Government

Darwinian government 2s
A 19th century German "new" government propaganda poster (Ѻ), of a Marx-conceptualized Darwinian government, featuring a goddess handing a sword to the desperate masses which reads “knowledge is power.” Her foot rests upon the works of Marx, Darwin and Lassalle (Ѻ) . The figure in the foreground lifts up the remains of “social reform.”
In terminology, government is the system by which a state or community is governed; the action or manner of controlling or regulating a state, organization, or people. [1]

Overview
In the early 20th century, the traditional “Newtonian government” ideologies, were beginning to come up against the so-called “Darwinian government” ideologies, such as found in the presidential platform of Woodrow Wilson, in America, and Vladimir Lenin and Karl Marx socialism programs, in Russia. (Ѻ)

Scholars
Note scientific-based forms of government scholars include: English political scholar Michael Foley (1990), who writes on the idea that the Constitution reflects some kind of concept of Newtonian machine, especially in the notions of balance and separation of powers, and American science historian Bernard Cohen (1995), who discusses, among other things, how there was a debate between John Adams and Benjamin Franklin on the form of the constitutions, during which the question arose of the meaning and possible application of a Newtonian physical principle. [2]

Newtonian government vs Darwinian government | → Gibbsian government
Where the 18th century saw the rise of Newtonian government systems, and the late 19th and early 20th century saw the rise of Darwinian government systems, the late 21st and early early 22nd centuries will see the rise of Gibbsian government systems, the Gibbsian-model of operation and change being a synthesis of both Newtonian and the Darwinian view, such as outlined by Lawrence Henderson (1917).

Scientific paradigm based
The following are noted leaders of countries who each based their governance models on one or another distinct scientific paradigms:

Adolf Hitler | Charles Darwin, Friedrich Nietzsche
Benito Mussolini | Vilfredo Pareto, Friedrich Nietzsche
James Madison | Isaac Newton
● Joseph Stalin | Karl Marx
Mehdi Bazargan |
Napoleon Bonaparte | Johann Goethe
Thomas Jefferson | Epicurus
Woodrow Wilson | Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin
Governor
An 1868 Watt "governor" which regulates the flow of fuel (or steam) into the heat engine, thus keeping it from running too fast (or too slow) and exploding. People elected (government) to run a societyact similar to a Watt governor, operating to regulate the speed of a social system, a type of solar powered heat engine.

Quotes
The following are related quotes:

“The Constitution was founded on the law of gravitation. The government was to exist and move by virtue of the efficacy of ‘checks and balances.’ The trouble with the theory is that government is not a machine, but a living thing. It falls, not under the theory of the universe, but under the theory of organic life. It is accountable to Darwin, not to Newton. It is modified by its environment, necessitated by its tasks, shaped by the sheer pressure of life.”
Woodrow Wilson (1912), Presidential candidate campaign speech [3]

See also
American presidents
Princeton Department of Social Physics

References
1. Government – OxfordDictionaries.com.
2. (a) Foley, Michael. (1990). Laws, Men and Machines: Modern American Government and the Appeal of Newtonian Mechanics. Routledge, 2014.
(b) Cohen, I. Bernard. (1995). Science and the Founding Fathers: Science in the Political Thought of Jefferson, Franklin, Adams, and Madison. Publisher.
3. (a) Wilson, Woodrow. (1912). “What is Progress?”, Campaign speech; in: The New Freedom (§2). Publisher, 1913.
(b) Connelly, William F. (2010). James Madison Rules America: the Constitutional Originals of Congressional Partisanship (§: Wilson versus Madison: The Separation of Powers, pgs. 119-). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

External links
Government – Wikipedia.

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