In terminology, species refers, for reactive element-based entities above the size of bacteria, generally speaking (e.g. compare virus), to the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction; below this level, the term “chemical species” tends to be employed, with alternative various definitions.

In 1784, Johann Goethe proved, via discovery of the human intermaxillary bone, that humans “metamorphized” (see: metamorphology) over time from other animals, e.g. apes.

In 1809, Goethe, in his Elective Affinities, showed that humans are the result of affinity reaction processes and transformations over time, from smaller chemicals.

In 1859, Charles Darwin, in his On the Origin of Species, and later letter interactions, building on Goethe, put forward the theory that human species, a 26-element chemical species (see: molecular evolution table), evolved over time from species of fewer elements, e.g. ape species (24-element species), and fish species (22-element species), which arose from a heated, lighted, and electrified pond of chemicals. [1]

The following are related quotes:

“After my return to England [2 Oct 1838] it appeared to me that by following the example of Lyell in Geology, and by collecting all facts which bore in any way on the variation of animals and plants under domestication and nature, some light might perhaps be thrown on the whole subject.... I worked on true Baconian principles, and without any theory collected facts on a wholesale scale, more especially with respect to domesticated productions, by printed enquiries, by conversation with skillful breeders and gardeners, and by extensive reading.... I soon perceived that selection was the keystone of man's success in making useful races of animals and plants. But how selection could be applied to organisms living in a state of nature remained for some time a mystery to me. In Oct 1838, that is, fifteen months after I had begun my systematic enquiry, I happened to read for amusement Malthus on Population, and being well prepared to appreciate the struggle for existence which everywhere goes on ... it at once struck me that under these circumstances favorable variations would tend to be preserved, and unfavorable ones to be destroyed. The result of this would be the formation of new species. Here, then, I had at last got a theory by which to work.”
Charles Darwin (1887), Autobiography (Ѻ)

1. Darwin, Charles. (1859). On the Origin of Species: by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life. London: John Murray.

External links
Species – Wikipedia.

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