Social gravitation

States-General
In 1837, Scottish philosopher-historian Thomas Carlyle described the members of the States-General of 1789 and the National Convention, depicted above, into which it was transformed, as " gravitating bodies", a social gravitation like description. [5]
In human physics, social gravitation or "social gravity" is a force, posited to exist, which attracts people towards each other, being proportional to their masses, and inversely proportional to their distance of separation. [1] It is often said that ‘certain people tend naturally to gravitate towards each other’; whereas others tend naturally to recede or be repulsed by certain people.

Berkeley
In 1713, Irish-born English philosopher George Berkeley, in his "Moral Attraction" essay, outlined a social gravity theory; one example of which is the following: [4]

“Now, if we carry our thoughts from the corporeal [planetary] to the moral world, we may observe in the spirits or minds of men a like principle of [gravitational] attraction, whereby they are drawn together in communities, clubs, families, friendships, and all the various species of society.”

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Algarotti
In 1737, Italian natural philosopher Francesco Algarotti, in his Newtonianism for the Ladies, employed "the inverse square law to calculate the power of attraction between a pair of separated lovers".

Carlyle
In 1837, Scottish philosopher-historian Thomas Carlyle was employing some type of social gravitation theory and or metaphor.

Carey
In 1858, American sociologist Henry Carey, in his Principles of Social Science, used the physics model of gravity to account for the formation of large cities, on the assumption that all the corollaries of the physical principle of gravitation, as extolled by English physicist Isaac Newton in his 1686 Principia, are assumed to apply to social phenomena; in simple terms, according to Carey: [2]

“The great law of molecular gravitation, the indispensable condition of existence, [is that] man tends of necessity to gravitate towards his fellow man.”

Carey’s principle of social gravitation, as it is called by American sociologist Werner Stark, or ‘law of molecular gravitation’, as Carey called it, expounds on the view that human molecules, or man the ‘molecule of society’, as Carey puts it, tend to attract toward each other into the formation of large cities. In explaining how his social gravitation principle works in the formation of large cities, Carey states:

“The greater the number collected in a give space, the greater is the attractive force there exerted, as is seen to have been the case with the great cities of the ancient world, Niniveh and Babylon, Athens and Rome, and is now seen in regard to Paris and London, Vienna and Naples, Philadelphia, New York, and Boston.”

Gravity, according to Carey, creates a foci of human aggregation. In attempting to explain how it is that cities tend not ball up into a single point, owing to force of social gravitation, e.g. ‘why all the members of the human family do not tend to come together on a single spot of the earth?’, Carey alludes to the idea that other nearby cities act as ‘rival suns’ causing rival attraction tendencies to exist and that, similar to the solar system and other planets, each person is ‘surrounded with bodies of various sizes, some of these themselves provided with satellites, each having its local center of attraction, by which the means of its parts are held together.’

Stewart | Warntz
In 1939, American physicist John Q. Stewart began making Newtonian-conceptualized social gravity calculations. In the 1950s, his protege American economic geographer William Warntz made physical models of their so-called "population potential" diagrams.

Electromagnetate
In 2007, American chemical engineer Libb Thims updated the outdated Newtonian-view that gravity is what draws like people together to explain that, in a correct modern sense, it is the electromagnetic force that draws people together, and that the expression "certain people naturally electromagnetate towards each other" is the more-correct or way of saying things, over that of "certain people naturally gravitate towards each other"; although, to note, gravity does play a role in bringing together two human molecules in reaction in many overall-governing ways, e.g. controlling day light hours, controlling the female menstrual cycle, augmenting the moods of people, e.g. people drink 25 percent less alcohol during a full moon. [3]

See also
Biogravity
Brightness

References
1. Stark, Werner. (1962). The Fundamental Forms of Social Thought (Gravitation, pgs. 143-44, 155-57). Routledge.
2. Carey, Henry C. (1858-59).The Principles of Social Science (Volume I) (Gravitation, pgs. 41-43). J.B. Lippincott & Co.
3. Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume Two) (electromagnetate, pgs. 422, 460, 539). . Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
4. Berkeley, George. (1713). “Moral Attraction”, Guardian, No. 126, Aug 5; in: The Works of George Berkeley, Volume 4: Miscellaneous Works, 1707-50 (editor: Alexander Fraser) (pgs. 186-90). Clarendon Press, 1901.
5. (a) Carlyle, Thomas. (1837). The French Revolution (pg. 528). Publisher.
(b) The French Revolution: A History – Wikipedia.
(c) Zucker, Morris. (1945). The Philosophy of American History: The Historical Field Theory (pg. 42). Arnold-Howard Publishing Co.
2. Estates-General of 1789 – Wikipedia.

External links
Demographic gravitation – Wikipedia.

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