend of Moliere, whose plays were based on Vayer’s erudite and savage (if carefully hidden) criticism of religious hypocrisy, inheritor of the Michel Montaigne personal library, the popularizer of Sextus Empiricus; developed a philosophy of skepticism more radical than that of Montaigne but less absolute than that of Pierre Bayle; influential to Julien la Mettrie and Baron d’Holbach; first-slating: 170|#330 (Apr 2018).
170

369
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar 75Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
(1910-1995)

Pioneered (1939) the application of the first law and second law to black holes.
170

370
Elizabeth I 75Elizabeth I
(1533-1603)
 IQ_B \,=180 (Cattell 1000:116) [RGM:488|1,500+] Queen of England (reign: 1558 to 1603); educated by renowned scholar, Roger Ascham; as a student, she studied Greek, Latin, rhetoric, and philosophy; she mastered all of these subjects; when she came to power, she transformed the English court into a center for poets, writers, musicians, and scholars; connections to literary figures such as William Shakespeare, Edmund Spenser, and Christopher Marlowe; Brought England into her zenith as a world power; down-grade from 175|#292 to 170|#354 per RGM ranking and via comparison to leaders such as Marcus Aurelius, Alexander the Great, and Frederick the Great (Jan 2019).
170

371
Wilder Penfield 75Wilder Penfield
(1891-1976)

Penfield man (cortical homunculus)(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,350+] (Murray 4000:N/A) American-born Canadian neurosurgeon; invented the technique of prompting memory recall during surgery via temporal lobe stimulation; for his mapping of the functions of various regions of the brain, e.g. cortical homunculus (Ѻ); pioneer of treating epilepsy via surgical removal of certain brain regions; first-slating: 170|#330 (Mar 2018).
170

372
Martin Luther 75Martin Luther
(1483-1546)
 IQ_C \,=170
 IQ_W \,=157
(Cattell 1000:39) [RGM:37|1200+] Walberg top ten encyclopedia name (1974) (Ѻ), by word count (#2) and citation rank (#5).
170

373
John Quincy Adams 75John Quincy Adams
(1767–1848)
 IQ_C \,=175 Son of John Adams (2nd president); his grandson was Henry Adams, the leading social Newton, behind Goethe.
170

374
John CalvinJohn Calvin
(1509-1564)
 IQ_C \,=175
 IQ_W \,=165
(Cattell 1000:38) [RGM:446|1,350+] (Murray 4000:N/A) French theologian, pastor, and reformer;

“This doctrine, of predestination, owes its authority among Protestants to the dark though powerful mind of Calvin: but in the early Church it was first systematically methodized by Augustin, who appears to have borrowed it from the Manichseans.”
Henry Buckle (1861), History of Civilization, Volume One (pg. 10)

Noted for his work, in Geneva, during the Protestant reformation;
170

375
Aryabhata 75Aryabhata
(476-550)

[RGM:345|1,500+] (Odueny 100:61) (GME:#) (GAE:#) (CR:5) Indian mathematician, astronomer, and physicist;

“Just as a person travelling on a boat fees that the trees on the bank are moving, people on the earth feel the sun is moving.
— Aryabhata (c.520), Publication (Ѻ); cited by Kishore Dash (2019) in The Story of Econophysics (pg. 2)

employed 62,832/20,000 (= 3.1416) for π; speculated, supposedly, that π (pi) is irrational, as later conjectured by Leonhard Euler, and proved by Johann Lambert (Ѻ); stated that the earth rotates on its axis; classified as a physicist for his explicit mention of the relativity of motion; is said to have been the first to employ a zero symbol concept, and that his later countryman Brahmagupta was to use a zero symbol and the first to show that subtracting a number from itself results in zero (Ѻ); a “24 smartest person ever” genius (Ratner, 2016) (Ѻ); first-slating: 170|#375 (Apr 2020).
170

375
Thomas Chatterton 75Thomas Chatterton
(1752-1770)
 IQ_C \,=180 (Cattell 1000:291) [RGM:N/A|1,350+] (Murray 4000:N/A) English child prodigy poet;

“Happy (if mortals can be) is the man; who, not by priest but reason, rules his span: reason, to its possessor a sure guide; reason, a thorn in Revelation’s side.”
— Thomas Chatterton (c.1768), “The Defense” (line 23) (Ѻ)

A “neglected genius” touted as the “second Shakespeare” (Ѻ); committed suicide age 17; down-grade from 180|#192 to 170|#333 (Feb 2018).
170

376
Francois Rochefoucauld 75Francois Rochefoucauld
(1613-1680)

(Cattell 1000:621) [RGM:261|1,500+] French writer;

True love is like ghosts, which everybody talks about and few have seen.”
— Francois Rochefoucauld (c.1865), Maxims

noted for booklet Maxims, characterized as a dense collection of sharp one-line philosophies; name-dropped by Nietzsche, frequently; first-slating: 170|#350 (Nov 2018).
170

377
John Burroughs 75John Burroughs
(1837-1921)

[RGM:N/A|1,350+] American philosopher and essayist; first-slating: 170|#350 (Oct 2018).
170

378
William Pitt (the Elder)
(1708-1778)
 IQ_B \,=180
 IQ_C \,=155

170

379
John KeynesJohn Keynes
(1883-1946)

(RGM:291|1,500+) (Gottlieb 1000:201) (Stokes 100:68) (GEcE:7) (CR:5) British economist;

“Keynes had a high IQ.”
Paul Samuelson (c.1940), Publication (Ѻ)

A highest IQ ever candidate (Ѻ); 2020 missing top 100 candidate (Ѻ); first-draft slating: IQ:170 (c.2019).
170

380
Sir, William Hamilton, 9th Baronet
(1788-1856)
 IQ_C \,=170
170

381
Charles Babbage n 75Charles Babbage
(1791-1871)

[RGM:275|1,300+] (Eells 100:60) designer of the calculating engine; infamous, among scientists, for his ninth Bridgewater treatise, wherein he attempted to reconcile religion + science; IQ first-draft guesstimated at 170± (c.2016).
170

382
Photo needed 75Nicolaas Hartsoeker
(1656-1715)

Hartsoeker Homunculus(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,360+] Dutch mathematician, physicist, and microscope inventor; noted for his 1678 description of sperm, in a letter to Christiaan Huygens, which he postulated was a little human, therein originating the homunculus theory, and for his c.1694 invention of a screw-barrel simple microscope.
170

383
William of Ockham 75William of Ockham
(c.1288-1348) ↑

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:222|1,330+] (Murray 4000:N/A) English theologian, scholastic philosopher, and physicist; noted, in the history of atomic theory, for being critical of Aristotle; claimed that matter could be reduced down to elementary particles; popularly known for “Occam’s razor”, a problem solving principle, which states that among competing hypotheses, the one with the fewest assumptions should be selected; first-slating: IQ:170 (c.2017).
170

384
Francis Atterbury
(1663-1732)
 IQ_C \,=170
170

385
Qin Shi Huang
(259-210BC) ↓
 IQ_B \,=175
170

386
Johann Becher 75Johann Becher
(1635-1682)

Becher combustion model(Partington 50:43) (CR:18) German physician, chemist, economist, and philosopher;

“Chemists are a strange class of mortals, impelled by an almost insane impulse to seek their pleasure among smoke and vapor, soot and flame, poisons and poverty, yet among all these evils I seem to live so sweetly, that I'd die before I'd change places with the Persian King.”
— Johann Becher (c.1675), Publication

characterized a “man of original, but irregular, genius” (Ripley, 1861) (Ѻ) also “inventive, erudite, and entirely self-educated” (Cassell, 1893) (Ѻ), noted for his 1669, Paracelsus model advancing, terra pinguis theory (see: entropy models) of combustion.
170

387
Pedro Calderon
(1600-1681)
 IQ_C \,=170
170

388
Thomas Chalmers
(1780-1847)
 IQ_C \,=170
170

389
Ovid 75Ovid
(43BC-c.17AD)

(Cattell 1000:117) [RGM:N/A|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A) Roman poetical philosopher; noted for his 8AD Metamorphoses (a secular version of Genesis, so to say); studied by William Shakespeare as student (Thos Baynes (Ѻ)); studied and employed by Benedict Spinoza and Goethe; considered Lucretius a “sublime genius”; first slating: 165-185 (c.2016).
170

390
Daniel Sennert 75Daniel Sennert
(1572-1637)

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,350+] (Murray 4000:N/A) German physician, philosopher, chemist, aka “German Galen” (Mettrie, 1748); noted for work on atomic theory, supposedly promoting some type of “living atom” theory, and for soul theory in respect to spontaneous generation, wherein he rejected views of those including Avicenna, who said that forms come from a celestial and superior intelligence, and Jean Fernel, who supposed that souls are introduced from heaven into matter once the latter is duly prepared; first-slating: 170|#361 (Apr 2018).
170

391
Mark Twain 75Mark Twain
(1835-1910)
 IQ_O \,=135-145[RGM:59|1,245+] [HD:35] (WorldCat100:4); IQ gauged at Answers.com (Ѻ) as 135-145.
170

392
Al-Razi 75Al-Razi
(865-925)

(RGM:719|1,500+) (FA:17) (CR:7) Persian physician, chemist, and polymath;

“As a result of being long accustomed to their religious denomination, as days passed and it became a habit. Because they were deluded by the beards of the goats, who sit in ranks in their councils, straining their throats in recounting lies, senseless myths, and ‘so-and-so told us in the name of so-and-so …”
— Zakariya Razi (c.910)

generally known for his discovery of alcohol; noted, in atheism, for being one of the first outspoken religion-questioners in the Islamic world; first-gauged: IQ: 150-180 (c.2016).
170

393
John Dewey 75John Dewey
(1859-1952)
Library: 1,687 books
IQ EM=170[RGM:304|1,260+]
170

394
Pliny the elder 75Pliny the elder
(23-79AD)

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (Murray 4000:19|B) (FA:26) (CR:33) Roman scholar, natural philosopher, military leader, god skeptic, stoic, and oft-cited first ever encyclopedist;

“The power of nature is what we call god.”
— Pliny the elder (77AD), Natural History, Volume One (pg. 25); cited by Jennifer Hecht (2004) in Doubt (pg. 154)

noted for his 77AD Natural History, a 10-volume compendium of ancient knowledge, wherein he touches on topics such as the soul (see: Pliny on the soul), origin of cremation, etc.; IQ 170 first-draft guesstimate (Mar 2017).
170

395
Christian Doppler 75Christian Doppler
(1803-1853)

Red shift and blue shift(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,350+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (Kanowitz 50|38) Austrian mathematician and physicist; noted for his 1842 explanation that observed frequency of a wave, e.g. color, depends on the relative speed of the source and the observer, aka “Doppler effect”, e.g. red shift or blue shift, which he used to explain the color of binary stars; first slating: 170|#350 (Mar 2018).
170

396
Diogenes 75Diogenes
(c.408-323BC) ↑

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:386|1,330+] (Perry 80:2|Li) Greek cynic philosopher; teacher of Crates, who was teacher to Zeno of Citium (IQ:170|#286); first-slating: 170|#350 (Mar 2018).
170

397
Georges Cuvier 75 Georges Cuvier
(1769-1832) ↓
 IQ_C \,=175(Cattell:98) [RGM:693|1,500+] (Murray 4000:4|B) (EvT:11|21+) (CR:13) French theism naturalist; known as a brilliant champion of the machine metaphor (upgrade ↑), who following Rene Descartes’ view, believed that all species were like animated gears in a great machine—that were fixed and forever unchanging; he, supposedly, is said to have been able to recall in detail the contents all twenty-thousand volumes in his library; downgrade ↓↓ for his Bible-defending “fixed species” created by god, after each new flood (see: Noah’s flood) theory of the origin of species.
170

398
PyrrhoPyrrho
(c.360-270BC)

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,350+] (Murray 4000:N/A) Greek skeptic philosopher and “free thinker” (Owen, 1829) (Ѻ); studied the writings of Democritus, became a disciple of Bryson, the son of Stilpo, and later a disciple of Anaxarchus; Epicurus, supposedly, admired (Ѻ) him; first-slating: 170|#350 (Mar 2018).
170

399
Richard Bentley 75Richard Bentley
(1662-1742)
 IQ_C \,=170 Folly of Atheism(Cattell 1000:185) [RGM:N/A|1,350+] (Murray 4000:N/A) English classical scholar, critic, and theologian;

“Those who shall be disposed to see the abuse which theological spleen knows how to scatter upon atheists, have only to read a work of Doctor Bentley, entitled, The Folly of Atheism (1693) (Ѻ)(Arc).”
Baron d’Holbach (1770), The System of Nature (pg. 303)
170

400
Galen 75Galen
(130-210AD)

(Cattell 1000:443) [RGM:291|1,310+] (Murray 4000:4|Med); Greek physician, surgeon, and philosopher; general curator of the innate heat model of heart function (later discarded by da Vinci); added at #320 (Jan 2017).

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Next | Previous
Top 1000 geniuses: 1-100 | IQ: 225-180
Top 1000 geniuses: 101-200 | IQ: 180-180
Top 1000 geniuses: 201-300 | IQ: 180-175
Top 1000 geniuses: 301-400 | IQ: 175-170
Top 1000 geniuses: 401-500 | IQ: 170-165
Top 1000 geniuses: 501-600 | IQ: 165-160
Top 1000 geniuses: 601-700 | IQ: 160-150
Top 1000 geniuses: 701-800 | IQ: 150-140
● Top 1000 geniuses: 801-900
● Top 1000 geniuses: 901-1000
Top 1000 geniuses (candidates)

Notes
N1. Note: see "IQ key" page for IQ subscript symbol meaning.

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