Chemical engineering

In engineering, chemical engineering applies scientific principles, generally in industry, to the practical conversion of basic raw materials into a variety of products, and dealing with the design and operation of plants and equipment to perform such work; all products are formed in chemical processes involving chemical reactions carried out under a wide range of conditions and frequently accompanied by changes in physical state or form. [1]

History
In 1847, the Sheffield Scientific School was founded as a school of Yale College in New Haven, Connecticut for instruction in science and engineering.

In 1863, Willard Gibbs completed the first PhD in engineering in America and in 1871, two years after returning from a study abroad at various universities in Europe, Gibbs became Yale's first professor of mathematical physics, following which, in beginning in 1873, with the publication of his "Graphical Methods in the Thermodynamics of Fluids", and his two papers to follow, focused on the equilibrium of heterogeneous substances, he began to found chemical thermodynamics, the backbone of the chemical engineering.

In 1888, at MIT, first chemical engineering degree program was founded. [4]

In 1971, Hungarian chemical engineer turned theoretical biologist Tibor Ganti introduced his "chemoton" or chemical automaton theory.

In circa 2014, American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims was beginning to attempt to probe (see: two cultures inquiries) the establishment a humanities course explicitly designed for chemical engineers, and or physical science minded humanities students, stylized as physicochemical humanities and or physicochemical sociology, based on the drafting textbook Chemical Thermodynamics: with Applications in the Humanities, a seeming enactment of the long-sought so-called Nightingale Chair of Sociophysics.

Hmolscience
The following are noted chemical engineers to have produced, commented on, and or interjected into hmolscience theory:


Chemical engineer
Date
Significance




1.William Fairburn 75 newWilliam Fairburn
(1876-1947)
English-born American naval architect, marine engineer, chemical engineer, and industrial executive
1914Human Chemistry (Fairburn) 300pxHis Human Chemistry is the first "book" attempted at formulating the outlines of a science of "human chemistry" with people defined specifically as "human chemicals", quantified by properties such as entropy, that have "reactions" to one another similar to any other chemical reaction, and that application of these basic principles to the operation of business management would facilitate working operations.
2.Eugene Roeber 75Eugene Roeber
(1867-1917)
German-born American electrochemcial engineer
1914 His “The European War” stated that WWI (28 Jul 1914 – 11 Nov 1918) was a gigantic chemical reaction governed by the second law, wherein people’s free will becomes like that of the will of “free” ions of dissociation theory; that entropy will increase as the war goes; that the end result will be a new Europe closer to absolute zero of temperature.
3.John von NeumannJohn Neumann
(1903-1957)
Hungarian-born American mathematician and chemical engineer
1932Economics icon|Life icon|information iconPublished his “A Model of General Economic Equilibrium”, derives a function φ (X, Y) related to the production of goods, based on the model of thermodynamic potentials, and is considered a classic; in 1934, reviewed Georges Guillaume's 1932 economic thermodynamics dissertation, concluded that: "if this [economic-thermodynamic] analogy can be worked out at all, the analogon of ‘entropy’ must be sought in the direction of ‘liquidity’. To be more specific: if the analogon of ‘energy’ is ‘value’ of the estate of an economical subject, then analogon of its thermodynamic ‘free energy’ should be its ‘cash value’."; his 1944 Theory of Games and Economic Behavior compared heat measurement history with utility measurement history.
4.James Coleman 75James Coleman
(1926-1995)
American chemical engineer turned sociologist
1964His Introduction to Mathematical Sociology, uses concepts such as: chemical reaction, temperature, entropy, molecular interactions, etc., as launching points for discussions in developing sociology theory.
5.Frederick Rossini 75Frederick Rossini
(1899-1990)
American chemical engineer, physical chemist, and chemical thermodynamicist
1971 \ \ln K = - \frac{\Delta H^\circ}{R} \left ( \frac{1}{T} \right ) + \frac{\Delta S^\circ}{R}   Retrospectively described by German-born American organic chemist Ernest Eliel as “one of the preeminent thermodynamicists of the twentieth century—his 1971 Priestley Medal address “Chemical Thermodynamics in the Real World” ended with a derivation the combined law of thermodynamics (equation shown), concluding, in respect to enthalpy ∆H° and entropy ∆S° changes in relation human freedom, that: “Here we have an interesting picture derived from our science of thermodynamicsequilibrium or stability is a compromise between freedom and security. In terms of human experience, the meaning of security can be interpreted to mean that one is secure and safe in his person, in his family, in his home, in control of his property, on the streets, and on his travels. The meaning of freedom is quite clear—the privilege of doing whatever one wants to do. However, in our civilized society, we have come to believe in behavior according to natural law—that one can do whatever he wishes so long as he does not abridge or infringe upon the rights and privileges of others. To me, all this means living with some rational kind of law and order. The picture we have developed from thermodynamics is very simple: One cannot have a maximum of freedom and a maximum of security at the same time. If there is a maximum of freedom, there will be zero security. I interpret this to mean that if we have total freedom, everyone can do whatever he wishes, including injuring others, stealing property, and the like. On the other hand, if there is a maximum of security, there will be zero freedom. I take this to mean that if we have total security, we will be constrained at every step and have a virtual straitjacket life”; this supposition that chemical thermodynamics applies to human social existence and experience, following 9/11, resulted in the 2006 Journal of Chemical Education Rossini debate”, a "heated" debate that continues to the present day, with lines being drawn and sides taken.
6.icon 75 (test)James Beatty
(1934-c.2005)
American chemical engineer
c.1972Interjected into extensive dialogue with Brazilian chemical engineering graduate student Edison Bittencourt on the subject of the implications of thermodynamics to humanities, i.e. economics and sociology, and seeming purpose behavior in biology (powered-chnopsology).
7.Robert Ulanowicz 75Robert Ulanowicz
(1943-)
American chemical engineer and theoretical ecologist
1979Ecology icon|Life icon| F = U - \theta S \,Religion icon 20x27|philosophy 39x20|information icon|caged bird icon|No determinism 18x20Conceived (in 1979) of an information theory based version of free energy applied to ecosystems, termed “ascendency”, which he considered as a pseudo-thermodynamic function (first outlined in his 1980 article “An Hypothesis on the Development of Natural Communities”); his 1986 book Growth and Development extends on this using Helmholtz free energy (equation shown); his 2009 A Third Window: Natural Life Beyond Newton and Darwin, seems to argue for the existence of God in the context of an emergent (or process biology) thermodynamic depiction of evolution (or ascendency), supposedly, under the guise of the “ontic openness of nature”; is presently of the view that “entropy or entropy-related measures (such as free energy) should *not* be invoked for living systems!” (email communicate to Libb Thims, 2011), which he says he first argued on page 21 of his 1986 book.
8.Daniel Hershey 75Daniel Hershey
(c.1931-)
American chemical engineer
(stimulated by Prigogine)
1980
 \frac{dS}{dt} = \frac{dS_e}{dt} + \frac{ds_i}{dt} \,
Starting with his 1980 The New Age-Scale for Humans, followed by about a dozen various publications, he builds significantly on the work of Ilya Prigogine to outline a thermodynamic theory of aging; in his 2009 Entropy Theory of Aging Systems: Humans, Corporations, and the Universe, in summarizing the free energy ideas of Prigogine, he states: “Thermodynamic equilibrium may be characterized by the minimum of the Helmholtz free energy, F = E – TS, where E is the internal energy, T is the absolute temperature, and S is entropy. Positive time, the direction of time’s arrow, is associated with increase in entropy. Isolated or closed systems evolve to an equilibrium state characterized by the existence of a thermodynamic potential such as the Helmholtz or Gibbs free energy. These thermodynamic potentials and also entropy are, according to Prigogine, Lyapounov functions, which means they drive the system toward equilibrium in the face of small disturbances.” Likewise, he in regards to free energy and aging he argues that: “Old age or senescence may be the decline in our ability to produce free energy. Less free energy means diminished cell function. Vitality might be defined as our biological and thermodynamic strength, the ability to expend energy to restore ourselves to near original conditions.” He goes on to apply this basis to what he calls the "entropic analysis of a human living system", wherein he argues that “the living system is essentially and open system because it maintains itself by the exchange of matter and energy with the environment and by the continuous building up and breaking down of its internal components” and on this logic goes on to argue that Prigogine entropy (equation shown) applies to these so-called living systems, to corporations, etc.
9.Benjamin Kyle 75Benjamin Kyle
(1927-)
American chemical engineer and thermodynamicist
1988Chemical and Process Thermodynamics (1999)universe icon|Religion icon 20x27|Life icon|sociology icon 29x20|anthropology icon|History icon 19x20|Economics icon|Book icon|art icon|arrow of time icon|Psychology icon|philosophy 39x20His 1988 article “The Mystique of Entropy”, turned 1999 CD-ROM textbook attachment entitled Entropy: Reflections of a Classical Thermodynamicist, found in his Chemical and Process Thermodynamics, summarizes historical attempts to use thermodynamics to explain things such as computers, art, poetry, or prove the existence of god, etc., and alludes to a entropy philosophy:
 \Delta S \approx 0 \,
in which, given the knowledge of universal entropy increase, provides a saving grace by showing us the ‘way’, which he seems to equate with paths of negligible entropy change (equation shown).
10.Linus Pauling 75Linus Pauling
(1901-1994)
American chemical engineering
1989In his memorial chapter “Schrodinger’s Contribution to Chemistry and Biology”, he rips apart Austrian physicist Erwin Schrodinger's 1943 life is something that feeds on negative entropy theory (see: Note to Chapter 6).
11.Nedjeljka Petric 75Nedjeljka Petric
(c.1941-)
Croatian chemical engineer and thermodynamicist
1991 Religion icon 20x27Published “Application of the Thermodynamic Theory to Social Events”, in the International Review of Modern Sociology, wherein she argues, similar to Rossini, that entropy, as defined by the Boltzmann equation, is interpreted not as disorder but as freedom of individuals; this was followed by the publication of three more articles, over the next three years, in which she tries to explain the “spiritual condition” of a person, albeit mostly in a rather overt ontic opening theory manner, replete with attempts to side God, Jesus Christ, and Bible themed views.
12.Cruz Iniguez 75Cruz Iniguez
(1948-)
Mexican-born American chemical engineer and physical chemist
1993 His 1993 unpublished manuscript "negentropic thermodynamics", which tries to "debunk" Clausius so to explain life and evolution, resulted in his 2007 booklet Negative Entropy: a Brief Incursion into the Uncharted Universe of Decreasing Entropy, which amounts to a less-coherent version of a Pierre Teilhard like attempt to reformulate thermodynamics in the name of anthropomorphic conceptual ideals.
13.Libb Thims 75Libb Thims
(c.1975-)
American chemical engineer, electrical engineer, and thermodynamicist
1995molecule man 35|Chemical reaction icon|Statistical mechanics icon|Psychology icon|Love icon|Beauty icon 15x21|RIP icon|philosophy 39x20|Scales icon 26x20JHT, HC, and THM|man digging icon|Life icon|University icon|caged bird icon|evolution icon|sex icon|Economics iconAs a hobby, began to speculate as to how the spontaneity criterion:
Spontaneity criterion
mate selection, with enthalpy change ΔH and entropy change ΔS specifically quantified in terms of standard evolutionary psychology variables, mapped to second-by-second changing measures of individual differential human molecular Gibbs free energy variations dG, as shown below (see: HMO theory):
 G = (H_{AVG} + H_{AGE} + H_S + H_X + H_L + H_F + H_C) - T(S_P + S_O + S_I + S_S + S_N) \,
such as if one was to predict which of two mates would be more favored to bind "stably" into a standard 18-year human chemical reaction; a number of precipitates have followed from this endeavor: one of the first calculations of the human molecular formula (2002); first formulations of the physics model of the human chemical bond A≡B (2005); launched Journal of Human Thermodynamics (2005); authored first human chemistry textbook (2007); published The Human Molecule (2008); launched Hmolpedia (EoHT.info) (2008), and as of 2013 has authored over 2,800 online articles related to the hmolscience subjects: human physics, human chemistry, human thermodynamics.
14.Erich Muller 75Erich Muller
(1963-)
Venezuelan-born English chemical engineer and thermodynamicist
1998molecule man 35|Racism icon|Phase diagram iconHis “Human Societies: a Curious Application of Thermodynamics”, outlined a version of integration and segregation thermodynamics of attractions and repulsions of human molecules, defined in terms of thermodynamic potentials, and was the prototype model article for the JHT; the Muller stability ratio and Muller dispersion force are named after him; in his thermodynamics lectures he is noted for his use of human molecular themed descriptions, drawing analogies between the behaviors of molecules and people, to explain concepts.
15.Gerard Nahum 75Gerard Nahum
(1956-)
American chemical engineer and physician
1998
\int\limits_{t_0}^{t} W(t) dt = \frac{g}{c^2} \left (     \int\limits_{t_0}^{t} E(t) dt + \int\limits_{t_0}^{t} C(t) dt    \right ) \,
RIP icon|Statistical mechanics icon|information iconWas presenting a 25-page “A Proposal for Testing the Energetics of Consciousness”, in which consciousness, viewed as a type of residual negative entropy of the conserved mind, might survive death and in which the measure of the deceased consciousness would be quantified by an equation (shown), to various universities and international consciousness studies meetings, in order to gain $100,000 in funding for experimental testing of his theory; in 2005, theory was covered in Mary Roach’s Spook: Science Tackles the Afterlife; published in JHT in 2010.
16.Edison Bittencourt 75 Edison Bittencourt
(c.1948-)
American-born Brazilian chemical engineer
1999University iconHis engineering conference presentation “Teaching of Thermodynamics in Chemical Engineering” advocating the teaching of the thermodynamic imperative to chemical engineering students, based on his early 1970s dialogues with James Beatty, and defined living beings and ecosystems as "open, coherent, purposive, irreversible" systems (PICO systems); his 2011 “From Modern Thermodynamics to How Nature Works”, argues that societies, economies, and ecological aggregates are emergent ordered dissipative structures and that nonlinear irreversible thermodynamics is the key to understanding these structures, in particular the problem of sustainability.
17.icon 75 (test)Alfredo Infante
(c.1960-)
Peruvian chemical engineer
2001 G = H - TS \,His “Social Entropy: A Paradigmatic Approach of the Second Law of Thermodynamics to an Unusual Domain” uses advanced intelligence perspective to argue that the Gibbs free energy of a social system is the total energy in the system less the energy that is unavailable and that this difference represents the ‘state’ of the system.
18.Alec Groysman 75Alec Groysman
(1948-)
Russian-born Israeli chemical engineer
2004 His article “Aesthetic, Philosophical and Historical aspects in the Physical Chemistry education”, speculated on how Gibbs energy is similar to Hamlet’s ‘to be or not to be?’ of William Shakespeare; his 2011 conference presentation “Use of Art Media in Engineering and Scientific Education”, Groysman cites the human chemistry work of Johann Goethe and Libb Thims, among others; and discusses how not only is their "two cultures" (as professed by Charles Snow) but more likely "three cultures"; and advocates the teaching of human chemistry in engineering.
19.Tominaga Keii 75Tominaga Keii
(1920-2009)
Japanese chemical engineer and chemical thermodynamicist
2004Chemical reaction iconHeterogeneous Kinetics (2004)In his chapter two, "Thermodynamics of Chemical Reactions", devotes a subsection to “Chemical Affinity in 1806”, wherein he quotes several paragraphs of Goethe’s 1809 Elective Affinities, to only conclude, paradoxically, and puzzlingly, in the end, that, in his view, “it did not add any scientific value” (see also: ships not seen; forest amid the trees)
20.Jaroslav Sestak 75Jaroslav Sestak
(1938-)
Czech chemical engineer, solid state physicists, and materials scientist
2005 Science of Heat and Thermophysical Studies (2005)His Science of Heat and Thermophysical Studies contains a chapter eight on “Thermodynamics, Econophysics, Ecosystems, and Societal Behavior”, wherein he discusses Gilbert Lewis’ 1925 economics article, arisen via conversation with Irving Fisher, Jurgen Mimkes’ 1995 integration and segregation thermodynamics theories, along with discussions of thermodynamics of feelings, the econophysics works of Vilfredo Pareto, Ettore Majorana, among others.
21.Mark Janes 75Mark Janes
(1973-)
English chemical engineering student turned biotechnologist
2006Mr Carbon Atom (2012)molecule man 35|evolution icon|Life icon|sex icon|philosophy 39x20|RIP icon|Religion icon 20x27His carbon entromorphology theory is a human atom based scheme, which considers the human being to be a ‘type of gigantic carbon atom’ (Mr. Carbon Atom), and uses aspects of thermodynamics, particle physics, and the atomic model logic (molecular orbital theory) to explain facets of humanity, via Gibbs free energy change:
 \Delta G = \Delta H - T \Delta S \,
an example being his “soulatrophic” model of morality, in which state of humanity is positied to be evolving to a future iron-like orbital structure of stability (similar to Pierre Teilhard’s omega point theory).
22.Morrow 75Andrew Morrow
(1961-)
American chemical engineer
2006molecule man 35Outlined a type of internet-connectivity philosophy on the view that people are “mosaics of atoms with a mind”, whereby, aware of this reality, one should attempt to see reality from the viewpoint of reactions of one’s fellow human beings to oneself, so to see if further insight can be found. Comments, in his 2009 video We are Made of Atoms, “you are made of atoms and there is no escape from this knowledge. Peace and happiness but first you must be wiser”; as of 2010 is working on a new book, A Periodic Table of Civics, aimed at incorporating philosophy application.
23.DMR Sekhar 75DMR Sekhar
(1952-)
Indian chemical engineer and mineral engineer
2006Hinduism icon|evolution icon|RIP iconDeveloped a anti-entropy self-drive type theory, called “genopsych”, which argues that DNA is a self-programming conscious entity, inside of which exists a special extensive conscious ordering force or property, which is god or part of god, is undying and non-physical (i.e. soul), that runs counter to entropy and gives rise to and directs biological evolution.
24.Mary Guthrie 75Mary Guthrie
(c.1987-)
American chemical engineer
2009Mirza (quote) small sHer 2009 tongue-in-cheek CNN-stylized “investigative report” parody “Why Students Choose Chemical Engineering?”, which she wrote and also acted in (as investigative reporter), wherein, via the dialogue of economics and chemical engineering student Jawad Mirza, alludes to a hue of human chemical thermodynamics logic, in the statements that: in learning chemical thermodynamics, students learn about “heat transfer taking place between people”, among other commentary, e.g. American chemical engineer Rich Byrnes commenting “I’m happy to know that the thermodynamic forces that compel folks to become ChE’s have not changed much over the years.”
25.Mohsen Mohsen-Nia 75 Mohsen Mohsen-Nia
(1958-)
Iranian-born American chemical engineer
2011Lennard–Jones potentialHis JHT article “A Thermodynamic Methodology for Evaluating Friendship Relations Stability”, co-authored with Iranians human scientist F. Arfaei, thermodynamicist H. Amiri, and computer engineer A. Mohsen Nia, present the results of a small relationship study, of different pairings of male and female co-workers, in which they discuss the results in energetic terms and attempt to explain interhuman relationship potential modeled on the Lennard–Jones potential (shown).
26.James Ferri 75James Ferri
(c.1960-)
American chemical engineer
2011Ostwald equationInitiated and supervised the engineering student-produced video “Thermodynamics of Life: Occupy Wall Street Edition”, made by Angela Wnek (ChBE, 2013), Isaac Lavine (ChBe, 2014), Ashley Kaminski (ChBE, 2013), which applied a number of different molecular, physical chemistry, and chemical engineering principles to the ongoing “Occupy Wall Street” protests, and used equations such as Calvin equation, the Ostwald equation (shown), etc., to explain the Pareto principle, i.e. the 80-20 rule for the division of wealth in a society.
27.Donna Riley 75Donna Riley
(c.1971-)
American chemical engineer
2011Her course supplement booklet Engineering Thermodynamics and 21st Century Energy Problems, contains twenty modules targeted toward meeting five often-neglected ABET outcomes: ethics, communication, existence-long learning, social context, and contemporary issues, with human thermodynamics education chapter sections such as “entropy as a social construct” (e.g. social thermodynamics), “entropy’s philosophical implications” (e.g. philosophical thermodynamics), “thermo to life” (e.g. defunct theory of life), among others, each with a four-part engage/analyze/reflect/change reading program with what seem to be classic human thermodynamic stylized “homework problem” assignments.
28.Vamshi Regalla 75Vamshi Regalla
(c.1985-)
Indian chemical engineer
2012molecule man 35His short film “A Strange Thing Called Love”, coproduced with American mechanical engineer Ravi Vedula, turned Journal of Human Thermodynamics article “A Strange Thing Called Love: in the View of Chemical Thermodynamics”, outlines their take on the chemical thermodynamics of relationships, employing Thims-Pati style reaction mechanisms.
29.Jose Aguilera 75Jose Aguilera
(1947-)
Chilean chemical engineer
2012Edible Structures (2012)His Edible Structures: the Basic Science of What We Eat devotes has a six-page molecular sociology chapter subsection, citing Goethe (Elective Affinities, 1809) and Thims (Human Chemistry, 2007), wherein he outlines a number of Empedocles-style human-to-chemicals comparisons, aphorism, or analogies, depending, ranging from: speculations on how a marriage is like a weaker type of covalent bond and or Van der Waals interaction force, how uncharged molecules clustering together in a charged environment are like people discriminated against joining together, how enzymes can can break up and or catalyze the formation of bond between big molecules, like matchmakers, or about how there may be some type of "activity coefficient", similar to the water activity aw, which quantifies the layers of water moisture around dry foods, that may quantify the way in which people are attracted to "high energy surfaces" (see: surface chemistry), among other comparisons.
30.Gungor Gunduz 75Gungor Gunduz
(c.1950-)
Turkish chemical engineer,
2012Published articles on sociophysics, econophysics, and one in particular on thermodynamics applied to (i) the behavior of the NASDAQ-100 index, (ii) a social revolt, and (iii) the structure of a melody were analyzed for their ‘work-like’, ‘heat-like’, and ‘torque-like’ energies in the course of their evolution.
31.John Prausnitz 75John Prausnitz
(1928-)
American chemical engineer and molecular thermodynamicist
2013Gave the following opinion to American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims about the prospect of founding a two cultures department at the University of California, Berkeley, centered at the chemical and biomolecular engineering department: “I don't know what the Rossini debate is but I hope to find out. No, your idea for a department for teaching two cultures would not be appreciated at Berkeley. In the social sciences and in some humanities, thermodynamics may be useful as an analogy, as a suggestion for looking at a problem (e.g., information theory) but beyond that, I see little use of thermodynamics outside science.”
32.Marc Donohue 75Marc Donohue
(1951-)
American chemical engineer and thermodynamicist
2014Co-authored, with American leadership psychologist Richard Kilburg, the 2014 “Leadership and Organization Behavior: a Thermodynamic Inquiry”, wherein (see: ChE + H coupling) they outline a molecular thermodynamics based model of leadership and organizational behavior.
33.Jaime Aguilar-Arias 75Jaime Aguilar-Arias
(c.1972-)
Colombian chemical engineer
2014 His 2014 conference presentation “Chemical Engineering and Complexity, an Undissipated Structure … Yet”, similar to what Alec Groysman suggested at the 2011 Generative Art Conference, Rome, suggested that chemical engineering students be introduced to applications beyond traditional “classical chemical engineering” applications, namely in the humanities-applied area of investigation, that of the: Erich Muller, Paul Samuelson, Mohsen Mohsen-Nia, John Bryant, Journal of Human Thermodynamics, Santa Fe Institute, etc., type of chemical thermodynamics based complexity approach applied to sociology and economics.

Quotes
The following are related quotes:

“The matter of multiplicity of contributors needs no great explanation, for we are all used to this in the modern handbooks. I believe it is a common saying that Helmholtz was the last universal genius, and we are fast arriving at the point where even a single subject becomes too vast for one man. At any rate, whether or not any of my learned colleagues could write an entire chemical engineering handbook, I could not—hence the present form.”
Donald Liddell (1922) Handbook of Chemical Engineering, McGraw-Hill [2]

“It is interesting to note that socio-thermodynamics is only accessible to chemical engineers and metallurgists. These are the only people who know phase diagrams and their usefulness. It cannot be expected, in our society, that sociologists will appreciate the potential of these ideas.”
Ingo Muller (2007), A History of Thermodynamics [3]

See also
Chemical engineering thermodynamics
Mechanical engineering

References
1. Licker, Mark D. (2003). Dictionary of Engineering (pgs. 99-100). McGraw-Hill.
2. Liddell, Donald M. (1922). Handbook of Chemical Engineering, Volume 1 (quote, pg. ix). McGraw-Hill Company.
3. Müller, Ingo. (2007). A History of Thermodynamics: the Doctrine of Energy and Entropy (pg. 164). New York: Springer.
4. Hanesian, Deran, Buonopane, Ralph A., and Perna, Angelo J. (2010). The History of the Summer Schools for Chemical Engineering Teachers (Faculty) – 1931-2007 (pdf) (pg. 12). New Jersey Institute of Technology.

Further reading
● Furter, William. (1980). History of Chemical Engineering: based on a symposium cosponsored by the ACS Divisions of History of Chemistry and Industrial and Engineering Chemistry at the ACS/CSJ Chemical Congress, Honolulu, Hawaii, April 2-6. American Chemical Society.
● Peppas, Nicholas. (1989). One Hundred Years of Chemical Engineering: From Lewis M. Norton (MIT 1888) to Present. Springer.

External links
Chemical engineering – Wikipedia.

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