Standard state

In thermodynamics, standard state refers to the state and phase (solid, liquid, or gas) at which an element, chemical species, or molecular entity exists in its normal or natural state, generally taken to be at standard temperature and pressure.

Further reading

● Perrot, Pierre. (1998). A to Z of Thermodynamics (standard state, pg. 288). Oxford University Press.

External links
Standard state – Wikipedia.

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