Chemical kinetics

In chemistry, chemical kinetics refers to []

In 1864, Cato Guldberg and Peter Waage (1864) introduced subject of “chemical kinetics” via the general model that chemical reactions have both a forward reaction and a reverse reaction, that depends on the amount of active masses of the reactants and the affinities driving the activities of these masses.

In 1877, chemical kinetics was developed, independently, by Jacobus van’t Hoff.

In 1884, Van’t Hoff, in his Studies of Chemical Dynamics, drew the distinction between chemical kinetics and chemical thermodynamics.

The following are related quotes:

Van’t Hoff had shown chemists how thermodynamics could be applied to their science, especially with reference to ideas on affinity. In his work in 1884 he first drew the distinction between chemical kinetics and chemical thermodynamics and showed that the maximum external work obtained when a chemical reaction was carried out reversibly and isothermally could serve as a measure of chemical affinity. Helmholtz even earlier had called maximum work ‘free energy’. Gilbert Lewis, of the University of California, Berkeley, proposed that this term be restricted to mean the work available for use. Thus, the maximum useful work obtained when one system passes spontaneously into another represents the decrease in free energy of the system. The influential textbook of G.N. Lewis and Merle Randall which represents these ideas has led to a replacement of the term ‘affinity’ by the term ‘free energy’ in much of the English-speaking world. The older term has never been entirely replaced in thermodynamic literature, since after 1922 the Belgian school under Theophile De Donder has made the concept of affinity still more precise.”
Henry Leicester (1956), The Historical Background of Chemistry [1]

See also
Kinetic factor
Thermodynamic factor

1. Leicester, Henry. (1956). The Historical Background of Chemistry (§21: “Physical Chemistry in the Nineteenth Century”, pgs. 199-212; quote, pg. 206). Dover.

External links
Chemical kinetics – Wikipedia.

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