|Photos of seven famous scientists: Gibbs (16), Goethe (16), Clausius (18), Lewis (15), Newton (18), Helmholtz (17), and Maxwell (16), on the wall of American chemical engineer Libb Thims' study; the numbers being the age at which each entered college.|
The term "scientist" as a student of the knowledge of the material world was coined by English mathematical philosopher William Whewell in 1833 in the context of and followup to the Whewell-Coleridge debate. Whewell introduced the term to replace the older term ‘natural philosopher’, a subtle caveat, however, being that the ‘material world’, in unwritten assumption, should not be confused with the ‘moral world’, which is the work of a deity. 
1. Fisch, Menachem and Schaffer, Simon. (1991). William Whewell: a Composite Portrait (coined scientist, pg. 178, 212; ‘material world’ vs ‘moral world’, pg. 275). Clarendon Press.
● Scientist – Wikipedia.