Interaction

interaction diagram
Three types of humans (modeled as human particles) interacting: left: a human moved into a spin or curled trajectory by a gravity interaction; middle: a human in trajectory repelled away from a stationary human, via a repulsive exchange interaction; right two initially stationary humans, after which following an interaction, one is repelled way. [1]
In science, an interaction is a microsecond exchange involved between two or more bound state entities or in a general sense an exchange of a gauge boson between two fermions, after which the bound entities or fermions are said to be "changed".

History
In 1916, in the context of the origin and evolution of life, American zoologist Henry Osborn introduced his so-called "theory of reaction and interaction of energy". [4] In 1926, physical chemist Alfred Lotka introduced his trigger action model of predator-prey interaction. The 1960s decoding of the honeybee waggle dance (or wiggle dance), a type of interaction movement that provides nectar, pollen, water, or hive location information to fellow bees, by Karl Frisch is one of the first detailed studies of animal interaction. [5]

In the 1970s, American mathematical psychologist John Gottman became the first to video record and study time-slowed interactions between humans in a quantitative manner. In laboratory setting, over several years, Gottmann studied and measured the interactions of several hundred married couples interacting in a controlled environment.

Gottman found, when analyzing the video data at a slow microsecond speed, that exchange data such as the emotional content of person’s words, facial expressions, gestures, or body movements, unconscious intonations, etc., can be divided into three groups: positive, neutral, or negative. These can range from disgust, contempt, belligerence, validation, affection, or joy, which can each be digitally coded at each moment of the interaction. In other words, all of the many hundreds of sensor inputs, such as the visual sight of a sour facial expression, of any human conversation create a reactionary state of either attractionor repulsionin the recipient. Attraction tends to create cohesive dynamic movements and behaviors, whereas repulsion tends to create receding dynamic movements and behaviors. Gottman's findings culminated in the finding of what is called the Gottman stability ratio, namely that stable human marriages are quantified by a 5-to-1 ratio of attractive-to-repulsive types of interactions. [3]

In the 2000s, American wearable computer technologist Alex Pentland has been running a research group on the study of human dynamics at the MIT that has built a computer system that measures a set of non-linguistic social signals, such as engagement, mirroring, activity, and stress, by analyzing "tone of voice" over one-minute periods, and supposedly have theoretically applied the model to predictions of dating decisions, salary negotiations, social network position movements, hiring preferences, measurements of empathy or interest, etc. In Pentland's own summary words: [6]

“In examining some of the most important interactions a human can have: finding a mate, getting a job, negotiating a salary, finding one’s place in one’s social network, etc., activities for which we prepare intellectually and strategically, sometimes for decades, it is largely unconscious social signally, in contrast to actual linguist exchange, occurring at the start of the interaction that appears to be most predictive of the outcome.”

In 2007, American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims introduced the standard human physics model of interaction between human particles or human molecules, such as diagrammed below. [1]
Feynman diagram
In terms of time and movement, human interactions, each of which result in increases or decreases in reactive attraction (distance toward) or repulsion (distance away) can be quantified on Feynman diagrams (above left showing an electron-photon interaction; above right showing a male human molecule Mx and female human molecule Fy interacting via a single photon exchange. [1]

Standard model
In the conceptual model of fundamental interactions, matter consists of fermions, which carry properties called charges and spin ±1⁄2 (intrinsic angular momentum ±ħ/2, where ħ is the reduced Planck constant). They attract or repel each other by exchanging bosons. The interaction of any pair of fermions in perturbation theory can then be modeled thus:

Two fermions go in → interaction by boson exchange → Two changed fermions go out

The exchange of bosons always carries energy and momentum between the fermions, thereby changing their speed and direction. The exchange may also transport a charge between the fermions, changing the charges of the fermions in the process (e.g. turn them from one type of fermion to another). Since bosons carry one unit of angular momentum, the fermion's spin direction will flip from +1⁄2 to −1⁄2 (or vice versa) during such an exchange (in units of the reduced Planck's constant). Because an interaction results in fermions attracting and repelling each other, an older term for "interaction" is force.

Human interactions
The extension of the standard model to human interactions, in the corpus of human physics, is the view that humans are types of fermionic matter, termed by definition human molecules, comprised of 26 elements, structured into a human particle like reactive bound state of existence, whereby the simplest of interactions can be modeled as:

Two human molecules go in → interaction by boson exchange → Two changed human molecules go out

The simplest type of boson exchange, in human interactions is visual inflection, which can be studied at the microsecond level, in which case the boson involved is the photon, which is said to constitute 37 percent of sensor input (input interactions which actuate induced movement). These types of interactions are what are termed primary field particle interactions, being that the field particle involved in the interaction is one of the primary or elementary field particles, which are said to come in three varieties: photons, gluons, and what are called W and Z bosons.

In more advanced interactions, namely those in which the field particle involved in the interaction is large than a single boson or several bosons, the interaction is described as occurring through the what is called secondary field particle exchange, the simplest type of field particle being monetary entity of value such as money, e.g. a one dollar paper bill. In these types of interactions, one uses the following model: [1]

Two human molecules go in → interaction by secondary field particle exchange → Two changed human molecules go out

Interaction rate
For all types of human-human interactions, the rate at which human molecules absorb, process, and emit field particles, whether primary or secondary, otherwise known as emotional current, is 15-cycles per second. [2]

In more detail, studies have shown that if any multi-second video segment of interaction between two people in conversation is analyzed, by slowing the video down to micro-frames of 1/45th of a second, one will see, by watching the slowed-down version, frame by frame, what is called interaction synchrony, in which the conversation takes on a rhythmical structure. One will see, for instance, each person, within the space of one, two, or three 1/45th-of-a-second frames, move a shoulder or cheek or an eyebrow or a hand, sustain that movement, stop it, change direction, and start again. In other words, the timing of the stops and starts of each person’s micromovements, i.e. the jumps and shifts of body and face, with respect to his or her bonded companion’s response, are found to be in perfect harmony, having a frequency rate of 15-cycles per second.

References
1. Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume One) (preview) (interaction diagram, pg. 185; ch. 6: Attraction and Repulsion, pgs. 147-82; ch. 7: Bound State Interactions, pg. 183-211; section: “Gottman stability ratios”, pgs. 179-182). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
2. Gladwell, Malcolm. (2002). The Tipping Point: How Little Things Make a Big Difference. Little, Brown, and Co.
3. Gottman, John. (1994). Why Marriages Succeed or Fail. New York: Fireside.
4. Osborn, Henry F. (1916). The Origin of Life: on the Theory of Action, Reaction and Interaction of Energy. The Science Press.
5. (a) Frisch, Karl von. (1967). The Dance Language and Orientation of Bees. Harvard University Press.
(b) Waggle dance – Wikipedia.
6. Pentland, Alex. (2006). "I Believe it may be useful to think of Humans as having a Collective Mind", in: What We Believe But Cannot Prove (pgs. 154-57). Harper Perennial.

External links
Interaction – Wikipedia.
Fundamental interaction – Wikipedia.
Interactions.org – Particle physics news and resources.

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