In hmolscience, human is a []

Models | Historical
The following is a work-in-progress listing, of the 132+ historical "terms", employed to define a human, grouped into 29-categories:



1. Clay

Clay creation myth | Religious
Imhotep 2600BC
Adam and Eve [Clay + Spirit]

2. Four Elements

Four element thing / existent

3. Machine

Automaton | Dualism (religious + physical)
Rene Descartes1637

Heat engine

Physico-chemical machine
Wilhelm Ostwald [15]1901
Steam engine [13]
Felix Adler [13]1916

4. Atom

Thinking atoms [see: Lisbon poem]

Ravi Zacharias (1990)

Tormented atoms
Point atom
Humphry Davy1813
Organic individuality
Nathaniel Shaler1891
Atomic and molecular motion
Howard Lovecraft1916
Batch of atoms
Paul Aebersold1949
Batch of stable isotopes
Paul Aebersold1949
Atomic thing with curiosity
Richard Feynman1963
Arthur Iberall 1987
Bunch of atoms
Michael Ruse2000
Atomic geometry
Libb Thims2012
Aware atomic assemblage
Taylor (Ѻ) c.2015

5. Wave | Orbital

Ernst Mach1885
Wave-particle duality

Wave function | Human wave function
Peter Atkins1992
Quantum cloud
Antony Gormleyc.1998
Wave function / orbital (see: human molecular orbital)
Libb Thims2003
Wave-particle being
Kendra Krueger2018

6. Four Elements / Elements

Animate combination of the universe
Percy Shelley1815

7. Element

Chemical element
William Fairburn1914
John Claxton2006

8. Molecule

Jean Sales1789

Molecular person | Molecular entity
George Scott1985
Jean-Marie Lehn1995
Molecular agent
Vilfredo Pareto1907
Molecular species [see: fugacity]
Mirza Beg?1987
Obscure lump of molecules
Barry Barnes 1998
Abstract molecule
Michael McLure 2002
Overgrown supermolecule
Peter Pogany2006
Evolved animated molecular structure
Carolyn Porco2006
Powered metabolic molecule
Libb Thims2013

9. Particle

Irving Fisher1892
Fluid particle

Gas particle

Gas molecule
Ludwig Boltzmann

Active Brownian agent
Lutz Schimansky-Geier1995

10. Phase

Henry Adams1908
[Existence] phase | Point phase
Bruce Lindsay1983

11. Evolved | Metamorphosized chemical | CHEM

Metamophosized physico-chemical substance
Johann Goethe1796
CHEM thing (see: CHEM cypher)
Evolved carbon chemistry animal machine well-informed heat engine
Jerome Rothstein1979

12. Chemical

Chemical combination
Nikolay Chernyshevsky1860
Thomas Dreier1910
Chemical species

Chemical formula in operation
George Carey 1919
Chemical molecule
Gilbert Lewis
Samuel Gorvy
Surya Pati

Chemical machine
Ernest Borek 1952
Chemical entity
John Tukey1966
Chemical substance
Mirza Beg1987
Chemical being
Zane Claes (Ѻ) 2011
Promiscuous biochemical
Ben Carson2015

13. Physico-Chemical

Affinity-powered chemical "electrical mechanism"
Honore Balzac1834
Physico-chemical mechanism
James Johnstone1914

14. Compound

Physico-chemical compound
Frank Stockbridge1912
[Atomic] compound
Frank Copley1977

15. Stardust | Humans as stardust

Hilda Finnemore (Ѻ)1924
Star [elements]
Alfred Lotka1925
Carl Sagan1980
Lawrence Kraussc.2005
Star detritus
Neil Tyson 2007

16. Liquid

Gas-liquid two phase social model
Lawrence Henderson1935
Benard cell social molecule
Ilya Prigogine1972
Human liquid
Marc Donohue2014

17. Eddy | Loop

Energy eddy (second law destined)
Charles Sherrington1938
Shape-stable energy-steaming flame-like physico-chemical whirlpool phenomenon
Alan Wattsc.1955
Second law based evolved eddy
Buckminster Fuller1976
Light-powered chemical-fueled order-constructing heat-dissipating eddy (Ѻ) (Ѻ)
J. Scott Turner 2000
Strange loop
Douglas Hofstadter

Extant molecular eddy
Libb Thims2014

18. Protons

Electron-proton configuration
Albert Weiss1925
Electron-proton system
Albert Weiss1925
Locus in the electron-proton movement continuum
Albert Weiss1925
Pile of protons
Howard Bloom2013
Proton-electron configuration
Libb Thims (Ѻ) 2014

19. Matter

Cogged dice (loaded dice) matter-machines
Baron d’Holbach 1770
Material being
Baron d’Holbach1770
State of matter
George Simpson 1967
Baryonic matter
Michael Rowan-Robinson1999

20. Crystal

Evolved crystal
Gilbert Lewis1925
Liquid crystalline
Mae-Wan Ho1999

21. Dissipative structure

Far-from-equilibrium dissipative structure
Ilya Prigogine1972
Far-from-equilibrium space-time structure
Mae-Wan Ho1999
Far-from-equilibrium solar-powered refrigerator
Addy Pross 2012

22. Powered

Powered CHNOPS system
Henry Swan1974
Powered atomic geometry
Libb Thims2014

23. Fundamental particle

Fermion or boson
Louis Barrett1977
Fermion or boson
Ed Stephan1977
Baryon-lepton composite
Michael Rowan-Robinson1999
Fermion-boson arrangement
Libb Thims (Ѻ) 2014

24. Electron

Electron spin
Elliott Montroll1981
Free electron
Steve McMenamin1986

25. Bag | Sack

Sack of chemicals
William Herrick (Ѻ)1983
Soulless sack of chemicals machine
Author (Ѻ) 1991
Bag of chemicals
Michael Rowan-Robinson1999
Complex sack of chemicals
Robert Beezat (Ѻ)2010
Empty sack of chemicals endlessly interacting
Michael White (Ѻ)2010
Soulless bag of chemicals
Kurt Bell2011
Buckets of water
Adrian Bejan 2017

26. Carbon | Based

Carbon gorgon (Ѻ)
Ernst Haeckel (attributed)1888
Carbon-based organism
Harold Morowitz (attributed)1960s
Carbon-based biped
Arthur Clarke [14]1992
Carbon unit
Anon (Ѻ) / Star Trek (Ѻ)(Ѻ) 2001
CH-based thing (Ѻ)
CH-based animation

27. Scum

Heated chemical scum
Stephen Hawking1995
Pond scum
Neil Shubin2008
Evolved pond scum
Ray Comfort 2013

28. C-H-N-O-S-P combination

Wilhelm Ostwald1926
Evolved "CHNOPS" plus substance
Frank Thone1936
CHNOPS system
George Armstrong1964
CHNOPS organism
Harold Morowitz1968
Powered CHNOPS+ matrix
Henry Swan1974
HOCN+ mega-molecule
Rohann Solare2009

29. State

Bound state
Libb Thimsc.2005
Entropy state
Bill Marsilii (Ѻ)
Terry Rossio
30. Multi-element molecule / other

22-element reactive molecule
Robert Sterner &
James Elser
26-element reactive molecule
Libb Thims2002
26-element energy / heat driven atomic structure
Kalyan Annamalai &
Carlos Silva
22-element formula
Neil Shubin2013
Powered surface-attached coupled 26-element turnover-rate freely-running molecule
Libb Thims2013
Solar-powered atomic geometry
Libb Thims (Ѻ) 2014
CHNOPS+20 chemical species
Libb Thims2015
Powered CHNOPS+20 molecule
Libb Thims2015
Electrochemical process
Anon (Thims paraphrase) (Ѻ) 2015
Powered CHNOPS+20 phase
Libb Thims (Ѻ) 2016
CxHy+24 element thing
Libb Thims (Ѻ)

Powered CHNOPS+20 thing
Libb Thims (Ѻ) 2018
Powered CHNOPS+20 element existive
Libb Thims [N1]2020


Periodic table
The following shows the elemental composition of a human on the periodic table; specifically it
shows the hmolscience periodic table, i.e. elemental composition of a human, specifically the version used by Libb Thims to teach kids what they are during the 2015 "Zerotheism for Kids" lecture.
Hmolscience periodic table (Thims version) 1000px

Human models (Egyptian to modern)
Left: Anubis weight a person’s soul—thought to be contained in the heart—against the feather of truth, the “weight” conceptualized as being proportional to one’s bad deeds and acts, quantified by the 42 negative confessions, while Thoth waits to record the result. Right: the seeming-to-be modern day replacement for the ancient concept of the soul: heat, energy, and drive, as adjudged by review of recent attempts to define a human, particularly by science vs religion tensioned writers, amid a growing accuracy of chemistry and physics.
Religion | Science tension
In the above, of salient note, something dating back to at least Rene Descartes (1637), is that if we compare the following recent religion-tensioned definitions:

“With the advent of the scientific age, the body was confirmed to be a mere sack of chemicals, a machine without a soul.”
— Connie Zweig and Jeremiah Abrams (1991), Meeting the Shadow (Ѻ); quoted in Lee Booth’s 2012 Knowing and Loving (Ѻ)

“One, without god and judgment there is no meaning or justice in life. Two, without God and your own soul you are nothing more than an empty sack of chemicals endlessly interacting.”
— Michael White (2010), Of Science and God (Ѻ)

“How and what we think about God has a large role to play in how and what we think about human beings and the morality and ethics of interacting with each other. If God does not exist, then we are only a complex sack of chemicals and biological processes. There is really no reason to act as if a human being is something worth respecting and treating with dignity and love.”
— Robert Beezat (2010), Knowing and Loving (Ѻ)

with the chemical engineering-neutral definitions:

“A human is a 26-element energy/heat driven atomic structure.”
Kalyan Annamalai and Carlos Silva (2011), Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics (Ѻ); per citation of Libb Thims’ 2002 Human Thermodynamics

is that the excerpt “energy/heat driven” seems to be the upgrade for the older religio-mythology rooted concepts of “morality, ethics, meaning, and justice” all anchoring vicariously in the ancient religio-metaphysical term “soul”. This seems to be where the tension lies; something in need of clarification, cleaning, explication, upgrade, and terminology reform (possibly similar to how life terminology reform and social terminology reform have been effectively remedied).

In human chemistry, in the
molecular evolution table perspective, a human is defined purely as a structure of atoms (no soul, no brain, no free will, not alive, etc., along with any other antiquated now-defunct anthropomorphic conceptions) and is technically called a “human molecule”, a 26-element heat-driven dynamic atomic structure. [2] In human thermodynamics, according to the 1952 C.G. Darwin definition, people are defined as molecules. In human physics, humans are often modeled statistically as human particles. [3] Other synonymous names include: human atomism, human chemical, human element, human chemical element, among others, as listed below.
The 1988 collaborative What is a Person? goes into some of the philosophical thorns one runs into in attempting to define what a person is. [10]

Models | Timeline
See also: Human thermodynamic variable
The following are classical models, listed in loose chronological order, of the various ways thinkers have attempted to model humans, and or a human social system, depending, based on established physical models.


42 pre-dynastic nomes

Lower Egypt: 20 nomes
Upper Egypt: 22 nomes

Negative confessions
(42 forbidden sins → 10 commandments)
Nun cosmology
Egypt (42 nomes)
1.Narmer 75Narmer
(c.3100-3050 BC)
Egyptian pharaoh
Heliopolis creation myth

Dates: 3100BC

Ra theology (Anunian theology)
Birth of the sun

Father Ra born of Nun theory

Ab-ra-ham-ic theologies
(Christianity, Islam, etc.)
B-ra-hma-ic theologies
(Hinduism, Buddhism, etc.)

72 percent of modern beliefs
2.Imhotep 75 Imhotep
Egyptian polymath

Date: 2600BC

Model: clay creation myth
clay humans (ba, ka)
Empedocles 75Empedocles
(490-430 BC)
Greek philosopher

Date: 450BC

Model: 4 elements + 2 forces
Standard model (Empedocles) new

Description: “People who love each other mix like water and wine; people who hate each other segregate like water and oil.”
4.Leucippus 75Leucippus
(c.500-430 BC)
Greek philosopher

Date: 445BC

Model: atoms + voids
Standard model (Leucippus)

Description: Everything is composed entirely of various imperishable, indivisible elements called atoms, and that since movement exists, there has to be vacuum. True being, however, does not admit of vacuum, and there can be no movement in the absence of vacuum; vacuum is identified with non-being, since it cannot really be.
5.Leonardo da VinciLeonardo da Vinci
Italian polymath

Date: 1487

Model: Vitruvian man
Vitruvian man 250px

Description: Based on Roman architect Vitruvius’s ideal human proportions with geometry described in Book III of his treatise De Architectura, the workings of the human body are analogous to the geometrical workings of the universe. [4]
6.Descartes 75Rene Descartes
French natural philosopher

Date: 1637

Model: Two nature human machine/automaton
Cartesian human automaton new

Description: “I regard the human body as a machine [or automaton] so built and put together of bone, nerve, muscle, vein, blood and skin, that still, although it had no mind, it would not fail to move in all the same ways as at present, since it does not move by the direction of its will, nor consequently by means of the mind, but only by the arrangement of its organs.”
7.SpinozaBenedict Spinoza
Dutch philosopher

Date: 1676

Model: One nature Euclidean human
Spinoza human

Description: “All things happen according to the laws of nature.”

“I shall consider human actions and desires in exactly the same manner, as though I were concerned with lines, planes, and solids.”
8.Newton 75Isaac Newton
English physicist-chemist

Date: 1674

Model: mechanical-chemical self-motion
Human (Newton)

Description: "God who gave animals self motion beyond our understanding is without doubt able to implant other principles of motion in bodies which we may understand as little. Some would readily grant this may be a spiritual one; yet a mechanical one might be shown."
9.Jean Sales 75Jean Sales
French philosopher

Date: 1789

Model: human molecule
See: HMS pioneers; HM theory, HM formula
Human molecule fn

Description: “We conclude that there exists a principle of the human body which comes from the great process in which so many millions of atoms of the earth become many millions of human molecules.” [5]
10.Goethe 75 newJohann Goethe
German polyintellect

Date: 1796

Model: human chemical
Bergman reaction (1) Bergman reaction (2)
Chemical Behavior = Human Behavior
11.Humphry Davy 75Humphry Davy
English chemist

Date: 1813

Model: point atom
(Boscovich-Priestly point center of force)
Boscovich force–distance curve

Description: “The true chemical philosopher sees man an atom amidst atoms fixed upon a point in space; and yet modifying the laws that are around him by understanding them; and gaining, as it were, a kind of dominion over time, and an empire in material space, and exerting on a scale infinitely small a power seeming a sort of shadow or reflection of a creative energy, and which entitles him to the distinction of being made in the image of God and animated by a spark of the divine mind.”
12.Leon Walras 75Leon Walras
French socioeconomist

Date: c.1858

Model: economic molecule

See: Lausanne school of physical economics
agent (Walras)
Economic agent + molecule
13.Auguste Chauveau 75 Auguste Chauveau
French animal physiologist

Date: 1887

Model: human engine
Human machine

Description: “What we can state as far as the engines of the physical world are concerned can necessarily and completely be applied to organized machines, and […] to the human machine, which we can study most easily and scientifically.” [12]
14.Irving Fisher 75Irving Fisher
American economist

Date: 1892

Model: human particle

See: human thermodynamic variables table
Human particles

Description: “A particle in mechanics corresponds to an individual in economics.” [6]
15.Pareto 75 newVilfredo Pareto
French-Italian engineer

Date: 1897

Model: homo economicus
Homo economicus (Pareto) new 2
Economic agent = human molecule + external forces
16.Pareto 75 newVilfredo Pareto
French-Italian engineer

Date: 1902

Model: Spinning top molecular social pyramid
(Pareto principle)
Pareto principle (annotated)

Description: “The molecules of which the social aggregate is composed don’t stay at rest; some individuals enrich themselves, other impoverish themselves.”
17.Photo needed 75William Adams

English writer

Date: 1903

Model: social atom
social atoms

Description: “I call myself a social atom—a small speck of the surface of society.”
18.William Fairburn 75 newWilliam Fairburn
English-born American engineer

Date: 1914

Model: human chemical element
Human elements
19.Gilbert Lewis 75Gilbert Lewis
American physical chemist

Date: 1925

Model: human crystal
Virus (f)

Description: “Suppose that this hypothetical experiment could be realized and suppose we could discover a whole chain of phenomena, leading by imperceptible gradations form the simplest chemical molecule to the most highly developed organism. Would we then say that my preparation of [Anatomy of Science] is only a chemical reaction [extrapolate up], or, conversely that a crystal is thinking [extrapolate down] about the concepts of science?” [7]
20.Ettore Majorana 75Ettore Majorana
Italian engineer and theoretical physicist

Date: c.1935

Model: quantum mechanical social human
(human quantum mechanics)
21.George Lundberg 75George Lundberg
American sociologist

Date: 1939

Model: Electron-proton configuration
Carbon molecule (labeled)
22.John von NeumannJohn Neumann
American chemical engineer, mathematician, and computer pioneer

Date: 1948

Model: Self-replicative automaton theory
(Neumann automaton theory)
Neumann automaton
23.Prigogine 75Ilya Prigogine
Russian-born Belgian chemist and thermodynamicist

Date: 1971

Model: Benard cell human
(dissipative structure)
Benard cells
24.Jerome Rothstein 75Jerome Rothstein
American physicist

Date: 1979

Model: evolved carbon chemistry animal machine well-informed heat engine
Animal machine (Rothstein)
25.Elliott Montroll 75Elliott Montroll
American chemist, mathematician, and statistical mechanicist

Date: 1981

Model: Ising model of human behavior
(electron spin model)
Ising model of human behavior
26.Hermann Haken 75Hermann Haken
American physicist

Date: 1983

Model: human laser
(herd behavior model)

Description: “Light, as a laser beam, which as a whole ‘slaves’ or entrains its component atomic waves to its frequency, also exercises a type of formal cause.” [9]
27.Arthur Iberall 75Arthur Iberall
American physicist

Date: 1987

Model: human atomism
human atomism

Description: “The factory day is characteristic not only of living systems but also of all complex atomistic systems that persist and that express much of their action internally. For an individual human atomism the factory day largely, but not completely, coincides with the earth’s day.”
28.Per Bak 75Per Bak
Danish theoretical physicist

Date: 1988

Model: sand pile human
(self-organized criticality)
Bak sand pile
29.Peter Atkins 75Peter Atkins
English physical chemist

Date: 1992

Model: human wave function
Human wave function
30.James Lovelock 75James Lovelock
English scientist

Date: 1995

Model: human whirlpool [11]
31.Lutz Schimansky-Geier 75Lutz Schimansky-Geier
German theoretical physicist

Date: 1995

Model: active Brownian agent
("active" Brownian motion model)
Active Brownian agent
32.Fritjof Capra 75Fritjof Capra
Austrian-born American physicist

Date: 1996

Model: Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction
Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction
33.Alicia Juarrero 75Alicia Juarrero
Cuban-born American philosopher

Date: 1999

Model: human tornado
(vortex model)

Description: “Recent research in nonlinear dynamical systems suggests organisms are more like tornadoes or even ‘chaotic’ systems like glass or planets.” [9]
34.Yakovenko and Dragulescu 75Victor Yakovenko
Russian-born American physicist

Adrian Dragulescu
Romanian-born American physicist

Date: 2000

Model: Boltzmann money distribution
Boltzmann distribution (money model)
35.Robert Sterner and James Elser 75Robert Sterner
American limnologist

James Elser
American limnologist

Date: 2000

Model: 22-element abstract reactive molecule
(Sterner-Elser human molecular formula)
22-element molecule
H375,000,000 O132,000,000 C85,700,000 N6,430,000 Ca1,500,000
P1,020,000 S206,000
Na183,000 K177,000
Cl127,000 Mg40,000 Si38,600
Fe2,680 Zn2,110 Cu76 I14 Mn13
F13 Cr7 Se4 Mo3 Co1
36.Wenyuan Niu 75Wenyuan Niu
Chinese scientist

Date: 2001

Model: Social particle combustion model
(social combustion theory)
Social combustion theory diagram
37.Libb Thims (2013) 75Libb Thims
American electrochemical engineer

Date: 2002

Model: 26-element animate reactive molecule
(Thims human molecular formula)
26-element molecule
H2.5E9 O9.7E8 C4.9E8 N4.7E7 P9.0E6 Ca8.9E6 K2.0E6 Na1.9E6
1.6E6 Cl1.3E6 Mg3.0E5 Fe5.5E4F5.4E4
Zn1.2E4 Si9.1E3
1.2E3 B7.1E2 Cr98 Mn93 Ni87 Se65 Sn64 I60 Mo19 Co17 V
Libb Thims (2013) 75
Libb Thims
American electrochemical engineer

Date: 2003

Model: human molecular orbital
Human molecular orbital
39.Libb Thims (2013) 75Libb Thims
American electrochemical engineer

Date: 2009

Model: Defunct theory of life (human ≠ alive)
Defunct theory of life (diagram) f
40.Libb Thims (2013) 75Libb Thims
American electrochemical engineer

Date: 2010-2013

Model: synthesis (birth) / analysis (death) model
(synthesized molecule model)
synthesis fn
41.Annamalai and Silva 75Kalyan Annamalai
Indian-born American mechanical engineer

Carlos Silva
Venezuelan-born American mechanical engineer

Date: 2011

Model: Human body | Formulae
Human (thermodynamic definition) (2011)
42.Addy Pross 75Addy Pross
Israeli organic chemist

Date: 2012

Model: Far-from-equilibrium solar-powered refrigerator
Solar powered cooler

Description: “The simple truth is that the most basic living system, a bacterial cell, is a highly organized far-from-equilibrium functional system, which in a thermodynamic sense mimics the operation of a refrigerator (or solar powered cooler), but is orders of magnitude more complex.”


The following are some noted Twitter users, in 2017, defining themselves atomically or formulically:

Taylor @lovelymolecules

Michael Halliday777
A 2013 Yahoo Answers query turned 2014 viral quote meme.

The following are related quotes:

“Each of us from a purely physical standpoint is a large batch atoms.”
Paul Aebersold (1949), “Atomic Energy Benefits: Radioisotopes”

“To a materialist no thing is real but atoms in a void and we are but molecular people controlled by the actions of natural physicochemical law.”
George Scott (1985), “Molecular People” dedicated to Lucretius

“Humans are an interesting form of baryonic matter.”
Michael Rowan-Robinson (1999), The Nine Numbers of the Cosmos (pg.16)

“If we are made of atoms, then a scientist is a group of atoms studying themselves.”
— Anon (2013) “Yahoo Answers Question” (Ѻ); turned 2014 SciencePorn tweet (Ѻ) favorite; turned 2015 quote pic (Ѻ)(Ѻ)(Ѻ)(Ѻ) meme; thematically, a variant of Niels Bohr’s c.1934 view that: “A physicist is just an atom’s way of looking at itself.” (Ѻ)(Ѻ)

See also
Rock vs. human
Human atom
Point atom
Free electron
Social atom
● Human fluid
What is a human?

CHNOPS plus (Thone, 1936) 2
A depiction of Frank Thone's 1936 picture of a plant labeled as a "CHNOPS plus" thing.
N1. The term “powered CHNOPS+20 element existive”, a term conceived, specifically with reference to "existent", by Thims, upon wakeup (7 Apr 2020), after the day previous penning the “Aristotle” chapter to HCT, which involved a certain amount of research into the theoretical and terminological specifics of Aristotle’s Physics (§1 and §4), wherein he employs the facinating terms “existents” and “existing things” to implicitly defined all things, humans included; for example:

“A similar inquiry is made by those who inquire into the ‘number of existents’; for they inquire whether the ultimate constitutes of existing things are one or many, and if many, whether a finite or an infinite plurality. So, they are inquiring whether the principle or element is one or many. We must take for granted that the things that exist by nature are, either all or some of them, in motion—which is made plain by induction.”
Aristotle (350BC), Physics (§1, pgs. 315-16) (translators: R.P. Hardie and R.K. Gaye)

derived from “CHNOPS” combination (Ostwald, 1926), “powered” (Swan, 1974), plus “CHNOP+” notation (Thone, 1936), along with the number “20”, representative the difference of 26, the total number of elements in a human (see: Thims human molecular formula) minus 6 elements, namely the six elements of the CHNOSP acronym.

1. Anon. (2000). Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (Version 2.5). Publisher..
2. (a) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume One), (preview), (ch. 2: "Human Molecule", pgs. 15-35). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
(b) Thims, Libb. (2008). The Human Molecule, (preview). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
3. Erreygers, Guido. (2001). Economics and Interdisciplinary Exchange, (ch. 7: “Particles or Humans? - Econometric Quarrels on Newtonian Mechanics and the Social Realm", pgs. 171-79). Routledge.
4. Vitruvian man – Wikipedia.
5. Sales, Jean. (1789). De la Philosophie de la Nature: ou Traité de morale pour le genre humain, tiré de la philosophie et fondé sur la nature (The Philosophy of Nature: Treatise on Human Moral Nature, from Philosophy and Nature), Volume 4 (molécules humaines, pg. 281). Publisher.
6. Fisher, Irving. (1892). Mathematical Investigations into the Theory of Value and Prices (particle, 3+ pgs). Yale University Press.
7. Lewis, Gilbert N. (1925). The Anatomy of Science, Silliman Lectures; Yale University Press, 1926.
8. Bak, Per, Tang, Chao, and Wiesenfeld. (1988). “Self-organized Criticality: an Explanation of 1/f Noise”, Physical Review Letters, 59: 381-84.
9. Juarrero, Alicia. (1999). Dynamics in Action: Intentional Behavior as a Complex System (laser, pg. 20; tornado, pg. 75). MIT Press.
10. Goodman, Michael. (1988). What is a Person? Springer.
11. Lovelock, James E. (1995). The Ages of Gaia: A Biography of Our Living Earth (pg. 27). Publisher.
12. Bousquet, Antoine. (2009). The Scientific Way of Warfare (§: The Human Engine: Thermodynamic Bodies and Minds, pg. 72). Columbia University Press.
13. Quote: “we are all steam engines”, stated by: Felix Adler, 1916 (Ѻ), Peter Atkins, 2010 (Ѻ), Marcus Chown, 2013 (Ѻ), etc.
14. Clarke, Arthur C. (1992). “Greetings, Carbon-Based Bipeds!”, Life magazine; in: Greetings, Carbon-Based Bipeds!: Collected Essays, 1934-1998 25:479-). Macmillan, 2001.
15. Ostwald, Wilhelm. (1901). Natural Philosophy: with Author’s Special Revision for the American edition (translator: Thomas Seltzer) (physico-chemical machine, pg. 171). Henry Holt and Co, 1910.
16. (a) Simpson, George G. (1967). The Meaning of Evolution: a Study of the History of Life and of its Significance for Man (purposeless, 3+ pgs; quote, pg. 345). Harvard University Press.
(b) Strobel, Lee. (2004). The Case for a Creator: a Journalist Investigates Scientific Evidence that Points Toward God (pg. 26). Zondervan, 2009.
(c) George Gaylord Smith – Wikipedia.
17. (a) Aristotle. (350BC). Physics (translators: Robert Hardie and Russell Gaye) (txt). Publisher, 1930; Oxford, 1954.
(b) Aristotle. (322BC). The Complete Works of Aristotle, Volume One (editor: Jonathan Barnes). Princeton, 1995.
(c) Thims, Libb. (2020). Human Chemical Thermodynamics — Chemical Thermodynamics Applied to the Humanities: Meaning, Morality, Purpose; Sociology, Economics, History, Philosophy, Government, Anthropology, Politics, Business, Jurisprudence; Religion, Relationships, Warfare, and Love (pdf). Publisher.

External links
Human – Wikipedia.

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