Probability

In science, probability is the chance that a given event will occur; quantified, mathematically, as the ratio of the number of outcomes in an exhaustive set of equally likely outcomes that produce a given event to the total number of possible outcomes. [1]

Quotes
The following are relevant quotes:

“Whether or not historical events are causality connected or are the result of chance, accident or mathematical probability are much more than abstract speculations. Their answer goes to the very root of the historian’s method of procedure. Of what would it avail us, if after all our labor, the reader were to agree that while strict causality has been proved in all past history, the future must be shrouded in darkness, or is controlled by chance? One may be convinced that historical laws are controlled by laws, but conclude that these laws are not causal, but indeterminate in nature.”
— Morris Zucker (1945), Historical Field Theory [2]

Reference
1. Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 2000.
2. Zucker, Morris. (1945). The Philosophy of American History: The Historical Field Theory (causality, pg. 510). Arnold-Howard Publishing Co.

Further reading
● Perrot, Pierre. (1998). A to Z of Thermodynamics (§Probability, pgs. 248-49). Oxford University Press.

External links
Probability – Wikipedia.

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