Neter

Neter (god) 2
A a section from a c.3200BC pre-dynastic Egyptian green slate, showing the various weapons used by the Egyptian hunter-warriors, one of which is a "axe" like object, which in Dynastic times, became the word "neter", shown by the hieroglyph “Neter heiroglyph”, meaning the word "god", which was translated in Judaism (700BC) as the word "El", meaning "mighty, might, strong, power", which became in Coptic "nutra", thereafter rendered as "nature" (Brugsch, 1888), "kraft" (force), or power. [4]
In terms, Neter or Ntr (Netjer, Netcher), represented by the “Neter heiroglyph” hieroglyph, the symbol of a "hatchet" (Birch, 1848), "weapon" (Brugsch, 1862), or "axe" (Budge, 1904), is the original Egyptian word for “god”, or in plural form “neteru”, represented by the combined hieroglyph set of symbols “Neter heiroglyphNeter heiroglyphNeter heiroglyph”, meaning “gods”.

When the neter symbol is shown groups of eight “Neter heiroglyphNeter heiroglyphNeter heiroglyphNeter heiroglyphNeter heiroglyphNeter heiroglyphNeter heiroglyphNeter heiroglyph”, or Ogdoad, in Greek, e.g. Hermopolis ogdoad (Ѻ), or nine “Neter heiroglyphNeter heiroglyphNeter heiroglyphNeter heiroglyphNeter heiroglyphNeter heiroglyphNeter heiroglyphNeter heiroglyphNeter heiroglyph”, or Ennead, in Greek, e.g. Heliopolis ennead (Ѻ), it refers to a "paut" or group of gods, generally symbolic of the strength of the "military power" of the given city. [1]

Overview
In 2360BC, the pyramid of king Unas (c.2400-2360) was built, on the walls of which are the Pyramid Texts of Unas, wherein the deceased king is described as a "kha ba em neter" which translates as "soul rising like a god" as follows: [1]

Unas (499-500) 2

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Brugsch
In 1872, Heinrich Brugsch placed Neter heiroglyph’among ‘objets tranchants, armes’ [sharp objects; weapons], in his classified list of hieroglyphic characters.

In 1888, Brugsch, in his Religion and Mythology (pg. 93), defined neter as follows:

German
English
“Neter [means] die thatige Kraft, welche in periodischer Wiederkehr die Dinge erzeugt und erschafFt, ihnen neues Leben verleiht und die Jugendfrische zuriickgiebt.”“Nete [means] the operative power [force] which created and produced things by periodical recurrence, and gave them new life and restored to them the freshness of youth.”

Note, the English translation, at right (above), is done by Budge (1904) who translates "kraft" as power, whereas correctly, in modern scientific terms, kraft translates as force. When, correctly, a force moves an object, e.g. a person, through unit distance, per unit time, only then is the quantity of effect a "power".

Griffith
In 1898, Francis Griffith, in his Hieroglyphs, wherein it is suppositioned that the ‘Neter heiroglyph’ symbol is a bone with a roll of yellow cloth wrapped around it.

Budge | Etymology
In 1904, Wallis Budge, in his The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume One (pg. 41), describes neter as follows:

Neter (Budge 1)

Budge footnotes this passage as follows:

1. See the Pyramid Text of Unas (2360BC), line 209; in the Pyramid Text of Teta (2333BC)(Ѻ), line 197, the gods are described as "male and female" via the hieroglyphs:

male and female (Budge).

Budge, then, in his The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume One (pgs. 63-75), devotes thirteen-pages to a discussion of the historical consensus of the symbol “Neter heiroglyph”, the gist of which he summarizes as follows:

“We have now to consider what object is supposed to be represented by ‘Neter heiroglyph’ and what the word Neter means. In Christian Bunsen's Egypt's Place [1848], Samuel Birch described ‘Neter heiroglyph’ as a hatchet; in 1872, Heinrich Brugsch placed Neter heiroglyph’among ‘objets tranchants, armes’ [sharp objects; weapons], in his classified list of hieroglyphic characters; thus it is clear that the two greatest masters of Egyptology considered ‘Neter heiroglyph’ to be either a weapon or a cutting tool, and, in fact, assumed that the hieroglyphic represented an axe-head let into and fastened in a long wooden handle.”

Green slate 3
A pre-dynastic green slate object (an enlarged section of which is shown above), held in the British Museum, which, according to Wallis Budge (1904), shows Egyptian warriors holding the "axe", the symbol of power, which became the Egyptian hieroglyph for god or neter sign.
Budge then (pg. 64) passingly mentions Francis Griffith’s Hieroglyphs (1898), wherein it is supposed that the ‘Neter heiroglyph’ symbol is a bone with a roll of yellow cloth wrapped around it, which Budge dismisses as an evidence-less based conjecture.

Budge, concurring with Birch and Brugsch, gives his opinion that the ‘Neter heiroglyph’ object is “an axe and nothing else”. Budge then, citing his earlier History of Egypt (1902), goes onto discuss types of stone and metal axe-like weapons the ancient Egyptians might have used during battle, citing examples of which from the archaic period (before 1st dynasty), as preserved in the British Museum, as shown (adjacent). [4]

Budge (1902) to justify this weapon meaning, in reference to the above object, goes on to state how the warriors of Horus Kings of the 1st dynasty used stone-headed Maces, bow and arrows, etc.

Budge (1904) goes on (pgs. 66-69) to argue that neter became the Coptic "neter" (netra), which became the Hebrew "El" (see: supreme god timeline), both eventually becoming the Latin "nature", German "kraft" (force), or "operative power" in general.
Neter (Ashby, 1997)
A visual of Muata Ashby's 1998 natural afterlife spirituality definition of neter. [5]

Ashby
In 1997, Muata Ashby, in his Anunian Theology, was referring to Neterianism, based on the root neter, which he defined as “hidden divinity”, as the oldest known religion in history. Asyby, citing what seems to be the Griffith “fabric” (1898) wrapping meaning, and the Brugsch (1888) “nature” meaning, defined ntr (or neter) as follows: [5]

“The term Ntr ‘Ntr (Ahsby H)’, or Ntjr ‘Ntjr (Ashby)’, comes from the Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic language which did not record its vowels. However, the term survives in the Coptic language as ‘Nutar’. The same Coptic meaning (divine force or sustaining power) applies in the present as it did in ancient times. It is a symbol composed of a wooden staff that was wrapped with strips of fabric, like a mummy. The strips alternate in color with yellow, green and blue. The mummy in Kamitan spirituality is understood to be the dead but resurrected divinity. So, the Nutar (Ntr) is actually every human being who does not really die, but goes to live on in a different form. Further, the resurrected spirit of every human being is that same divinity. Phonetically, the term Nutar is related to other terms having the same meaning, such as the Latin ‘natura’, the Spanish ‘naturalesa’, the English ‘nature’ and ‘Nutriment’, etc. In a real sense, as we will see, Natur means power manifesting as Neteru and the Neteru are the objects of creation, i.e. ‘nature’.”

Asyby, to note, has the backdrop agenda to sell a "hidden properties of matter" (see: ontic opening) based new age Egyptian spirituality; naturally enough, therefore he eschews the axe-symbol etymology.

Goelet
In 2015, Ogden Goelet, with the department of Near Eastern Studies of the New York University, in his ), “A Commentary on the Corpus of Literature and Tradition which Constitutes the Egyptian Book of the Dead (the Book of Going Forth By Day)” of the Ani Papyrus version of the Egyptian Book of the Dead, stated the following: [6]

“The root of the idea or belief that Egyptians hoped to become one of the gods in the next world. Cam be found in the meaning of the word for ‘god’, netjer, especially in relation to the afterlife where the world ‘god’ may have an extended meaning. Neither the hieroglyphic sign nor any of the suggested etymologies for the word are particularly helpful in explaining what the Egyptians really meant when they spoke ‘god’ or ‘gods’. The hieroglyphic sign apparently shows either a pole with cloth streamers attached, or a cloth-wrapped pole. In the so-called ‘Signs Papyrus, dating to the Roman era, the hieroglyph is given the gloss ‘he is buried’.”

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References
1. Budge, Wallis. (1904). The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume One (neter, 66+pgs; name for god, pg. 41; Unas rises, pg. 45; The Word Neter, pgs. 63-75). Dover, 1969.
2. (a) Bunsen, Christian C.J. (1848). Egypt’s Place (i., Nos. 556, 557, 623). Publisher.
(b) Christian Bunsen (1791-1860) – Hymnary.org.
(c) Samuel Birch (1813-1885) – Wikipedia.
(d) Brugsch, Heinrich K. (1872). Index des hieroglyphs phonetiques (No. 394). Publisher.
(e) Heinrich Karl Brugsch (1827-1894) – Wikipedia.
(f) Budge, Wallis. (1904). The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume One (neter, 66+pgs; The Word Neter, pgs. 63-75; neter symbol, pgs. 63-64). Dover, 1969.
3. (a) Griffith, Francis. (1898). Hieroglyphs (pgs. 46). Publisher.
(b) Budge, Wallis. (1904). The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume One (neter, 66+ pgs; Griffith, pgs. 64). Dover, 1969.
4. (a) Budge, Wallis. (1910). A History of Egypt from the End of the Neolithic Period to the Death of Cleopatra VII B.C. 30, Volume Two: Egypt Under the Great Pyramid Builders (axe figure and description, pg. 10). Publisher.
(b) Budge, Wallis. (1904). The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume One (neter, 66+ pgs; weapon, pg. 65). Dover, 1969.
5. Ashby, Muata. (1997). Anunian Theology: African Religion, Volume One (Neterianism, pg. 11; neter, pg. 16). Cruzian Mystic Books.
6. Faulkner, Raymond. (1972). The Egyptian Book of the Dead: the Book of Coming Forth by Day: Complete Papyrus of Ani, Featuring Integrated Text and Full-Color Images (translator: Ogden Goelet; Preface: Carol Andrews; Introduction: Daniel Gunther; Foreword: James Wasserman) (Amz) (pg. 154). Chronicle Books, 2015.

External links
Neter – Prntrkmt.org.

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