# Law

In science, a law is a hypothesis turned postulate turned principle that has been verified by experiment and not found to contradict experimental fact. A law, stated another way, is a descriptive principle of nature that holds in all circumstances. [1] Laws differ depending on whether they apply universally or only to certain phenomena, systems, or processes. The two most established laws are the first law of thermodynamics and second law of thermodynamic, which were originally the first main principle and second main principle. A partial listing of laws is shown below, most of which are merely precipitates, derivatives, synonyms, or reformulations of the first and second law:

Laws | Main
The following are the main laws, shown via chronological inception, all of which are generally derived the latter from the former:

Nature abhors a vacuum | Parmenides (485BC)

● Law of inertia | Aristotle (335BC)
Laws of motion | Newton (1687)
First law of motion
Second law of motion
Third law of motion

Gas laws
Boyle’s law | Robert Boyle (1662)
Mariotte’s law
Charles’ law
Gay-Lussac’s law
Boyle-Charles law
Ideal gas law | Walther Nernst (1893)

Laws of thermodynamics

Zeroth law of thermodynamics | Joseph Black (1786)
First law of thermodynamics | Rudolf Clausius (1865)
Boerhaave’s law
Mechanical equivalent of heat
Conservation of energy
Conservation of force

Second law of thermodynamics | Rudolf Clausius (1865)
Carnot’s law of thermodynamics (Stephane Leduc)
Law of dissipation
Law of entropy
Law of increasing entropy
Murphy’s law
The entropy law
Law of disintegration (Porteus’ theory of happiness)
The first and second law
Law of increasing material entropy (material entropy)
New second law (computational thermodynamics)

Third law of thermodynamics | Walther Nernst (1908)
Combined law of thermodynamics
On the Moving force of Heat and the Laws of Heat which may be Deduced Therefrom
Laws of affinity
First law of affinity
Second law of affinity

Fourth law of thermodynamics
Fifth law of thermodynamics
Eth law of thermodynamics (principle of fast entropy) (Mark Ciotola)

Laws of human thermodynamics
Laws of social thermodynamics
Law of racial thermodynamics

Heat | Other
The following are heat-specific related laws:

Newton’s law of cooling | Isaac Newton (c.1690)
Joule’s first law | James Joule (1841)
Joule’s second law | James Joule (1843)

Evolution | Other
The following are evolution-related laws:

Darwin-Lotka energy law
● Second law evolution problem (second law evolution paradox) (Thermodynamics of Evolution)
Second law (disordering) evolution (ordering) reconciliations

Laws | Other

The following are miscellaneous laws:

Laws of human chemistry
Laws of information
Conservation of information
Laws of life
Hess’ law
Surface law

● Conservation laws
Conservation of mass
● Goldsmith’s two laws of ecodynamics (ecodynamics)
● Wien’s law (energy element)
● Laws of organization (human elective affinity)
● Law of matter and force (vital energy)
● Law of chemical operation (George Carey)
● Physical laws (John Patrick, Charles Darwin)
● Laws of self-organization (Stuart Kauffman)

Laws of the universe
● Four laws of black hole mechanics (Stephen Hawking)

Laws of nature

Self-proclaimed laws
A few instances, there are theorists who proclaim to name or move their own principles to the rank of "law", a few examples:

Law of temporal hierarchies | Georgi Gladyshev (c.1970s)
● Constructal law | Adrian Bejan (c.1990s)

This, however, is usually a bit of red flag, in that it bucks historical protocol of the "theorem" (1798/1850) to "principle" (1875), e.g. first main principle, to "law", e.g. "first law of thermodynamics" (Peter Tait, 1868) status migration of Clausius model historical transition:

References
1. Daintith, Mark. (2005). Oxford Dictionary of Science. Oxford University Press.