Top 1000 geniuses: 401-500

In genius rankings, top 1000 geniuses refers to the greatest five-hundred geniuses of all time ranked by IQ or “relative brightness or intellect” (Cox, 1926); below are the fifth tier greatest geniuses of all time, numbers 401 to 500.

Geniuses | 401-500
The following are the geniuses "401 to 500" of the top 1000 geniuses (previous: 1-100, 101-200, 201-300, 301-400, next: 501-600, 601-700, 702-800, 801-900, 901-1000): [N1]

Geniuses 401 to 500


John Ray 75John Ray

(Cattell 1000:867) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] (Murray 4000:15|B) English parson, naturalist, botanist, and zoologist;

Good words cool more than cold water.”

noted for his proverb commentary on beauty, money, and power; e.g. supposed coiner of the phrase "beauty is power"; for his commentary on the fortuitous concourse of atoms model formation of things; and for his classification scheme for grouping species, later referenced by Carl Linnaeus in his more famous Linnaean classification; characterized a “forgotten genius” (Ѻ); first-slated at 170|#350 (Feb 2018).

Benjamin Constant
 IQ_C \,=170

Felix Klein 75Felix Klein

(GME:15) German mathematician;

“You will see it written that Hadamard was the last of the universal mathematicians (see: last person to know everything) —the last, that is, to encompass the whole of the subject, before it became so large that this was impossible. However, you will also see this said of Hilbert, Poincare, Klein, and perhaps of one or two other mathematicians of the period. I don't know to whom the title most properly belongs, though I suspect the answer is actually Gauss.”
— John Derbyshire (2003), Prime Obsession: Bernhard Riemann and the Greatest Unsolved Problem in Mathematics

Noted for: (add); first-slating: 170|#386 based on GME rankings and LUM status (Jan 2019).

Christian Thomasius 75Christian Thomasius

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:263|1,360+] German philosopher and jurist; in his The Foundation of the Law of Nature and Nations (1705), he opposed Aristotelianism, Lutheranism, the divine right of Kings and Roman Law, instead promoting a non-theological, natural foundation for ethics in the style of Hugo Grotius and Samuel Pufendorf (1632-1694), a Hobbes + Grotius synthesizer; he also derived some type of “special physics” utilizing a numerical scaled "calculus of passions"; first-slating: 170|#355 (Apr 2018).

Washington Irving
 IQ_C \,=170

August Kotzebue
 IQ_C \,=170 Some of his books were burned.

Ludwig Feuerbach 75Ludwig Feuerbach
IQ EM=180(Cattell 1000:948) [RGM:227|1,330+] (FA:101) (GA:8) (CR:14) German philosopher and anthropologist;

“Whenever morality is based on theology, whenever the right is made dependent on divine authority, the most immoral, unjust, infamous things can be justified and established. Morality is then surrendered to the groundless arbitrariness of religion.”
— Ludwig Feuerbach (c.1860)

influenced Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels and in turn Russian atheism, initiated by Vladimir Lenin; downgrade from 180|#140 to 170|#376 after reading his Essence of Christianity (1841) wherein he gives a long-winded bloated statement to the effect that "theology is anthropology" (Jun 2018).

Henry Longfellow
 IQ_C \,=170

Jean-Paul Marat 75Jean-Paul Marat
 IQ_C \,=170 (Cattell 1000:422) [RGM:N/A|1,360+] (Murray 4000:N/A) French politial theorist, physician, and scientist; did 166 experiments on fire and 214 on electricity; was associated with Goethe and Benjamin Franklin.

Cornelis Drebbel 75Cornelis Drebbel

Drebbel sub(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (CR:2) Dutch engineer, inventor, and chemist, a characterized "neglected genius" (Harris, 1959); noted for invention of microscope, submarine, and use of oxygen made by heating saltpeter for breathing underwater; first-slating: 170|#410 (Oct 2019).

John Napier 75John Napier
 IQ_C \,=170 (Cattell 1000:172) (Eells 100:18) British landowner, mathematician, physicist, and astronomer; generally know as the “inventor of the logarithms”, which he described in his A Description of Logarithm Tables (1614).

Pietro Metastasio
 IQ_C \,=170 (Cattell 1000:419) Italian poet, librettist, and opera composer.

Novalis 75Novalis

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,360+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (Re:29) German prose writer, poet, mystic, philosopher, civil engineer, and mineralogist;

“There are men of great genius who have shown no special talent in any marked degree; for instance, men like Novalis or Jean Paul.”
Otto Weininger (1903), Sex and Character (pg. 103)

First-slating: 170|#360 (Mar 2018).

William Penn 75 William Penn
 IQ_C \,=170 (Cattell 1000:26) English-born American real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, minister, and lawyer; quote: “right is right even if everyone is against it; and wrong is wrong even if everyone is for it.”

Ferdinand Verbiest 75Ferdinand Verbiest

Verbiest auto-mobile(EP:15) (CR:3) Flemish mathematician, astronomer, engineer, theologian, and translator, characterized a “veritable universal genius” (Delumeau, 1977);

“The [cart] moved in a circle with a motion and not slow for an hour or more, for as long a time, be it understood, as the steam continued to be forcefully expelled from the aeolipile.”
— Ferdinand Verbiest (1687), Astronomica Europaea (§: Pneumatics, pg. 88)

noted for his c.1670 Verbiest engine, a small two-foot sized aeolipile-powered wagon, the world's first working automobile; not be succeeded (Ѻ) until Denis Papin’s c.1698 piston and cylinder based steam-powered cart; first-slating: 170|#405 (Nov 2019).

Jean Racine
 IQ_C \,=170 (Cattell 1000:74) French tragedian dramatist playwright.

Pierre Charron 75Pierre Charron

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (FA:58) (CR:9) French lawyer, turned theologian-monk, turned free thinking philosopher, oft-characterized as the “adopted son” of Michel Montaigne; noted for his 1601 Treatise on Wisdom, wherein, for the “first time”, according to Buckle (1865), an attempt is made in a modern language to construct a system of morals without the aid of theology; first slating: 170|#405 (Aug 2019) gauged as 10 IQ points below Montaigne.

Ernest Renan 75 Ernest Renan
 IQ_C \,=170 (Cattell 1000:455) (RMS:51) French Semitic languages scholar; noted for his work on Averroes (1852) and his Life of Jesus (1864) which showed that the Bible was written over a long period of time.

Herman Hollerith 75Herman Hollerith

Hollerith computerAdapted or extrapolated on his brother-in-law’s Jacquard loom (invented in 1801 by Joseph Jacquard) — a new automated loom that used a control mechanism consisting of a sheet of paper with a pattern of holes, according to which when sprung wire hooks were pressed against the paper, a hook would go through where there was a required thread, thus making complex weaving automated — to make punch card based consensus data tabulating machine (computer prototype), replacing the hooks with electrified wires, that triggered the clock hand of a counter on the other side; He first got his idea for the punch-card tabulation machine from watching a train conductor punch tickets. (Ѻ) Hollerith described this in his 1889 Columbia University PhD dissertation “An Electric Tabulating System”, according to which the device would “count or tally statistical items separately or in combination by means of mechanical counters operated by electro-magnets the circuits through which are controlled by the perforated sheets”; in 1896 he founded the Tabulating Machine Company, which in 1911 merged with three other companies to form International Business Machine Corporation (IBM); first draft gauged at #285 of top 500 geniuses (May 2017).

Ernest Hemingway 75Ernest Hemingway

(RGM:300|1,310+) [GLAE]: quote: “The world breaks everyone and afterwards many are stronger at the broken places”; added: c.170|#350 (c.2017).

Johann Reuchlin 75Johann Reuchlin

(Cattell 1000:377) [RGM:262|1,310+] German-born humanist and Greek and Hebrew scholar.

Maximilien Robespierre
 IQ_C \,=170 (Cattell 1000:48) French lawyer, politician, and revolutionist.

William Yeats 75William Yeats

[RGM:368|1,500+] (GLE:16) Irish poet; Andrew Robinson (2010) “missing Cox 300” genius (Ѻ).

David Strauss 75David Strauss
 IQ_C \,=170

Epictetus 75Epictetus

(Cattell 1000:856) [RGM:411|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A) Greek stoicism philosopher; ranked by Thomas Jefferson as on par with Epicurus; he tends to be read alongside Marcus Aurelius; first slating: 170|#350 (Feb 2017).

John Tyndall 75John Tyndall

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,320+] (FA:138) (CR:68) Irish physicist;

“All religious theories, schemes and systems, which embrace notions of cosmogony, or which otherwise reach into the domain of science, must, in so far as they do this, submit to the control of science, and relinquish all thought of controlling it.”
— John Tyndall (1874), opening statement, as president, at the Belfast British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) meeting; said to address the growing controversy over the teaching of science at the Catholic University in Ireland

notable for having done the first English translations of Clausius and Helmholtz, in the early 1850s, for having seeded the Spencerian dilemma (1858), and for having launched the 1874 Tyndall-Stewart-Tait debate, on the relation between modern hard science and religion, wherein one of the first dead atom theory ridicules resulted; first-gauged at 170|#350 a grade above that of Herbert Spencer (Jan 2018).

Robert Turgot 75Robert Turgot
 IQ_C \,=170(Cattell 1000:293) [RGM:N/A|1,300+] French economist, statesmen, and historian

Norbert Wiener 75Norbert Wiener

[RGM:1329|1,500+] (CR:98) American mathematician; inventor of cybernetics; quote: “I think Wiener had a great brilliance. I’m not putting down his great mind. I think he really did have a tremendous IQ and a tremendous grasp of many things” (Shannon, 1982); gauged at: IQ:170± (c.2015)

Edmund Husserl 75Edmund Husserl
IQ EM=170[RGM:311|1,260+] (Stokes 100:74) (PGT:18) (GPE:#); a top 10 existentialism philosopher; first-draft gauged at #311 (Jun 2017).

Diego Velasquez
 IQ_C \,=170(Cattell 1000:265) [RGM:N/A|1,300+] Spanish painter.

Borges 75Jorge Borges
 IQ_B \,=182 [RGM:491|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:483) (CR:2) Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator;

“I have always imagined that paradise will be a kind of library.”
— Jorge Borges (c.1960), Publication

used Georg Cantor’s theory of infinite sets in some (Ѻ) of his literary works; despised Marxism; characterized himself as a “Spencerian anarchist”; downgrade ↓ from 180|#208 to 170|#440 per Gottlieb and RGM rankings, and general lack of CR influence (Apr 2020).

Pierre Vergniaud
 IQ_C \,=170(Cattell 1000:429) [RGM:N/A|1,300+] French lawyer, statesman, and revolutionist.

Maimonides 75Maimonides

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:398|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A); Spanish-born Moroccan physician-philosopher and theologian; a top middle ages genius; noted for his circa 1190 The Guide of the Perplexed, wherein he states that we should ignore accident-based atomic theory because it denies the existence of god; first-draft slating: 170|#350 (Jan 2018).

Prigogine 75Ilya Prigogine

far from equilibrium (bifuractions)[CR:411] Russian-born Belgian chemist and thermodynamicist ; known for is far-from-equilibrium thermodynamics theory of "dissipative structures" formed past the bifurcation point convinced many people in the late 20th century that they are such things; takes some time (in years) to pick through the difficulties of his theory, e.g. that it a religious Trojan horse in underpinnings; first; slating: IQ:170|#301 (c.2017)

Kurt Godel 75Kurt Godel
(1906-1978) ↑↓↑
Library: 700 books
 IQ_O \,=180 [RGM:268|1,320+] (Stokes 100:95) (CR:21) Austrian-born logician, mathematician and philosopher; Pickover top 14 “most influential” GME; some think his “incompleteness theorem” ranks him up with Aristotle (video: “The World’s Most Incredible Mind”, 2011), which seems a bit overzealous; downgrade for giving an ontological proof for the existence of god (see: Godel’s ontological proof); quote: "whoever became more intelligent by reading Voltaire?" (link), downgrade # two; was a Leibniz proselyte; was a transmigrationist, supposedly (Ѻ); known for his 1931 Godel’s demon (see: scientific demon); his incompleteness theorem was used in John Boyd's successful war thermodynamics invasion design of the first Gulf War (1990-1991); see also: A World Without Time: the Forgotten Legacy of Godel and Einstein (2005); 8+ thread posts on him; Quora discussed (Ѻ) as potential “smartest person ever”; Quora IQ guestimated (Ѻ) at 180, akin to John Neuman and William Sidis range; an "overrated genius" for some reason (probably per his ontic openings and or god talk).

Abu al-Suli
(854-946) ↓
 IQ_B \,=175 (Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] Arab poet, scholar, and chess player; non-notability downgrade 175|#298 to 170|#358 (Feb 2018).

Marion Tinsley 75Marion Tinsley
(1927-1995) ↓
 IQ_B \,=182Mathematician; considered to be “greatest checkers player ever”; spent approximately 10,000 hours studying checkers while in graduate school; worked as lay preacher (↓) in the Disciples of Christ Church; non-notability downgrade 175|#294 to 170|#359 (Feb 2018).

Friedrich Wolf
(1759-1824) ↓
 IQ_C \,=175 (Cattell 1000:480) [RGM:N/A|1,330+] (Murray 4000:N/A) German classicist; noted as founder of modern philology; downgrade 175|#286 to 170|#359 (Feb 2018).

Solon 75Solon

(Cattell 1000:391) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] (Washington 23|#) [RMS:2] Greek statesman, lawmaker, philosopher, and poet, one of the seven sages (Ѻ); credited with being the one who brought democracy to Athens; cited as starting the tradition of studying abroad method, by visiting the great college of Heliopolis; first-slating: 170|#403 (Apr 2018).

Emmy Noether 75Emmy Noether

[RGM:542|1,500+] (Siegfried 10:1) German mathematical physicist;

“In the judgement of the most competent living mathematicians, Fraulein Noether was the most significant creative mathematical genius thus far produced since the higher education of women began.”
Albert Einstein (1935), “Letter to New York Times” (Ѻ)

Noted for her 1918 “Noether’s theorem”, which showed, based on group theory, that every invariance or symmetry property of a physical law corresponds a conservation principle; developed in her effort to help Einstein and David Hilbert understand how the conservation of energy integrates into a general theory of relativity; Hmolpedia ranked (2011) as top 7 smartest women ever; first slating: 170|#416 (Jan 2019).

Lycurgus 75Lycurgus

(Cattell 1000:437) [RGM:N/A|1,330+] (Washington 23|#) Greek quasi-legendary lawgiver; credited with establishing or promoted the three Spartan virtues: equality (among citizens), military fitness, and austerity; personified generally by the character Leonidas in the film 300 (2007); first-slating: 170|#404 (Apr 2018).

Ben Jonson
(1573-1637) ↓
 IQ_C \,=175 (Cattell 1000:48) [RGM:561|1,330+] (Murray 4000:N/A) English playwright, poet, actor, and literary critic;

Edmund Spenser
(1552-1559) ↓
 IQ_C \,=175 (Cattell 1000:262) [RGM:N/A|1,330+] (Murray 4000:N/A) English pre-Shakespearean poet (Ѻ); Rolfe Humphries (1954), in his translation of Ovid, uses the terms "Spenserian or Byronic stanzas".

Hugues Lamennais
(1782-1854) ↓
 IQ_C \,=175 (Cattell 1000:284) [RGM:N/A|1,330+] (Murray 4000:N/A) French Catholic priest, philosopher and political theorist; 5-point IQ down-grade (Feb 2018).

Robert Southey
(1774-1843) ↓
 IQ_C \,=175 (Cattell 1000:520) [RGM:N/A|1,330+] (Murray 4000:N/A) English romantic poet; five-point IQ downgrade (Feb 2016).



Francois Quesnay 75Francois Quesnay (1694-1774)
(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,360+] (Murray 4000:N/A) French physician and economist; characterized a "clever man" (Mettrie, 1745) the "height of genius" in political economy (Marx, 1860), noted for his 1758 Economic Table, which outlined the ideas behind the “physiocrat”, from the Greek phýsis, meaning “nature,” and kràtos, meaning “power”, school of economics, e.g. that the source of economic strength or wealth is “land”, which is generally considered to be the first school of economic thinking; influential to Adam Smith; first-slating: 165|#391 (Apr 2018).

Moliere 75Moliere
 IQ_C \,=160 (Cattell 1000:39) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] (Murray 4000:8|WL) (GLAE) French playwright and comedic actor; close friends with Francois Vayer, whose erudite and savage (if carefully hidden) criticism of religious hypocrisy, was rumored to be he basis of many of his plays; said to be ranked with Pierre Corneille (1606-1684) and Racine; upgraded ↑ from 160|#479 to 165|#387 (Feb 2017).

Heinrich Heine 75Heinrich Heine
(1797-1856) ↑↑
 IQ_C \,=165 (Cattell 1000:353) [RGM:376|1,245+] (Murray 4000:N/A) German poet and atheistic philosopher; peculiar commentator on Goethe’s Elective Affinities; noted for his Thoughts and Ideas, which is filled with ripe insights, e.g. “All our modern philosophers, though often perhaps unconsciously, see through the glasses which Spinoza ground.”

Jean Bruyere 75Jean Bruyere

(Cattell 1000:562) (RGM:379|1,300+) French philosopher, moralist, and satirist, characterized a “sensible writer” (Meslier, 1727); first-slating: 165|#410 (Apr 2018).

Edward Bulwer 75Edward Bulwer
(1803-1873) ↑↑
 IQ_C \,=155 Virl(Cattell 1000:247) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] (Murray 4000:N/A) English science fiction writer and philosopher; noted for his 1871 novel Vril: the Power of the Coming Race, in which he utilized Michael Faraday’s version of the conservation of force; an example of which is as follows [1]

"I have long held an opinion, almost amounting to a conviction, in common, I believe, with many other lovers of natural knowledge, that the various forms under which the forces of matter are made manifest have one common origin; or, in other words, are so directly related and mutually dependent, that they are convertible, as it were, into one another, and possess equivalents of power in their action."

to make a story around a subterranean species, called ‘Vril-ya’, that exist on a hypothetical type of energy called ‘vril’, according to which both the workings of the machinery in the new society and the government of the new species operate under the same laws of nature, or something along these lines; upgraded from 155|#493 to 165|#360 (Feb 2018).

Thomas Malthus 75Thomas Malthus

Malthus Model(Cattell 1000:869) (Gottlieb 1000:306) (CR:5) English economist and demographer; noted for his 1798 An Essay on the Principle of Population, building on some ideas of David Hume, Adam Smith, Wallace [?], and a Dr. Price [?], outlined a general model, thought out mathematically, that, over time, that the "power" population growth, in populations of species, will be "checked" by the "strong law of necessity"; first-slating: IQ:165|#450 (Mar 2020).

Gregor Mendel 75Gregor Mendel

Mendelian genetics[RGM:46|1,500+] (Murray 4000:18|B) (Glenn 20:10) (Hart 100:52) (James 38:25) (CR:10) Austrian physicist and plant experimenter,

“My scientific studies have afforded me great gratification; and I am convinced that it will not be long before the whole world acknowledges the results of my work.”
— Gregor Mendel (c.1865), Publication (Ѻ)

noted for his 1856 to 1863 breeding experiments on pea plants in attempts to discern rules for parent to offspring trait inheritance; in doing so he initiated the field of genetics.

Vitruvius 75Vitruvius

(Murray 4000:7|T) Roman writer, architect, engineer, civil and military, and philosopher, and influence to Leonardo da Vinci; first-slating: 165|#413 (Jan 2018) based on his variety of knowledge (Ѻ), pure and applied.

Martin Heidegger 75Martin Heidegger

[RGM:170|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:914) (Perry 80:4|La) (HCR:14) (FA:105) (Stokes 100:71) (Perry 80:28) (GPhE:31) (CR:41) German atheistic existentialist philosopher (Sartre, 1945); influenced deeply by Nietzsche; teacher of Hannah Arendt; noted, predominately, for his 1927 Being and Time, in which he suggest that the meaning of our being must be tied up with time, i.e. that we are temporal beings, a logic somehow based on critique of Immanuel Kant and a synthesis of Friedrich Nietzsche; first-slating: 165|#261 (c.2016).

Bach 75Johann Bach
 IQ_{CB} \,=165
 IQ_C \,=165
 IQ_B \,=165
[RGM:16|1,310+] (RBCC:1|275+); a great among musical geniuses.

John Hunter 75John Hunter
 IQ_C \,=160 (Cattell 1000:141) [RGM:N/A|1,330+] (Murray 4000:19|Med) Scottish physiologist, comparative anatomist; promulgated some type of “great chemist” theory of life; upgrade from 160 to 165|#393 (Mar 2018).

Charles Dickens 75Charles Dickens
 IQ_{CB} \,=165
 IQ_C \,=180
 IQ_B \,=150


Kekule 75August Kekule

Kekule (benzene)(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (GCE:8) (Murray 4000:15|C) (Partington 50:6) German chemist, noted as early pioneer of chemical structure theory, per his 1857 models of tetravalent carbon atoms and atoms linking together, to form 3D structures; popularly known for his 1865 benzene ring structure; first-slating: 165|#444 based on his GCE ranking (Sep 2019).

Alan Watts 75Alan Watts
 IQ_O \,=125 [RGM:352|1,500+] (Perry greatest thinker:71) English-born American philosopher; IQ ranked (2016) by AI zealot / Christopher Langan fan, at 125 (Ѻ); first-draft IQ gauged at 150-170 [?] (c.2015).

Al-Batttani 75Al-Battani

(GMG:22) Arab astronomer and mathematician; referred to as the "Ptolemy of the Arabs"; considered the greatest and best known astronomer of the medieval Islamic world; noted for his work in trigonometry; quoted by Copernicus; cited by Guericke (1663) who he refers to as the "follower [or successor] of Ptolemy"; first-slating: 165|#445 as 10 IQ points below Ptolemy (Feb 2009).

Geoffrey Chaucer 75Geoffrey Chaucer

(Cattell 1000:170) [RGM:296|1,500+] English poet and author; widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages, he is best known for The Canterbury Tales; in the film Se7en (1995), the Parson's Tale, the intended final tale of his The Canterbury Tales, is an important clue to the methods of a serial killer who chooses his victims based on the seven deadly sins; slotted at #320 based on his RGM position (Jun 2017).

Albert Camus 75Albert Camus
 IQ_O \,=155 [RGM:351|1,260+] (Stokes 100:74); IQ cited (Ѻ) at 155; upgraded 10 IQ points ↑ (Jun 2017), above previous IQ citation, per reason of start of existentialism article, and calculation of mean IQ of top seven existentialism philosophers.

Jean-Paul Sartre 75Jean-Paul Sartre
 IQ_O \,=155 Existentialism (Sartre)[RGM:355|1,500+] (Stokes 100:73) (EPD:F2) (Becker 139:13) (GPhE:#) [CR:54] French atheist existentialist philosopher, predominately noted for his 1943 Being and Nothingness, who promoted an anti-deterministic variety, i.e. science not based on causality, of individual “freedom as the foundation of all values” type of existentialism, according to the logic of “existence precedes essence”, meaning that man first materializes into the world, encounters himself, and only afterwards defines himself; IQ cited (Ѻ) at 155; upgraded 10 IQ points ↑ per start of existentialism article, and calculation of mean IQ of top seven existentialism philosophers (Jun 2017)

Guglielmo Marconi 75Guglielmo Marconi
 IQ_B \,=165 Marconi radio(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:106|1,360+] (Murray 4000:6|T) Italian electrical engineer and inventor; in 1895, at the age of 20, building on the work of James Maxwell, Heinrich Hertz, Augusto Righi, and Oliver Lodge, he began laboratory experiments at his father's country estate, where he succeeded in sending wireless radio-wave signals over a distance of one and a half miles (see: device photo); in 1897, he founded the Marconi company, a wireless telegraphy commercial business; he later was a competitor with Nikola Tesla for the patent for radio technology.

Robert Grosseteste 75Robert Grosseteste

[RGM:764|1,500+] (MAG:23) (CR:4) English scholastic philosopher, statesman, and theologian, generally noted as an early formulator of the scientific method, particularly in respect to controlled experiment; influenced: Roger Bacon, Bonaventure, and Johannes Kepler; first slating: 165|#450 (Aug 2019).

Anaximenes 75Anaximenes

Anaximenes theory(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] Greek philosopher, student of Anaximander, mentor to Hippo, noted for his air as “arche” or first principle theory of things, out of which fire, via rarefaction, and water and earth, via condensation, arise:

“Several scholars have declared that there are many, perhaps even innumerable worlds, including: Aristarchus, Anaximenes, Xenophanes, Democritus, Epicurus, Metrodorus, Leucippus, and Diogenes.”
Otto Guericke (1672), New Magdeburg Experiments on the Vacuum of Space

First-slating: 165|#440 (Jan 2019).

Frederick the Great 75Frederick the Great

Voltaire and Frederick the Great (labeled)(Cattell 1000:49) [RGM:N/A|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A) Prussian king, from 1740 to 1786, and philosopher noted for being the host to Voltaire, when he was banished from France, for appointing, per suggestion of Pierre Maupertuis, Julien la Mettrie as his court physician, who was posthumously referred to as the "court atheist" (or "royal atheist") by Voltaire, and for his general efforts to promote French enlightenment stylized ideals in the Prussian empire; first slating: 170|#311 (Jan 2018); second-slating: 165|#405 (Apr 2018) per Frederick II and Francois Vayer rankings.

Mary Somerville 75Mary Somerville

[RGM:911|1,500+] Scottish mathematician, astronomer, and science writer, aka “queen of 19th-century science” (Ѻ); mathematics tutor to Ada Lovelace; first-slating: 180|#143 (c.2017); downgraded to: 165|#441 (Jan 2019).

Georg Ohm 75Georg Ohm

Ohm experiment 2(Cattell 1000:N/A) (Gottlieb 1000:N/A) [RGM:154|1,500+] (Murray 4000:N/A) [Kanowitz 50:27] (GPE:93) (SIG:18) (CR:5) German physicist and mathematician; noted for his 1826 discovery of the “Ohm's law”, shown below:

Ohm's law

which states that current is directly proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance.

Germaine Stael 75Germaine Stael
 IQ_C \,=180(Cattell 1000:164) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (CR:5) French-born German writer; only child of Swiss-born French statesman and financier Jacques Necker (1732-1804) (IQ:155|#553) (Cattell 1000:235) and Swiss-born Suzanne Curchod (Suzanne Necker), noted for her who hostessing of Rue de la Chaussée-d'Antin one of the most popular salons of Paris; her mother, at an early age, tried to make her into a prodigy of sorts, piling the books on her; in 1803, she was Banned from France by Napoleon, for publishing her controversial novel Delphine; after which she went to German and became part of Goethe’s circle and an Elective Affinities admirer; down-graded from 175|#239 to 165|#442 (Jan 2019).

Sofia KovalevskayaSofia Kovalevskaya
 IQ_R  \,=170
 IQ_D  \,=156
Russian mathematician; noted for contributions to analysis, partial differential equations, and mechanics; as an infant, owing to a wallpaper shortage, her nursery had been covered with pages from her father’s old calculus text, supposedly she “gazed for hours at those pages, craving to understand them”, reports John Lienhard; at age 19, she entered University of Heidelberg, studying mathematics under Hermann Helmholtz, Gustav Kirchoff, and Robert Bunsen; by age 25, finished her doctorate on partial differential equations, along with a paper on the dynamics of Saturn's rings, and one on elliptic integrals, at the University of Göttingen, graduating summa *** laude; she thereby became the first woman in Europe to hold that degree (Ѻ) (Ѻ); Dduring an invite to one of George Elliot’s Sunday salons, she met Herbert Spencer and was led into a debate, at Eliot's instigation, on "woman's capacity for abstract thought".

Évariste Galois 75Evariste Galois

[RGM:517|1,500+] [GME] (Glenn 20:11) ranked as “world’s 50 smartest teenagers” (2014) (Ѻ); Quora compared (Ѻ) to Terence Tao (2016), as to who was more “brilliant” at age 20; at age 14, he read Adrien Legendre’s Elements of Geometry “like a novel”, as he says, mastering it at first reading; at 15, he read Joseph Lagrange’s Reflections on the Algebraic Solutions of Equations, which motivated his later work on equation theory; first-draft gauged at 165|#345 (Nov 2017).

William Wordsworth
 IQ_C \,=165An associate of John Stewart.

Wilbur Wright 75Wilbur Wright
 IQ_B \,=165 Wilbur Wright plane[RGM:81|1,500+] American aviation pioneer;

“For some years, I have been afflicted with the belief that flight is possible to man. My disease has increased in severity and I feel that it will soon cost me an increased amount of money if not my life.”
— Wilbur Wright (1900) (Ѻ)

In 1903, together with his brother Orville Wright (1871-1948), built and flew the first powered airplane.

William Herschel 75 William Herschel
 IQ_C \,=165 Noted astronomer.

Johannes Brahms 75Johannes Brahms

[RGM:114|1,310+] (RBCC:7|275+) Cox 300 (Ѻ) missing genius (Robinson, 2010); a 500 geniuses cited (Ѻ) missing candidate (2017); a great among musical geniuses.

Seneca 75Seneca
(4BC-65AD) ↑

(Cattell 1000:189) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (FA:27) (CR:39) Roman stoic philosopher, moralist, statesman, and dramatist [not to be confused with his father “Seneca the elder” (54BC-39AD) (Ѻ)]; oft-cited in the silent historians problem; his works together with Cicero’s, according to Thomas More (1516) (IQ:175|#240), are said to be the only philosophy of importance in Latin worth reading; first-slating: 165|#410 (Mar 2018).


(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Quote: “Life is force you see: to do everything force doth compel us”; first-draft gauged at 165|#351 per Marcus Varro (#250) add (Dec 2017).

Aristophanes 75Aristophanes

(Cattell 1000:136) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] (FA:18) Greek philosopher; person behind soul mate theory; in his satirical play The Clouds (Ѻ), tells a dialogue about the nature of rain (natural or Zeus caused), between a fictional atheist character Socrates and a lay character Strepsaides, who thinks rain is caused by “Zeus pissing into a sieve”; first-draft gauged at 165|#352 (Dec 2017).

Cardinal Richelieu 75Richelieu

(Cattell 1000:139) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] French clergyman, nobleman, and statesman; noted for his work, from 1625 to 1643, as de facto leader of France, wherein he embedded the world’s first secular scheme of government; upgrade from 160|#581 to 165|#463 (Aug 2019).

Vincent van Gogh 75Vincent van Gogh

The Potato Eaters[RGM:70|1,500+] (Murray 4000:18|WA) Dutch Post-Impressionist painter; in about a decade, he created about 2,100 artworks, including around 860 oil paintings, most of them in the last two years of his existence; noted works: The Starry Night (1889), Irises (1889), Sunflowers (c.1885), The Potato Eaters (1885), and Café Terrance at Night (1888); IQ:150+ (Ѻ), IQ:150-200 (Ѻ); top 1000 missing candidate (Jan 2019); first-slating: 165|#450 (Jan 2019).

Igor Stravinsky 75Igor Stravinsky
 IQ_B \,=180[RGM:380|1,310+] (RBCC:22|275+); downgraded per musical geniuses IQ consensus (2017)

Fritz Lipmann 75Fritz Lipmann

(CR:62) German-born American physician and biochemist (CHNOPS-chemist);

“Two groups of important discoveries nourish the thinking of [post Lamarckian-Darwinian] biologists today. For the one part, the astonishing progress since Fritz Lipmann in the domain of bioenergetics and for the other, the impetus which thermodynamics has assumed under the fertile impulse of the genius of Prigogine.”
Ernest Schoffeniels (1973), Anti-Chance (pg. xi)

Noted for his 1941 ATP bond energy coupling theory, wherein, building on the earlier work of Herman Kalckar who had previously (or simultaneously) showed that phosphate compounds could provide energy, by demonstrating that in frog muscles, where glycolysis had been inhibited with iodoacetate, muscular contraction continued for a short period using phosphocreatine as a source of energy, he showed how cellular activity, e.g. chemical work (molecular synthesis), mechanical work (motor proteins), transport work (membrane transport), is powered thermodynamically inside of animate organisms; first-slating: 165|#450 (Jan 2019).

John Philoponus

[RGM:772|1,500+] Roman philosopher, scientist, theologian, grammarian (Ѻ), and astronomer (Ѻ);

“Philoponus is one of the greatest geniuses of antiquity.”
Pierre Duhem (1913), The System of the World (Le système du monde)

noted for commentary on Democritus; for his impetus theory of motion; influential to: Avicenna, Bonaventure, John Buridan (or Jean Buridan), and Galileo, the latter of whom, in his The Two New Sciences (1638), cites Philoponus, and the later development of inertia (principle of inertia); first-slating: IQ:165|#451 (Jan 2019).

Karl Popper 75Karl Popper

Falsifiability (Popper)(RGM:1182|1,500+) (Stokes 100:94) (GPhE:25) (CR:25) Austrian-born English philosopher, noted for his 1919 falsifiability model of good science, according to which to know if something is true or not, e.g. a new theory like relativity, there must be a way to test it, e.g. measure during an eclipse if the mass of the sun bends light, and for his latter discussions on the arrow of time in relation to entropy as well as his critique on general laws of science; first-slating: top 200-300 (Dec 2016).

Charles Townes 75 Charles Townes

MaserTownes, starting with Einstein’s 1917 proposal that the right wavelength of light can stimulate an excited atom to emit light of the same wavelength, was stymied by how to corral a gas of excited atoms without them flying apart; in 1951, while sitting on a park bench in Washington, D.C., 1951, when he was struck by the thought that molecules might be made to vibrate a certain way and to release a certain type of stimulated microwave radiation; his revelatory solution allowed him to separate excited from non-excited molecules and store them in a resonant cavity, so that when a microwave traveled through the gas, the molecules were stimulated to emit microwaves in step with one another: a coherent burst; in 1954, he and his students built such a device using ammonia gas and dubbed it a “maser”, for microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. (Ѻ) Four years later, in 1958, he and his brother-in-law and future Nobelist Arthur Schawlow conceived the idea of doing the same thing with optical light, but using mirrors at the ends of a gas tube to amplify the light to get an “optical maser.” Downgrade (↓) for promoting religion-science-spirituality compatibility views, two years after winning the Nobel Prize in physics (1964).

Theodore Maiman 75Theodore Maiman

laserIn 1960, after completing his PhD in experimental physics, involving detailed microwave-optical measurements of fine structural splittings in excited helium atoms, under Willis Lamb (1913-2008), eponym of “Lamb shift” (Ѻ), and working for three years (1956 to 1958) on the “Ruby Maser Redesign Project” for the US Army, and after reading the Schawlow-Townes paper (1958) on masers, he built and demonstrated the world’s first “laser”, using a synthetic pink ruby crystal as the lasing medium and a helical xenon flash lamp as the excitation source.

Jung 75Carl Jung
 IQ_O \,=185
 IQ_B \,=160
[RGM:100|1,260+] Quote: “Did you know he is suspected to have had an IQ of like, 185?” (Ѻ)

Anthony Shaftesbury, 1st Earl (1621-1683) IQ_C \,=165(Cattell 1000:365) English politician; grandfather to deism moral philosopher Anthony Shaftesbury, 3rd Earl (1671-1713).

Sun Tzu 75Sun Tzu
 IQ_B \,=165(RGM:47|1,310+) a top ranked Chinese genius; purported author of the Art of War.

Gustav Fechner 75Gustav Fechner

(CR:19) German experimental psychologist noted for his 1860 stimulus sensation psychodynamics experiments, for his panpsychism-themed atomic theory, and for his inanimate principle of absolute stability; first-draft slating: 165|#420 (Mar 2018).

Joseph Lister
 IQ_B \,=165

Carl Scheele 75Carl Scheele

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,500+](Murray 4000:3|C) (Partington 50:9) (GCE:10) (CR:4) Swedish-German chemist; noted for discovery of: oxygen, molybdenum, tungsten, barium, hydrogen, chlorine, tartaric, oxalic, uric, lactic, and citric, as well as hydrofluoric, hydrocyanic, and arsenic acids; his Chemical Treatise on Air and Fire (1777), his only book, published the results of all of his discoveries; first-slating: 165|#475 generally based on GCE ranking (Oct 2019).

Christopher Wren
 IQ_B \,=165

Thomas Digges

Digges solar systemEnglish mathematician, astronomer, politician, and military leader;

Tycho Brahe and others deemed Digges to be one of the greatest geniuses of the time.”
— Walter Ball (1889), A History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge

His 1576 publication of the first English translation of the Copernican system, added in a conjecture, as diagrammed adjacent, that the universe is infinite, containing infinitely many stars (possibly the first to do so); influential to Giordano Bruno; first-slating: IQ:165|#461 (Jan 2019).

Frederic Chopin 75Frederic Chopin


Steve Jobs 75 Steve Jobs
 IQ_R \,=160[RGM:163|150+] American computer pioneer; co-founder of Apple (1976); initiator of the smart phone revolution, via the development of the iPhone (2007); quote: “in fourth grade, he had an IQ of 160” “The IQ of Steve JobsExternal link icon (c)(2011); high entrepreneurial IQ; see also: Steve JobsExternal link icon (c): American Genius (2012); first-slated: 165|#370 (2016).

Walter Raleigh
 IQ_C \,=165

Marcello Malpighi 75Marcello Malpighi

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,360+] (Murray 4000:10|B) Italian biologist and physician, aka "father of microscopical anatomy, histology, physiology and embryology";

“It was Hooke, not Malpighi, Swammerdam, Leeuwenhoek, or Nehemiah Grew, who revealed the mysteries of the microscope.”
— Stephen Inwood (2002), The Man Who Knew Too Much (pg. 65)

noted for his 1661 identification and description of pulmonary and capillary networks connecting small arteries with small veins; first-slating: 165|#425 (Apr 2018).

Joseph Addison 75Joseph Addison
 IQ_C \,=165 (Cattell 1000:71) [RGM:N/A|1,360+] (Murray 4000:N/A) English essayist, poet, and statesman; associated with Richard Steele and their magazine The Tatler.

Richard Trevithick 75Richard Trevithick

Trevithick railway (1808)(EP:29) (CR:3) British engineer, mining engineer, and inventor, noted for his 1804 demonstration of a train that rain on rails (see: adjacent photo); the first steam locomotive in history to do so; first-slating: 165|#482 (Nov 2019).

Gottlob Frege 75Gottlob Frege

[RGM:235|1,310+] He is grouped with: Auguste Morgan (Eells 100:51), George Boole (IQ:175|#212), Bertrand Russell (IQ:180|#106), Giuseppe Peano, Alfred Whitehead [RGM:1,224|1,310+], Georg Cantor [RGM:495|1,310+] (GME:16), Charles Peirce (Ѻ), and Kurt Godel (IQ:170|#332), who, according to PhiloEpisteme (Dec 2017) (Ѻ), “cannot be less intelligent” than Russell.


Top 1000 geniuses: 1-100 | IQ: 225-180
Top 1000 geniuses: 101-200 | IQ: 180-180
Top 1000 geniuses: 201-300 | IQ: 180-175
Top 1000 geniuses: 301-400 | IQ: 175-170
Top 1000 geniuses: 401-500 | IQ: 170-165
Top 1000 geniuses: 501-600 | IQ: 165-160
Top 1000 geniuses: 601-700 | IQ: 160-150
Top 1000 geniuses: 701-800 | IQ: 150-140
● Top 1000 geniuses: 801-900
● Top 1000 geniuses: 901-1000
Top 1000 geniuses (candidates)

N1. Note: see "IQ key" page for IQ subscript symbol meaning.

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