Physico-chemical monism

Physico-Chemical Monism
A image showing the gist of "physico-chemical monism", namely the view that all existents, hydrogen to human, e.g. carbon-based, CH-based, OH+ based, CHO+ based, or CHNOPS+ based things, are things that go through one and the same reaction processes and are “governed” by one and the same physico-chemical laws and principles, in particular the combined law, ΔG < 0, the less than sign “ < “ indicating that for each respective reaction to occur or proceed, the reaction must have a negative free energy change; some reaction, to note will proceed "unnaturally" (ΔG > 0), but these must be coupled to an exergonic reaction order to proceed (see: coupling theory); also, reactions that don't normally go, and normal STP, can be forced to go, by submitting the system to high temperatures and pressures, e.g. Haber process.. [N1]
In science, physico-chemical monism (PCM) refers to a monism based on the principles of physics and chemistry, or physico-chemical principles.

In monism, there are generally two types, namely: atheistic physico-chemical monism, e.g. Thims (2007), and theistic physico-chemical monism, e.g. Rossini (1971) or Beg (1987); then there are intermediate varieties of PCM theory, e.g. Haeckel (1892), who admits of atheism, but retains the theistic concept of "soul".

In 450BC, Empedocles, in his On Nature, most of which now only existing in fragments, outlined a two-force and four elements monism theory of everything.

In 1809, Goethe, in his Elective Affinities, themed on an admixture of ideas of Benedict Spinoza, Empedocles, and Torbern Bergman, outlined a general monistic "human chemical theory" of people reacting together, according to the same affinity laws of smaller test tube chemicals.

In 1890s, Ernst Haeckel, building on Goethe, outlined brand of physico-chemical monism, wherein he did away with god, basically, but kept the concept of "soul", which he believed extended up and down the great chain of being, e.g. as stated by him as: "I regard all matter as ensouled"; the following are summaries:

“In the determinate sense, in which ‘monism’ is at present employed by the majority of philosophers and physical inquirers, the sense which I believe I was the first to establish in my General Morphology, Volume One (pg. 105) (1866), it denotes a unitary or natural conception of the world, in opposition to a supernatural or mystical one, that is, in opposition to dualism. For us, accordingly, there exists, in the ‘sense of Goethe’, no opposition whatsoever between nature and mind.”
— Ernst Haeckel (1892), “Our Monism” (pgs. 481-82) [1]

“All the phenomena of organic life ultimately admit of being reduced to being reduced to ‘mechanical’ (or ‘physico-chemical’) processes that differ from the processes of the inorganic world only in point of degree or quantitatively, not qualitatively.”
— Ernst Haeckel (1892), “Our Monism” (pgs. 483-84) [1]

“In its widest sense: panpsychism. All matter is ensouled, because all natural bodies known to us possess determinate chemical properties, that is to say ‘react’ uniformly and by law when subjected to the determinate chemical, i.e. molecular-mechanical, influences of other bodies: chemical affinity. Simplest example: sulfur and quicksilver rubbed together form cinnabar, a new body of entirely different properties. This is possible only on the supposition that the molecules (or atoms) of the two elements if brought within the proper distance, mutually ‘feel each’ other, by attraction move towards each other; on the decomposition of a simple, chemical compound the contrary takes place: repulsion. Think of Empedocles's doctrine of the ‘love and hatred of atoms’.”
— Ernst Haeckel (1892), “Our Monism” (pgs. 483)


The following are related quotes:

“The writer denies an intention to identify the two elements and repudiates physico-chemical monism, but insists that the study of the cerebral part of the psychical function can be attached to human physiology and biology, though not to general biology.”
— Anon (1917), “Review” (Ѻ), of, supposedly, the Romantic Revolution of Emmanuel Barat (Ѻ)(Ѻ) [?]

“We may accept philosophical ‘monism’, but we have no reasons for accepting the physico-chemical monism imposed on us from time to time, which identifies vital and psychic processes with physico-chemical processes.”
— Petr Uspenskii (1938), A New Model of the Universe [2]

See also
Physico-chemical morality
Physico-chemical social dynamics
● Physico-chemical sociology

N1. The above image, originally was uploaded, with lesser annotation, to the death does not exist article (2 Apr 2020), made following an explanatory discourse on how Lotkean jabberwocky results when anyone tries to digress on an "origin of life" theory, while stepping down the levels of the molecular evolution table.

1. Haeckel, Ernst. (1892). “Our Monism: the Principles of a Consistent, Unitary World-View” (pdf), The Monist, 4(2):481-86, Jul.
2. (a) Uspenskii, Petr. (1938). A New Model of the Universe (pg. #). Publisher.
(b) Uspenskii, Petr D. (1878-1947) – WorldCat Identities.

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