|An artistic rendition of relationship between Gibbs free energy G and the formation, “creation”, or synthesis of a human (human molecule) from standard state atoms and molecules of the periodic table and earlier earth conditions; from American physicist Daniel Schroeder’s 2000 Thermal Physics textbook, who comments: |
In 1789, French philosopher Jean Sales, outlined the basic idea that each person was formed during a great process, involving a large number of mechanistic steps, from the atoms of the earth:
“We conclude that there exists a principle of the human body which comes from the ‘great process’ in which so many millions of atoms of the earth become many millions of human molecules.”
This premise constitutes what is called the "human molecular hypothesis" (akin to the atomic hypothesis).
In 1831, German polymath Johann Goethe outline the complexities behind the notion of attempts at calculating a "human free energy of formation", although discussed in the language of "chemical affinities" A, which relates to free energy G, via the Goethe-Helmholtz equation; in letter to his friend, German composer Carl Zelter, Goethe stated: 
“What man, what society dare express such sentiments? seeing that we cannot easily known anyone from his youth up, nor criticize the rise of his activity. How else does character finally prove itself, if it is not formed by the activity of the day, by reflective agencies which counteract each other? Who would venture to determine the value of contingencies, impulses, after-effects?Who dare to estimate the influence of elective affinities?
At all events, he who would presume to estimate what man is, must take into consideration what he was, and how he became so. But such barefaced pretension are common, and we have often enough met with them; indeed they are always recurring, and they must be tolerated.”
In other words, the energies and entropies of events, reactions, activities, etc., that precede a person need to be accounted for in the "estimation" of the free energy of formation of a given person in a given state.
In 1946, American physicist Percy Bridgman, during the famous 1946 Harvard "what is life in terms of physics and chemistry?" debate, raised the following objection:
“How can we compute or even evaluate the entropy of a living being? In order to compute the entropy of a system, it is necessary to be able to create or to destroy it in a reversible way. We can think of no reversible process by which a living organism can be created or killed: both birth and death are irreversible processes. There is absolutely no way to define the change of entropy that takes place in an organism at the moment of death.”In other words, although an animate thing, such as a rabbit or a human has an entropy, we paradoxically (see: Bridgman paradox) may not be able to calculate, compute, or evaluate it exactly or even approximately. The entropy of an animated thing is needed before the free energy of formation of the thing can be calculated.
In 1975, Norman Dolloff, in his Heat Death and the Phoenix, gave the first formulaic synopsis of the idea that each organism as a Gibbs free energy of formation:
the following what might be called "organism synthesis equation". Dolloff can be classified as the transition point mindset of someone grappling to switch from the entropy "order/disorder" model of everything to the "free energy" model of everything; all done in the framework of explicit atheism.
|American physical chemist Martin Goldstein, in his 1993 section "Entropy of a Mouse", argues that to determine the free energy of formation of a mouse, we need to ask: |
“What net energy and entropy changes would have been if simple chemical substances, present when the earth was young, were converted into [the mouse]. To answer this question, we must determine the energies and entropies of everything in the initial state and final state.”
This very same logic, by extrapolation, can be applied to humans, in the calculation of the standard human free energy of formation.
In 1993, American physical chemist Martin Goldstein penned a chapter section entitled the “Entropy of a Mouse”, wherein he outlined the idea of what is means for a animate chemical species or for that matter a so-called animate entity, such as a mouse (or a human) to have a free energy value in a given state: 
“To apply thermodynamics to the problem of how life got started, we must ask what net energy and entropy changes would have been if simple chemical substances, present when the earth was young, were converted into living matter [as in the formation of a mouse] … to answer this question [for each process], we must determine the energies and entropies of everything in the initial state and final state.”
In other words, the as seen on the affinity table page, showing the Gibbs free energies of formation for different biochemical species, such as Fructose (218 kgcal), molecular formula C6H12O6, gives way to the idea that this logic can be extrapolated upward to calculate the standard Gibbs free energy of formation for different types of proto-life entities, chemicals, or molecules, such as a mouse.
The above logic, as outlined by Goethe and Goldstein, that one can calculate the elective affinities or, the modern equivalent, the energies and entropies of the reaction mechanism steps involved in the formation or synthesis of an animated entity such as a mouse, gives way to the view that each person can be viewed, likewise, as a "molecule" (human molecule) or chemical species (human chemical species) with a measurable human molecular formula, as has been recently calculated (Sterner and Elser, 2000; Thims, 2002, New Scientist, 2005).
In 2000, American physicist Daniel Schroeder, in his Thermal Physics textbook, stated the following view: 
“To create a [human] out of nothing and place it on the table, the magician need not summon up the entire enthalpy, H = U + PV. Some energy, equal to TS, can flow in spontaneously as heat; the magician must provide only the difference, G = H – TS, as work.”
In 2007, American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims, in his Human Chemistry textbook, outlined the basics of the idea of the "human free energy tables", as a subject to be worked out in the future; the first stepping stone of which is to study the approaches (and pitfalls) of the 500+ thinkers on the HT pioneers timeline-table, so to get basic framework as to how people historically have attempted to calculate the energies, entropies, internal energies, enthalpies, temperatures, pressures, volumes, and free energies of humans.
A number of salient issues arise in this framework, one being the notion of standard state, namely that if the reaction is traced back through evolutionary time, starting say at about the moment of the nebular hypothesis, pressures and temperatures would not have been at standard state.
1. Goethe, Johann and Zelter, Carl F. (1892). Goethe’s Letters to Zelter: with Extracts from those of Zelter to Goethe (elective affinities, 457). G. Bell and Sons.
2. Schroeder, Daniel V. (2000). An Introduction to Thermal Physics (pg. 150). Addison Wesley Longman.
3. Goldstein, Martin and Goldstein, Inge F. (1993). The Refrigerator and the Universe: Understanding the Laws of Energy (section: Entropy of a mouse, pgs. 297-99). Harvard University Press.