Beauty

Beauty is power
A beauty is power image, alluding to the idea that beauty has a certain amount of weight or power to it, in the same what that dropping a weight through a height can produce a certain amount of of work or heat via the mechanical equivalent of heat effect (see: sidewalk study). [6]
In science, beauty (TR:168) is the quality or aggregate of qualities in a person or thing that gives pleasure to the senses—a sense, defined by James Maxwell, as the perception of a force—or in other words a force that activates the pleasure center; which according English proverb collections of John Ray, resultantly is a form of power or energy per unit time. [1]

Overview
Studies have shown that one's sense of beauty is not something culturally ingrained, but rather is some type of "turning tendency" sense that babies have right out of the womb, i.e. they will naturally tend to turn towards the more beautiful face, given two photo choices.

The 1975 Sociometry article "Beauty is Power: the Use of Personal Space on the Sidewalk", presenting the results of the time lapse filming of pedestrians observed from above walking along a sidewalk (see: sidewalk study), by American sociologists James Dabbs and Neil Stokes, seems to be the first quantified study of the relation between beauty and personal space volume increase. [3]

Thermodynamics
German polymath Johann Goethe, in 1809, theorized about beauty in chemical affinity terms (pre chemical thermodynamics theory terms):

Beauty is a manifestation of secret natural laws, which otherwise would have been hidden from us forever.”
— Goethe (c.1800)

Polish social economist Leon Winiarski, in 1894, may have been first, with his "aesthetic energy" theories, to discuss beauty in thermodynamic terms.

American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims, in 1995, was the first to begin study of the Beckhap's law phenomenon in chemical thermodynamic terms, namely quantification in terms of reaction spontaneity (feasibility), i.e. to quantify and correlate the beauty vs. brains inverse correlation in enthalpic and entropic terms (see: Libb Thims history).

Since the early 2000s, Chinese-born Canadian mathematical economist Jing Chen has been discussing beauty in thermodynamics and evolution terms; and example excerpt of which is shown below from his 2005 The Physical Foundation of Economics: an Analytical Thermodynamic Theory, wherein he cites Arthur Eddington as having been the first to discuss beauty in entropic terms. [4]

“‘The geometry of beauty is the visible signal of adaptively valuable objects: safe, food-rich, explorable, learnable habitats, and fertile, healthy dates, mates, and babies’ (Pinker, 1997). More generally, the sense of beauty is an evolved intuition about resources. Long ago, Eddington noticed the relation between entropy and beauty.”

In 2008, Turkish urban planning engineer Seda Bostanci did her PhD dissertation on thermodynamics and aesthetic theory of urban planning.
Why Beautiful People Have More Daughters (2007)
Evolutionary psychologists Alan Miller and Satoschi Kanazawa's 2007 book Why Beautiful People Have More Daughters, based on Kanazawa’s 2006 Journal of Theoretical Biology article claiming that attractive people are 26% less likely to have male offspring; an example of quantifiable patters correlated to measures of beauty. [2]

Evolutionary psychology
See main: Evolutionary psychology
American evolutionary psychologist David Buss, as presented in his 1994 book Evolution of Desire, did some of the first quantitative work in connecting measureable cross-cultural patterns of human “beauty” with evolutionary psychology theory. [3]

In 2006, American-born English socio-economic evolutionary psychologist Satoshi Kanazawa published an article in the Journal of Theoretical Biology, claiming that attractive people are 26% less likely to have male offspring, based on data from 3000 Americans taking part in an investigation called the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. [7]

These findings were summarized the 2006 The Courier Mail article “Beautiful People Have Girls”, by staff writer John Radowitz, which when viral (16,858 Facebook recommendations, as of 2012), which, the following year, precipitated the 2007 book Why Beautiful People Have More Daughters, depicted adjacent, co-written, in part, with sections from the posthumous writings of American-born Japanese social psychologist Alan Miller (1959-2003). [2]

Quotes
The following are related quotes:

“Cleopatra's nose, had it been shorter, the whole face of the world would have been changed.”
Blaise Pascal (c.1650), Pensees (pg. 180) (Ѻ) [5]

“Taught from infancy that beauty is woman's sceptre, the mind shapes itself to the body, and roaming round its gilt cage, only seeks to adorn its prison.”
Mary Wollstonecraft (1792), A Vindication of the Rights of Women (pg. 50)

Beauty is everywhere a welcome guest.”
Johann Goethe (1809), Elective Affinities (P1:C6)

See also
Beckhap's law
Sidewalk study

References
1. (a) Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 2000.
(b) Maxwell, James. (1847). “Exercise for Hamilton on the properties of matter”, class of philosopher William Hamilton (1788-1856), Edinburg University.
(c) Mahon, Basil. (2003). The Man who Changed Everything: the Life and Times of James Maxwell (pg. 25). Wiley.
(d) Ray, John. (c.1680). Collection of English Proverbs. Publisher.
2. (a) Radowitz, John. (2006). “Beautiful People Have Girls”, The Courier Mail, Aug 02.
(b) Miller, Alan S. and Kanazawa, Satoshi. (2007). Why Beautiful People Have More Daughters: From Dating, Shopping, and Praying to Going to War and Becoming a Billionaire: Two Evolutionary Psychologists Explain Why We Do What We Do. New York: A Perigee Book.
3. Buss, David M. (1994). The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating (beauty, 32+ pgs). Basic Books.
4. Chen, Jing. (2005). The Physical Foundation of Economics: an Analytical Thermodynamic Theory (beauty, 8+ pgs). New Jersey: World Scientific.
5. (a) Nordau, Max. (1910). The Interpretation of History (pg. 4). Publisher.
(b) Zucker, Morris. (1945). The Philosophy of American History: The Historical Field Theory (pg. 317). Arnold-Howard Publishing Co.
6. (a) Dabbs, James M. and Stokes, Neil A. (1975). “Beauty is Power: the Use of Space on the Sidewalk” (abs), Sociometry, 38: 551-57.
(b) Etcoff, Nancy. (1999). Survival of the Prettiest – the Science of Beauty. New York: Anchor Books.
7. Satoshi Kanazawa – Wikipedia.

Further reading
● Etcoff, Nancy. (1999). Survival of the Prettiest: the Science of Beauty. New York: Anchor Books.
● Bates, Brian and Cleese John. (2001). The Human Face. New York: DK Publishing.
● Rhodes, Gillian and Zebrowitz, Leslie A. (2002). Facial Attractiveness: Evolutionary, Cognitive, and Social Perspectives. London: Ablex.
● Patzer, Gordon. (2008). Looks: Why They Matter More Than You Ever Imagined. AMACOM.

External links
Beauty – Wikipedia.

TDics icon ns

More pages