Vacuum bulb

vacuum bulb (1663)Guericke piston experiment (20 men)
Left: a 1663 design vacuum bulb (top part) and vacuum pump (bottom part), the third design of the vacuum pump by German engineer Otto Guericke. Right: a small boy (left) holding a vacuum bulb in circa 1670 "lifting device" Guericke engine experiment where, when connects the bulb to connector x and then turns the stopcöck, releasing the power of the vacuum, at which point the piston is pushed down and the men jerked forward.
In engines, vacuum bulb (TR:21), aka "air pump", is a glass sphere that can be attached and detached to a vacuum pump, with a twist of the of the stopcöck, after the vacuum is made inside the bulb and be carried about as a sort of storage vacuum and used later to be harnessed for work as in the lifting device arrangement of the Guericke engine.

The vacuum bulb was invented in circa 1650 by German engineer Otto Guericke as the vacuum holding part of the the vacuum pump.

The following are related quotes:

Guericke had designed his first air pump on the basis of a fire syringe: a piston moving back and forth in a brass cylinder. During the outward motion, it took in air from a spherical recipient. The pump was emptied during the inward stroke, while a leather valve prevented the air from flowing back to the recipient. The outlet was supplied with a valve as well, to prevent the atmospheric air from being taken in during the suction stroke. Hooke and Huygens improved on this design, but the overall idea remained the same. Leakage was the largest problem with the earliest vacuum pumps. To reduce it, the pump cylinder had to be perfectly straight with a smooth inner surface. Requirements like this made the construction of a vacuum pump extremely expensive and difficult. No more than fifteen scholars and institutions succeeded in obtaining a vacuum pump before 1670, and most of these depended on Guericke, Hooke, or Huygens for the construction and maintenance of their instruments.”
Anne Helden (2003), “Air Pump”, in: Encyclopedia of the Scientific Revolution [1]

See also
‚óŹ Engine development timeline

1. Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres –
2. (a) Shapin, Steven and Schaffer, Simon. (1985). Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life (Guericke, 5+ pgs; map, pg. 228; antlia pneumatica, pg. 278). Princeton University Press, 2011.
(b) Helden, Anne. (1991). “The Age of the Air-Pump” (pdf), Tractrix: Yearbook for the History of Science, Medicine, Technology, and Mathematics, 3:149-72.
(c) Helden, Anne. (2003). “Air Pump”, in: Encyclopedia of the Scientific Revolution: from Copernicus to Newton (editor: Wilbur Applebaum) (§: Air Pump, pgs. #; Guericke, 5+ pg. #). Routledge.

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