Scientific method

Scientific method (word scramble)
A word scramble of the some of the words involved in the scientific method, such as: discovery, data, hypothesis, prediction, experiment, proof, peer review, and knowledge.
In science, scientific method refers to the steps through which knowledge of the natural world is obtained, which amounts to the repeating cycle of observation, hypothesis, experimentation, and the need for independent verification, through which principles, theories, and laws are deduced.

Some, e.g. Rush Allen (1998) (Ѻ), have attempted to argue that traces of the scientific method are found in the Hunefer Papyrus (c.1279BC), the theological system to following the proto-scientific pharaoh Akhenaten.

In 1011 to 1021, Arabic polymath Alhazen, wrote an influential seven-volume Book of Optics, amid which, via experimental testing, he is said to have outlined a semblance of a scientific method.

In 1265, English natural philosopher Roger Bacon developed the modern scientific method framed around the works of Aristotle. Bacon, in short, inspired by the Aristotelian commentaries of Robert Grosseteste (1235), which laid out the framework for proper methods of science, described a scientific method, which he based on a repeating cycle of observation, hypothesis, experimentation, and the need for independent verification; and he recorded the manner in which he conducted his experiments in precise detail so that others could reproduce and independently test his results. [1]

The following are noted quotes:

“All science starts with hypothesis.”
George Millin (1896), title page quote to Evil and Evolution; truncation of Roger Bacon’s Aristotelian-framed scientific method (1265) [2]

“The scientific method, as developed in the physical sciences during the last four hundred years, has proved incomparably powerful in solving certain age-long problems of cold, darkness, famine, epidemics, distance, communication, transportation, and a thousand other needs. Ironically, he finds himself today [in the wake of WWI 1914-19 and WWII 1939-45] engulfed in difficulties with his fellow man. Why does he not turn in this predicament to the methods which have proved themselves so potent in other fields? The principle reason is tradition. Human relations are not yet generally believed to be proper subjects for serious scientific study. Indeed, a great many accredited social scientists, in the sense of practicing economists, sociologists, psychologists, anthropologists, and above all ‘political’ scientists
George Lundberg (1947), Can Science Save Us? (pg. 4)

Roger Bacon (1214-1294)—the founder of English philosophy whose knowledge of chemistry and mathematics led him to recognize the value of deductive reasoning, establish a scientific method, and invent spectacles—who has been called the last man to know everything, the last man to bridge the two cultures.”
— Rushworth Kidder (2003), How Good People Make Tough Choices [4]

1. Timeline of the history of the scientific method – Wikipedia.
2. Millin, George. (1896). Evil and Evolution: an Attempt to Turn the Light of Modern Science on to the Ancient Mystery of Evil (quote, pg. iii). MacMillan and Co.
3. Lundberg, George. (1947). Can Science Save Us? (pg. 4). Longmans, Green and Co.
4. Kidder, Rushworth M. (2003). How Good People Make Tough Choices (pg. 147). Harper Collins.

Further reading
● Mayer, Joseph. (1941). Social Science Principles in the Light of Scientific Method: with Particular Application to Modern Economic Thought (Winiarski, pg. 233). Duke University Press.

External links
Scientific method – Wikipedia.

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