Wallis Budge

Wallis BudgeIn religio-mythology, Wallis Budge (1857-1934) (IQ:155|#540) (RMS:67) (CR:107) was an English Egyptologist noted for his 1895 English translation of the Egyptian Book of the Dead (Papyris of Ani), and various publications to follow, in which he laid out the basic outline foundation of Egyptian theology, or Ra theology in core structure, wherein after it began to become apparent that Ab-ra-ham-ic theologies (Torah religions) and B-ra-hma-ic theologies (Vedic religions), which constitute over 72 percent of the modern world's belief system, are Egyptian-based religions, in derivative-syncretism structure, such as explained in the 1996-2000 work of American Egyptologist Gary Greenberg and 2003 work of American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims.
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Book of the Dead | Recension theory
In 1842, Richard Lepsius published the first “standard edition” attempt at an English rendering of the Egyptian Book of the Dead, one from the papyrus of a Ptolemaic official named Iuwefankh. Lepsius divided this book into 165 chapters, assigning the numbers on the basis of the dividing lines and rubrics of that document. Additional chapters were added by Willem Pleyte, Edouard Naville, Wallis Budge, T.G. Allen, and others, raising the total number, as of 2008, to 192 chapters. [2]

Swiss Egyptologist Edouard Naville (c.1895) is credited with "recension theory" the assertion that there were both a “Theban recension” (18th-19th dynasties), i.e. those written before the Late Period, of the Book of the Dead, and a “Saite recension” (26th dynasty), after which the Dead Book became standardized into a specific order and “fossilized”, as some have referred to it, in terms of content. [3] Budge promoted Naville's recension theory, by adding to it the Heliopolitan recension.
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British Museum | Head
The following is an outline of the transition of heads or keepers of oriental antiquities of the British Museum: [6]


Scholar
Span
Notes

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1. Samuel Birch
(1813-1885)
1836-1886Birch and Brugsch are the two greatest masters of Egyptology.”
— Wallis Budge (1904), The Gods of the Egyptians, V1 (pgs. 63-64)
2. Peter Renouf
(1822-1897)
1886-1991Renouf disliked Budge intensely, considering him to be a "charlatan and a plagiarist", and instead preferred his friend and colleague Edouard Naville to succeed him. [5]
3. Wallis Budge
(1857-1934)
1891-1924
4. Henry Hall
(1873-1930)
1924-1930

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Religio-mythology | Christianity
Budge, while professing at one point to be a “confessed Christian” (Ѻ), devoted a noted effort, seemingly throughout his writings, at passing jabs and commentaries on similarities between the older Egyptian and Sumerian, in respect to Hebrew beliefs, and the three of these in respect to Coptic Christianity, modern Christianity, and Islam.

“In Osiris the Christian Egyptians found the prototype of Christ, and in the pictures and statues of Isis suckling her son Horus, they perceived the prototype of the Virgin Mary and her Child.”
— Wallis Budge (1899), Egyptian Ideas of the Future Life [1]

“It may seem unnecessary to discuss Egyptian monotheism at such length, but the matter is one of great interest and importance because the literature of Egypt proves it to have been in existence in that country for more than three thousand five hundred years before Christ; in fact, Egyptian monotheism is the oldest form of monotheism known to us.”
— Wallis Budge (1904), The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume One (pg. 145) [4]

“Much has yet to be done before all the comparisons and connections between the Egyptian and Christian systems can be fully worked out, but the facts quoted above will, perhaps, suggest the importance of the study.”
— Wallis Budge (1904), The Egyptian Gods, Volume One (pg. 281) [4]

“We may note in passing another legend, which was popular among the Copts, to the effect that the Virgin Mary once hid herself and her son from their enemies in the trunk of the sycamore at Heliopolis, and that it is based upon an ancient Egyptian myth recorded by Plutarch which declared that Isis hid the body of Osiris in a tree trunk.”
— Wallis Budge (1904), The Gods of Egypt, Volume Two (pg. 108)

“The rapid growth and progress of Christianity in Egypt were due mainly to the fact that the new religion, which was preached there by St. Mark and his immediate followers, in all essentials so closely resembled that which was the outcome of the worship of Osiris, Isis, and Horus that popular opposition was entirely disarmed. In certain places in the south of Egypt, e.g., Philae, the worship of Osiris and Isis maintained its own until the beginning of the fifth century of our era, though this was in reality due to the support which it received from the Nubians, but, speaking generally, at this period in all other parts of Egypt Mary the Virgin and Christ had taken the places of Isis and Horus, and the "God-mother" or "mother of the god" Mother of god (Isis), was no longer Isis, but Mary whom the Monophysites styled Θεοτοκος [mother of god]. ”
— Wallis Budge (1904), The Gods of Egypt, Volume Two (pgs. 220-21) (Ѻ)

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Dynasty | Dating
Budge dynasty datings, to note, are off by many centuries, in some cases, compared to current Dynasty Datings. Budge (1904) (pg. ix), e.g., dates the 4th Dynasty to 3600BC, whereas modern schemes date this dynasty to 2613-2498BC [correction: 0.71]. He dates the New Empire (pg. ix) start to 1700BC, where as modern New Kingdom start is 1549BC [correction: 0.91].

Education
Budge began to study languages on his own at the age of 10. In 1878, he attended Cambridge University, where he studied Semitic languages, including Hebrew, Syriac, Ethiopic, and Arabic, continuing to study Assyrian on his own. In 1883, Budge began working in the department of Egyptian and Assyrian antiquities of the British Museum, a position in which he remained until 1924, specializing in Egyptology. During this period, Budge collected a large number of Coptic, Greek, Arabic, Syriac, Ethiopian, and Egyptian Papyri manuscripts and was involved in numerous archaeology digs in Egypt, Mesopotamia and the Sudan.

Thermodynamics
The work of Budge is important because one of the first issues that people grapple with when introduced to the hmol sciences, which is structured in the logic that each human is an animated reactive 26-element molecule (human molecule) whose interpersonal reactions are governed by the laws of thermodynamics and whose body (and mind) was synthesized over time through chemical mechanism, is the objection that (a) they have a soul and that this is "beyond" the discussion and measurement of modern physical science and (b) that they have free will with which they choose right and wrong, and hence one has to re-educate oneself in the historical etymology of the concept of the soul, soul weighting, life-death cycles, morality, free will vs choice, etc., all of which originated in Egyptian theology and was carried over into the mindsets of the average modern person though religious syncretism and modification.

Religion
Budge, supposedly, was a “confessed Christian” (Ѻ), at least at some point in his existence.

Quotes | On
The following are quotes on Budge:

“It would be improper to assume that Budge, despite his reluctance to adopt the newer German school pronunciation reform, never made valuable and lasting contributions to mainstream Egyptological studies. It was Budge who originally secured the Papyrus of Ani from Egypt and brought it to the British Museum. For this alone, the world owes him a vote of thanks. His books may be questionable by academic standards, but his output was huge, filling a very long bookshelf indeed, and inspiring generations of interested readers. His publication of the elephant folio editions of The Papyrus of Hunefer and The Papyrus of Ani are reason alone to appreciate his genius. Had it not been for Budge, this present volume would not exist.”
— Daniel Gunther (2015), “Thoughts on the 20th Anniversary Edition” in the Faulkner-translation of The Egyptian Book of the Dead (pgs. 21-22) [5]

Isis (and Horus) and Mary (and Jesus)
A Dorothy Murdock comparison of Isis suckling Horus to Mary suckling Jesus. (Ѻ)
See also
Religio-mythology scholars

References
1. Budge. Wallis. (1899). Egyptian Religion: Egyptian Ideas of a Future Life (pg. 81) (Ѻ). Publisher.
2. Faulkner, Raymond Goelet, Ogden, Andrews, Carol, and Wasserman, James. (2008). The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Book of Going Forth by Day - The Complete Papyrus of Ani Featuring Integrated Text and Full-Color Images (chapters, pg. 18; recensions, pg. 144). Chronical Books.
3. (a) Faulkner, Raymond Goelet, Ogden, Andrews, Carol, and Wasserman, James. (2008). The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Book of Going Forth by Day - The Complete Papyrus of Ani Featuring Integrated Text and Full-Color Images (chapters, pg. 18; recensions, pg. 144). Chronical Books.
(b) Edouard Naville – Wikipedia.
4. Budge, Wallis. (1904). The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume One. Dover, 1969.
5. Faulkner, Raymond. (1972). The Egyptian Book of the Dead: the Book of Coming Forth by Day: Complete Papyrus of Ani, Featuring Integrated Text and Full-Color Images (translator: Ogden Goelet; Preface: Carol Andrews; Introduction: Daniel Gunther; Foreword: James Wasserman) (Amz) (Keeper, pgs. 18-19; genius, pg. 22). Chronicle Books, 2015.
6. (a) The First Egyptologist in the Museum (1836-1886) – BritishMuseum.org.
(b) List of Keepers of the British Museum – Wikipedia.

Further reading
● Budge, Wallis. (1890). “On the Hieratic Papyrus of Nesi-Amsu, a scribe in the Temple of Amen-Rā at Thebes, about B.C. 305” (abs), Archaeologia, 52(2):393-608.
● Budge, Wallis. (1895). Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Papyrus of Ani, Egyptian Text Transliteration and Translation. British Museum.
● Budge, Wallis. (1895). First Steps in Egyptian Hieroglyphics: a Book for Beginners. K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.
● Budge, Wallis. (1898). The Book of the Dead: The Chapters of the Coming Forth by Day, The Egyptian Text According to the Theban Recension in Hieroglyphic Edited From Numerous Papyri, with a Translation, Volume Two. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.
● Budge, Wallis. (1899). Egyptian Religion: Egyptian Ideas of a Future Life. Publisher.
● Budge, Wallis. (1902). The Book of the Dead: An English Trans. of the Chapters, Hymns, Etc., of the Theban Recension, Volume 3. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.
● Budge, Wallis. (1904). The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume One. Dover, 1969.
● Budge, Wallis. (1904). The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume Two. Dover, 1969.
● Budge, Wallis. (1905). The Egyptian Heaven and Hell, Volume One: the Book of Am-Tuat. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Company.
● Budge, Wallis. (1905). The Egyptian Heaven and Hell, Volume Two: the Short Form of the Book of Am-Tuat and the Book of Gates. Open Court.
● Budge, Wallis. (1906). The Egyptian Heaven and Hell, Volume Three: the Contents of the Books of the Other World Described and Compared. Open Company.
● Budge, Wallis. (1908). An Account of the Sarcophagus of Seti I, King of Egypt, B.C. 1370 (pg. 111). The Museum.
● Budge, Wallis. (1909). The Book of Opening the Mouth: The Egyptian Texts with English Translations, Volume 1. Trubner & Co.
● Budge, Wallis. (1909). The Book of Opening the Mouth: The Egyptian Texts with English Translations, Volume 2. Trubner & Co.
● Budge, Wallis. (1911). A Hieroglyphic Vocabulary: to the Theban Recension of the Book of the Dead (ashet, pg. 65). Routledge, 2014.
● Budge, Wallis. (1911). Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection, Volume One. P.L. Warner.
● Budge, Wallis. (1911). Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection, Volume Two. P.L. Warner.
● Budge, Wallis. (1920). An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, Volume One (arc). John Murray.
● Budge, Wallis. (1920). An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, Volume Two (arc). John Murray.
● Budge, Wallis. (1920). An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, Volume Two: With an Index of English Words, King List and Geographical List with Indexes, List of Hieroglyphic Characters, Coptic and Semitic Alphabets (pg. 958). Cosimo, 2013.
● Budge, Wallis. (1920). By Nile and Tigris: A Narrative of Journeys in Egypt and Mesopotamia on Behalf of the British Museum Between the Years 1886 and 1913, Volume One. John Murray.
● Budge, Wallis. (1920). By Nile and Tigris: A Narrative of Journeys in Egypt and Mesopotamia on Behalf of the British Museum Between the Years 1886 and 1913, Volume Two. John Murray.
● Budge, Wallis. (1929). The Rosetta Stone. London: The Religious Tract Society.
● Budge, Wallis. (1929). An Ethiopian Book of the Dead, 400AD. Publisher.

External links
E.A. Wallis Budge – Wikipedia.

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