Panpsychism

panpsychism (word cloud)
A panpsychism word cloud (Ѻ), showing related terms such as: monad, emergent (emergence), metaphysical, consciousness, psyche, materialism, subatomic, physical awareness, theosophy, indeterminate, sentience, holism, existence, among others.
In theories, panpsychism is the view that everything in the universe has a psyche; in other meanings, the view that attributes the property of consciousness to everything, aka naive empathy theory.

In 1967, philosophy encyclopedist Paul Edwards, a critique of panpsychism, defined panpsychist as any view that attributes some kind of consciousness to all material objects. [4]

Panpsychist philosophers
Notable panpsychist philosophers include: Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860), described as a "pessimistic panpsychist", was said to have influenced Gustav Fechner in his panpsychism, described as an "optimist panpsychis". [5] Others include: Friedrich Schelling, Clifford, Carus, Empedocles, Epicurus, Gilbert, William James, which supposedly grew out of his “neutral monism” (Ѻ) views, Gottfried Leibniz, Carl von Nageli, Josiah Royce (mentor to John Boodin), and the Stoics (see: Stoicism). [1]

Panpsychism | Dialogue
The following is the circa 2003 Lee Strobel Q&A dialogue with J.P. Moreland on the seeming untenability of the atheist mind-from-matter position: [2]

Moreland: “What doesn’t make sense—and which many atheistic evolutionists are conceding—is the idea of getting a mind to squirt into existence by starting with brute, dead, mindless matter. That’s why some of them are trying to get rid of consciousness by saying that it’s not real and that we’re just computers.”

Strobel: “Still, some scientists maintain that consciousness is just something that happens as a natural byproduct of our brain’s complexity. They believe that once evolution gave us sufficient brain capacity, consciousness inexorably emerges as a biological process.”

Moreland: “Let me mention four problems with that. First, they are no longer treating matter as atheists and naturalist treat matter—namely, as brute stuff that can be completely described by the laws of chemistry and physics. Now they’re attributing spooky, soulish, or mental potentials to matter.”

Strobel: “What do you mean by ‘potentials’?”

Moreland: “They’re saying that prior to this level of complexity, matter contained the potential for mind to emerge—and at the right moment, guess what happened? These potentials were activated and consciousness was sparked into existence!”

Strobel: “What’s wrong with that theory?”

Moreland: “That’s no longer naturalism. That’s panpsychism.”

Strobel: “Pan what?”

Moreland: “Panpsychism. It’s the view that matter is not just inert physical stuff, but that it also contains proto-mental states in it. Suddenly, they’ve abandoned a strict scientific view of matter and adopted a view that closer to theism than to atheism. Now they’re saying that the world began not just with matter, but with stuff that’s mental and physical at the same time. Yet they can’t explain where these pre-emergent mental properties came from in the first place.”

Panpsychism (Paul Edwards)
A debatable grouping of so-classified “panpsychists”, according to Paul Edwards (1967), as cited by Christian de Quincey (2002). [3]
(add discussion)

Quotes
The following are related quotes:

Isms in my opinion are not good. A person should not believe in an ism.”
– John Hughes (1986), Ferris Bueller’s Day Off

“Everything, living or not, is constituted from elements having a nature that is both physical and nonphysical--that is, capable of combining into mental wholes. So this reductive account can also be described as a form of panpsychism: all the elements of the physical world are also mental.”
Thomas Nagel (2012), Mind and Cosmos: Why the Materialist Neo-Darwinian Conception of Nature Is Almost Certainly False (Ѻ)(Ѻ)

See also
Panexperientialism

References
1. Skrbina, David. (2005). Panpsychism in the West (thermodynamics, pgs. 13, 151; panpsychist philosophers, pg. 155). MIT Press.
2. Strobel, Lee. (2004). The Case for a Creator: a Journalist Investigates Scientific Evidence that Points Toward God (Panpsychism dialogue, pgs. 328-29). Zondervan, 2009.
3. (a) Edwards, Paul. (1967). “Panpsychism”, in: The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Volume 5 (editor: Paul Edwards). Macmillan.
(b) De Quincey, Christian. (2002). Radical Nature: Rediscovering the Soul of Matter (pg. 108). Invisible Cities Press.
4. (a) Edwards, Paul. (1967). “Panpsychism”, in: The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Volume 5 (editor: Paul Edwards). Macmillan.
(b) Mathews, Freya. (2003). For Love of Matter: A Contemporary Panpsychism (pg. 28). Albany: SUNY Press.
5. (a) Massaro, Dominic W. (2009). “Book Review: Nature From Within: Gustav Theodore Fechner and His Psychophysical Worldview” (pdf), American Journal of Psychology, 122(3):405-20.
(b) Heidelberger, Michael. (2004). Nature From Within: Gustav Theodore Fechner and His Psychophysical Worldview. University of Pittsburgh Press.

External links
Panpsychism – Wikipedia.

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