University of California, Berkeley

Gilbert Lewis ns
Gilbert Lewis
(1925)
Robert Nisbet ns
Robert Nisbet
(1970)
Frederick Rossini ns
Frederick Rossini
(1971)
Richard Delgado ns
Richard Delgado
(1990)
Famous human thermodynamicists and or hmolscientists common to the University of California, Berkeley.
In universities, University of California, Berkeley, or UC Berkeley for short, is state university located in Berkeley, California, home to the Lewis school of thermodynamics, and alumni to a number of famous thinkers common to the hmolsciences (hmolscientists), most notably American physical chemist Gilbert Lewis, who in 1925 questioned whether the process of him writing a book was but a chemical reaction.

“Perhaps our genius for unity will some time produce a science so broad as to include the behavior of a group of electrons and the behavior of a university faculty, but such a possibility seems now so remote that I for one would hesitate to guess whether this wonderful science would be more like mechanics or like a psychology.”
Gilbert Lewis (1925), The Anatomy of Science [5]

Others include: American sociologist Robert Nisbet noted social bond/social entropy theorist, founder of the UC Berkeley sociology department, American chemical engineer and physical chemist Frederick Rossini, noted for his 1971 Priestley Medal Address “Chemical Thermodynamics in the Real World”, which in 2006 sparked what has come come to be called the "Rossini debate" in regards to whether or not chemical thermodynamics applies to questions of freedom and security in society, and American neurological anthropologist Terrence Deacon, the current head of the of the UC Berkeley anthropology department, noted for his 2011 thermodynamics-based non-reductive materialism theories of mind from matter, among others.

Lewis school | Formation
See main: Lewis school of thermodynamics
The “Lewis school", a term used as early as 1923, or G.N. Lewis school, a term that came into use commonly into the 1950s, refers to anyone schooled under the logic of American physical chemist Gilbert Lewis. In the 20th century, the most cited textbook on thermodynamics was the 1923 Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical Substances written by Lewis and his editorial assistant American physical chemist Merle Randall.

Human thermodynamics | Human molecular engineering
See main: Two cultures department
UC Berkeley, centered around the so-called "Lewis school", has a number of human thermodynamics thinkers to have interjected into debate, commentary, and or theory on the implications of thermodynamics on human existence.

In 1899, American philosopher Harry Overstreet, noted for his circa 1950 “extropy”, conceived as a counter-entropy, theories of truth, beauty, and goodness, completed his BA and his BS (1901) both at the University of California, Berkeley, after which he taught philosophy at UC Berkeley from 1901 to 1911.

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (UC Berkeley)
In 2010, the name of the UC Berkeley "Chemical Engineering" department was changed to the department of "Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering" to reflect the widened scope of teaching and research activities in the department, which is a change not in cogent alignment with the new defunct theory of life perspective, which according works of English physiologist Charles Sherrington: [16]

"Chemistry does not know the word life."

The "new" UC Berkeley department namesake, one day, will eventually have to be changed again (see: life terminology upgrades).

In 1925, Gilbert Lewis, himself, in his "Anatomy of Science" lecture turned book, was the first to give his opinion on the implications of chemical thermodynamics. On the subject of the origin of life question, he then brings up “autocatalysis” as a possible solution, which he describes as a type of catalysis in which a reaction is accelerated by one of its own products, so that a long time may elapse before anything happens, but if that product begins to form, or is introduced form with, the reaction goes faster and faster.” Lewis then spends a page or two describing a thought experiment where we are told to imagine a “certain solution capable of producing a given organic substance, but that it will not produce this substance unless one molecule of this substance is already there, after which more and more of these molecules form at the expense of the nutrient solution.” He then goes on to explain how isomers of these molecules could form, then begin to collide with each other, knocking off certain atoms, leading to mutations. He then concludes: [5]

“We should see a process of evolution, each molecule reproducing itself exactly, until an accidental rearrangement would set a new molecule to propagating itself. Would not this be reproduction with transmission of acquired characteristics?”

A molecule that “propagating itself”, however, is perpetual motion—it is biological theory forced biasedly into chemistry. Lewis defends this by commenting “you may object to my using terms drawn from biology.” In any event, he then boldly digs into the heart of the matter, i.e. the gist of what we now have come to define as hmolscience (human chemistry + human thermodynamics + human physics):

“Suppose that this hypothetical experiment could be realized, which seems not unlikely, and suppose we could discover a whole chain of phenomena [evolution timeline], leading by imperceptible gradations form the simplest chemical molecule to the most highly developed organism [human molecule]. Would we then say that my preparation of this volume [Anatomy of Science] is only a chemical reaction [extrapolate up approach], or, conversely that a crystal is thinking [extrapolate down approach] about the concepts of science?”

Here we see Lewis wavering on whether he is a molecule or an organism in regards to the deeper questions on mind and life.
Two Cultures Department
American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims, who as an undergraduate had been accepted to the University of California, Berkeley, presently is working to found America's first "two cultures" department (see: two cultures department) at UC Berkeley, centered around the chemical engineering department, in the form of human chemical engineering or "humanities + chemical engineering", in mindset alignment with some of the great thinkers to have been products of this school: Gilbert Lewis (1925), Frederick Rossini (1971), Todd Silverstein (2006).

In 1928, American chemical engineer and physical chemist Frederick Rossini, one of the founders of political thermodynamics, completed his PhD under Lewis, Giauque, and Randall (his direct doctorial supervisor). In 1950, Rossini penning his Chemical Thermodynamics textbook, one of the first followups to Lewis' 1923 textbook. In his 1971 Priestley Medal address “Chemical Thermodynamics in the Real World”, Rossini sparked what has come come to be called the "Rossini debate" in regards to whether or not chemical thermodynamics applies to questions of freedom and security in society. [3] A noted 2006 commentator, or rather defender of Rossini, in this debate is American chemist Todd Silverstein who completed his MS and PhD at the University of California, Berkeley. [4]

In 1974, American law professor and racial thermodynamics theorist Richard Delgado completed his JD in 1974 at the UC Berkeley.

In 1981, American evolutionary psychology founder David Buss, one of the backbone theorists behind American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims' 2007 human chemical thermodynamics formulations, completed his PhD in psychology at the UC Berkeley.
UC Berkeley Sociology
American sociologist Robert Nisbet, the founder of the UC Berkeley sociology department, was one of the first to incorporate chemical thermodynamics concepts, e.g. entropy, into sociology.

Sociology

In 1939, American sociologist Robert Nisbet, noted for his 1970 book The Social Bond, utilizing concepts such as social entropy, social bond, etc., completed his PhD in sociology, with a dissertation on French conservative social thought in the early nineteenth century, at UC Berkeley and went on to found the sociology department at Berkeley, staying there until 1953. The following is Nisbet's position on sociology:

“Just as modern chemistry concerns itself with what it calls the chemical bond, seeking the forces that make atoms stick together as molecules, so does sociology investigate the forces that enable biologically derived human beings to stick together in the ‘social molecules’ in which we actually find them from the moment, quite literally, of their conception.”

The conception of a "hydrogen bond" defined as the binding between two atoms as being possible through the medium of a hydrogen ion was first advanced in the unpublished work of American chemist Maurice Huggins in 1919, with his conception of an H-bond, a theory later expanded on by Wendell Latimer and Worth Rodebush in 1920, who cite Huggins in a footnote, in their paper "Polarity and Ionization from the Standpoint of the Lewis Theory of Valence". [6] All three were students of Gilbert Lewis, working in his chemical laboratory at UC Berkeley. This "hydrogen bond" vs "covalent bond" theory work, in turn, inspired the 1973 human chemical bond type article "The Strength of the Weak Ties" by American sociologist Mark Granovetter, outlining his weak tie/strong tie theory, which has resulted to be one of the most cited sociology articles of all time. [7]

In the early 1960s, American sociologist James Beniger, noted for his 1986 human thermodynamics themed book The Control Revolution, completed his MS in statistics, and MA and PhD in sociology, at UC Berkeley.
Berkeley english
Comparative Literature (UC Berkeley)
Ironically, the same university (UC Berkeley) that originally rejected American writer Thomas Pynchon into their graduate program (in mathematics), in 1964, now teaches courses, such as English 190 (Spring, 2013), devoted to studies of his literature thermodynamics books: Gravity’s Rainbow, The Crying of Lot 49, and V. [11]

Literature
In 1964, American literature thermodynamics writer Thomas Pynchon applied to study mathematics as a graduate student at the UC Berkeley, but was turned down. [8]

In 1970, American literature thermodynamics theorist Lois Zamora, who would go on to be a noted Thomas Pynchon scholar, completed her MA and PhD in 1977 in comparative literature at UC Berkeley, which again, ironically, is the same university that rejected Pynchon six years earlier. In her 1988 Dictionary of Literary Themes and Motifs entry on apocalypse, to exemplify, Zamora summarizes use of the metaphor of entropy and the second law to describe the end of times as follows: [9]

“A contemporary variation on the apocalyptic vision is provided by the metaphor of entropy. Like apocalypse, entropy is an eschatological vision; it is based on the second law of thermodynamics, which describes the gradual leveling of energy in the universe and the molecular equilibrium called heat death at the end of the process. Entropy posits a world moving toward its extinction inexorably and irreversibly; the end is not to be orchestrated with the great crescendo of apocalyptic cataclysm but rather with the decrescendo of entropic chaos. This eschatology is far more pessimistic than conventional apocalyptic eschatology. The end is not caused by man’s action and God’s reaction, but is produced by decomposition, disintegration, and gradual loss of energy and differentiation. The anthropomorphism of the traditional apocalypse, with it implicit sense of purposeful history responding to human as well as to divine actions, yields to the bleak mechanism of a purely physical world that is irreversibly running out of energy. Whereas the apocalyptic vision sees a causal relationship between past, present, and future, the law of entropy, when applied to human affairs, negates such rational, temporal continuity. History does have a direction as it moves towards heat death, but it admits not human influence, no logical relationship between cause and effect. The use of the metaphor of entropy to describe the end of times appears through the fiction of Thomas Pynchon, William Burroughs, Norman Mailer, and James Purdy.”
UC Berkeley (anthropology)
In 2012 and 2013, American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims helped to mediate the allegations of "theory plagiarism" that the head of the UC Berkeley anthropology department Terrence Deacon "stole" American philosopher Alicia Juarrero's 1999 thermodynamics-framed non-reductive materialism theory, a factoid that should serve as a clarion call that it is due time for the establishment of an educational system that teaches the overlap of, at the very least, philosophy, anthropology, and thermodynamics.

Anthropology
See main: Juarrero-Deacon affair
In 2011, Cuban-born American philosopher Alicia Juarrero, formerly a professor of Prince George’s Community College, Maryland, accused American neurological anthropologist Terrence Deacon, the current head of the of the UC Berkeley anthropology department, stole or “misappropriated” the bulk of her thermodynamics-framed non-reductive materialism theories, contained in her 1999 book Dynamics in Action: Intentional Behavior as a Complex System, and used them as the basis of his 2011 book Incomplete Nature: How Mind Emerged from Matter, without citation of her work. This prompted a UC Berkeley investigation into the alleged "research misconduct" allegations.

On 22 Jan 2013, the Berkeley investigation committee released its findings, the conclusion of which Deacon was exonerated. In the report overview cites American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims Hmolpedia “HT pioneers” page, with its 500+ chronological listing of theorists to have applied thermodynamics to questions of human existence, a group to which both Juarrero and Deacon belong (though not yet input into the table, as they are both newly-found theorists, i.e. theorists not found in the 2002-2012 search period construction of the table), as a method of disproof to American Wall complexity-emergence theorist Michael Lissack’s definition of what he calls “plagiarism by negligence”, the gist of which is that anyone now, according to Lissack, in the modern Internet age, who publishes a new idea or theory without first doing a search for previous theorists, is guilty of plagiarism. [27] Specifically, as stated in a 2012 letter to Robert Price, entitled “Subliminal Influence or Plagiarism by Negligence?”, according Lissack: [28]

“There is no excuse, to even tolerate the idea that in the Internet Age it is acceptable … to fail to see what others have written before publishing his own work. Plagiarism by negligence is still plagiarism.”

This idealized view of Lissack, as the Berkeley investigation report explains, is a naïve perspective. The HT pioneers page, in fact, as stated here (31 Jan 2012), took American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims 10-years (2002-2012) to construct and compile, using an exhaustive method of searching, namely: Google Books, Google scholar, libraries, Internet, footnotes, bibliographies, articles, blogs, webpages, etc., and that was after working independently on his own theoretical queries, without worry about what had been done prior to him, for a period of seven years (1995-2001) simply as a personal curiosity. Some HT authors, such as Iranian-born American electrical engineer and material scientist Robert Kenoun (Theory of History and Social Evolution, 2006), to note, choose specifically to avoid a prior read of the extant literature to keep the originality of their work in view. Hence, Lissack’s conception of “plagiarism by negligence”, even if an idea gets into the mind of the author via “subliminal influence”, as Lissack puts it, where the author loses track of or may not be aware of the original seed, is an unreal idealization and hence defamatory in assertion.

By early February 2013, Thims, in an humorous educational gleaning effort to discern light into the so-called affair, read through both the Juarrero (1999) and the Deacon (2011) books, along the way creating a Google Book search overlapping "key term" usage in each book to account for similarity. A JHT report summary is underway.

Other
In 1900, college students at the UC Berkeley, were attempting to make or reconstruct models of American engineer Willard Gibbs' thermodynamic surface, similar to what James Maxwell did in his thermodynamic surface.

Mexican-born American theoretical chemist Henry Eyring, noted for the 1931 potential energy surface model, the 1935 transition state theory, completed his PhD degree in chemistry at UC Berkeley in 1927 for a dissertation entitled: “A Comparison of the Ionization by, and Stopping Power for, Alpha Particles of Elements and Compounds.”

In circa 1957, American physical-quantum chemist William Cropper, noted for his chemical thermodynamics soaked 2001 Great Physicists, completed his PhD at UC Berkeley.

In 1957, American science paradigm change theorist Thomas Kuhn taught in both the philosophy department and the history department, being named Professor of the History of Science in 1961.

In 1965, Israeli biophysical thermodynamicist Aharon Katchalsky gave a series of lectures on “The Physics and Biology of Time”, recorded by on film, at UC Berkeley.

Presently, English biochemist Christopher Southgate, noted for his work and discussion on the science-religion debate, a course he began teaching in 1993 at the University of Exeter, scholar at the Graduate Theology Union, Berkeley, an affiliate of the UC Berkeley.

Detractors
In circa 1967, American-born Canadian biochemist and physical chemist Stephen Lower, noted for his 2007 online listing of human chemistry as a "crackpot" subject, competed his BS in biochemistry at UC Berkeley.

In 2009, American chemist Mitch Garcia, a vocal detractor to the proposal of teaching human chemistry theory in schools, completed his PhD in chemistry at UC Berkeley.

See also
University of Chicago
Princeton University Department of Social Physics
Two Cultures Department
Schools of Thermodynamics

References

3. Rossini, Frederick D. (1971). "Chemical Thermodynamics in the Real World", Priestley Medal Address, in: Chemical & Engineering News, April 5, 49 (14): 50-53, American Chemical Society.
4. Silverstein, Todd, P. (2006). “State Functions vs. State Governments”, Journal of Chemical Education, Jun. (83): 847, Letters.
5. Lewis, Gilbert N. (1925). The Anatomy of Science, Silliman Lectures; Yale University Press, 1926.
6. (a) Evans, Robert C. (1939). An Introduction to Crystal Chemistry (pg. 287). The University Press.
(b) Latimer WM and Rodebush WH. (1920). "Polarity and Ionization from the Standpoint of the Lewis Theory of Valence", J. Am. Chem. Soc., 42: 1419-1433.
(c) Maurice Huggins – Wikipedia.
7. (a) Granovetter, Mark. (1973). "The Strength of Weak Ties" (cited by 15367), American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 78, Issue 6, May 1973, pp. 1360-1380.
(b) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume One) (weak ties, strong ties, pg. 184) . Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
(c) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume Two) (weak ties, strong ties, pgs. xiv, 543, 548, 560, 574-78). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
8. Royster, Paul. (2005). "Thomas Pynchon: A Brief Chronology". Faculty Publications, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 2005.
9. Nisbet, Robert A. (1970). The Social Bond: an Introduction to Society ("modern chemistry", pg. 38; pg. 55, ch. 10: Social Entropy, pgs. 260-300). Alfred A. Knopf.
10. Zamora, Lois Parkinson. (1988). “§Apocalypse, subsection: Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century American Apocalyptic Literature”, in: Dictionary of Literary Themes and Motifs A-J, Volume 1 (pg. 96), Seigneuret, Jean-Charles, editor. Greenwood Publishing Group.
11. English 190 – UC Berkeley English.
14. Plagiarism Investigation Exonerates Terrence W. Deacon – TerryDeacon.Berkeley.edu.
15. Lissack, Michael. (2012). “Subliminal Influence or Plagiarism by Negligence?”, Letter to Robert Price, Dec 20.
16. Sherrington, Charles. (1940). Man on His Nature (pg. 87). CUP Archive.

External links
University of California, Berkeley – Wikipedia.


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