Egyptian hell
A diagram of Egyptian “hell” (Ѻ), which is a lake of fire, situated near or under the crocodile-hippopotamus-lion god Ammit (or Ammut), aka “the devourer”, in the judgment hall, who eats the souls heavy with sin (or negative confessions), which then goes, following digestion, into the fiery pit or lake.
In religio-mythology, hell (TR:44), as contrasted with heaven, is the fictional location, oft-conceptualized as a fiery place below the surface of the earth, where souls heavy with wrong doings are sent.

In c.2600, Egyptian religio-mythology thinkers developed the model that each person (see: Egyptian human) had a soul, which had a weight (see: soul weight), determined measurably by 42 acts (see: negative confessions), and that when a person died, his or her soul would be weighed on a scale in the afterlife (see: judgment hall), against the feather of truth (Maat's feather), and if it was found to be too heavy, per reason of doing too many wrongful acts, more then 21 wrongful acts, that a monster called Ammit would eat or "devour" that soul, after which the soul would descend into a fiery lake, situated below Ammit.

In ancient Greece, hell was called Hades:

“The unwise hate their life, yet want to live for fear of Hades.”
Democritus (c.420BC) Fragment D63; cited by Stobaeus (c.550BC) in Ethics (III.4.73) [11]


The following is a pre-Christian Roman discussion of the underworld:

“They do not know the nature of the soul: if it is born or at birth slipped into us; whether, destroyed by death, it dies with us, or goes to see hell’s broad and lightless pools, or by some miracle passes to other creatures [see: transmigration], as our loved Ennius sang, who first brought down from lovely Helicon garlands evergreen to grow in fame wherever Italians live. Yet Ennius claimed the underworld exists, and told his tale in deathless verse, a place where neither soul nor flesh lives on but a sort of 'images', pale and eerie things.”
Lucretius (55BC), On the Nature of Things (translator: Frank Copley) (pg. 3) (1:112-23)

In c.200AD, during the Roman recension, this idea of evil souls being sent to a fiery lake, became or rather was molded into the Christian concept of "hell", to so-called abode of the devil and demons, where wrong-doers were sent to suffer for all eternity.

The following are related quotes:

“I use the teachings of the philosophers and thinkers of antiquity to show that god does not exist, that the world is eternal, that the soul is mortal, that hell is nothing but a fairy tale, and that religion is a political artifice. A cunning deception is that death is detestable, because nothing stifles him [it?]. Thus, I have divided the work, as Theophrastus of Eresus did it, into six books: the first on the gods, the second on the world, the third on religion, the fourth on the soul and on hell, the fifth on the contempt of death, the sixth on the natural life. All this belongs to the argument with the gods. If it has been proved that the gods do not exist, the rest understands itself.”
Anon Theophrastus (c.1659), Theophrastus Redivivus (pg. 8) [1]

“I wish, when cold, to warm in hell.”
Thomas Aikenhead (c.1696) (Ѻ) [2]

Thermodynamics might be able to say, though very vaguely, if there is going to be a resurrection and another world, how this may occur and what the other world may look like … In this way, we may be able to examine to what extent the signs of the other world, as provided by the prophets, are plausible. If these signs about the resurrection, paradise and hell form a reasonable and sensible related collection that new sciences, to some extent, affirm, then such beliefs are not baseless.”
Mehdi Bazargan (1960) [3]

See also
Thermodynamics of hell

1. (a) Anon Theophrastus. (c.1659). Theophrastus Reborn: History of What Has Been Called the Gods of the World, Religion, Life, and Below the Demons of Indifference to Death, about Life in Nature. The Purpose of it was Constructed and the Opinions of the most Learned Theologians, to the View to Demolishing the Work, from Philosophers (Theophrastus Redivivus: sive historia de iis, quae dicuntur de diis, de mundo, de religione, de anima, inferis et daemonibus, de contemnenda morte, de vita secundum naturam. Opus ex Philosophorum opinionibus constructum et doctissimis Theologis ad diruendum propositum) (Ѻ) [1,090-pages]. Manuscript of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Department of manuscrits, Latin 9324, XVIII.
(b) Theophrastus Redivivus (GermanEnglish) – Wikipedia.
2. Thomas Aikenhead – Dictionary of Unitarian and Universality Biography.
3. (a) Bazargan, Eshq va Parastesh ya Thermodynamic-e Ensan, 159.
(b) Taghavi, Sehed M. (2004). The Flourishing of Islamic Reformism in Iran: Political Islamic Groups in Iran (1941-61), (pg. 84). Routledge.
4. Taylor, C.C.W. (1999). The Atomists: Leucippus and Democritus: Fragments: a Text and Translation with a Commentary by C.C.W. Taylor (pg. 3, 5). University of Toronto Press.

● Thims, Libb (2015). “Zerotheism for Kids, Lecture 12: Moral Gravity, Higher Powers, and Death” (Ѻ), Atheism Reviews, Sep 7.

External links
Hell – Wikipedia.

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