Top 1000 geniuses

Note: This is an archived version (Aug 2020); New active version: Top 2000 geniuses
Top 500 geniuses
Four of the top 1000 geniuses, namely: Hendrik Lorentz (#215), Paul Dirac (#35), Albert Einstein (#3), and Erwin Schrodinger (#27), in one photo, along with notables Theophile de Donder and Arthur Compton, during the famous 1927 Solvay conference, a rare confluence of genius (see: epicenter genius).
In genius rankings, top 1000 geniuses refers to the greatest one-thousand autodidacts, brains, brights, curiosos, creators, detectives, erudites, Faustians, free thinkers, geniusesmiddle ages geniuses, certified geniuses, geniuses' geniuses (e.g. shoulder geniuses, genius recognizes genius), universal geniuses, last universal geniuses, epicenter geniuses, female geniuses, posthumous geniuses, musical geniuses, artistic geniuses, political geniuses — intellects, "intellectual gods" (e.g. Pythagoras (Ѻ), Empedocles, Gibbs, Maxwell, etc.), i.e. people whose work was thought divine, know-it-alls, last persons to know everything, minds, oracles, polymaths, prodigies, paradigm changers, paradox solvers, revolutionary starters, radicals, recondites, sages, savants, seers, sleuths, zeniths of knowledge, among other epitaphs, categories, and characterizers, of all time, specifically from 200,000 years ago, when humans, as a distinct species or chemical species (as top geniuses would say), arose out of the East African Rift Valley, to the present, albeit in "historical person" retrospect sense (see: number of people who have existed), i.e. this listing does not include "existive" geniuses, i.e. living (in defunct speak) people (see: genius IQs existive), ranked by real-time IQ (left column, below), a modern retrospect knowledge gauged, meta-analysis based IQ, by “relative brightness or intellect” (Cox, 1926), in short. Top one-thousand minds of this nature have a rarity of 1 in 90 million people. Below are the first tier greatest geniuses of all time, numbers 1 to 100. Visit: the Hmolpedia threads (e.g. candidates page) and or the RedditReddit flaviconRealGeniuses (Ѻ) community for discussion.

This greatest 1000 geniuses ranking page is a ten-part (100 geniuses per wiki page) expansion of the forerunner one-page circa 430 person genius IQs listing (2014), which itself is a precipitate of the 15 person IQ:200+ rankings (2008) (see: chronology). [N1] This ranked 1000 top geniuses listing, in short, is work-in-progress, in time-adjusting, meta-analysis combined and expanded re-ranking of the: genius IQs (421 people) + candidates (74 individuals), Terman IQs, Cox IQs, Buzan IQs, along with minds from the: Cattell 1000, Gottlieb 1000, Murray 4000, Platt IQs, Walberg IQs, Simonton IQs, Michael IQs, among other genius ranker IQ calculations. [N1][N2][N3]

As a general neutral point of reference, particularly in respect to ceiling IQ calculations, which tend, more often than not to, be inflated (see: inflated IQs), the following is a neutral unbiased "scaling gauge", which shows three genius range points, namely: the IQ:140 genius level "cutoff" (Terman, 1916), plus the "mean IQ" of the only two geniuses common to the 1926 Cox IQs (301 geniuses), the 1994 Buzan IQs (100 geniuses), previously merged into the mean Cox-Buzan IQs (23 geniuses), plus the 1962 Platt IQs (14 geniuses), and 2019 Thims IQs (750 geniuses), namely Darwin and Newton, which provide for unbiased anchor points about which, via the Cox-Buzan-Platt-Thims IQs, the top 1000 geniuses can be fitted, in a realistic manner:

Thims-Cox-Buzan-Platt-Terman Genius IQ Scale 1000px

A second general noticeable ranking pressure, is that a genius' ranking/position (IQ:#|#) tends to align close to their Hmolpedia citation ranking [CR:#], i.e. how many pages each genius is internally-hyperlinked with the 5,300+ articles of Hmolpedia, indicative of extant "working" influence. The top five current (Apr 2020) geniuses by CR currently are: Goethe [CR:2151], Newton [CR:866], Gibbs [CR:845], Clausius [CR:829], and Einstein [CR:737], which matches up approximately with their IQ ranking, shown below. The left column IQ, below, is an up-to-date gauged ranking of the "real IQ" (IQ Real) of each genius, i.e. an IQ (see: IQ key) that matches up with reality, as compared to: feigned IQs, fake IQs, paper IQs, or miscalculated IQs, etc., on the over-estimated end, and mislabeled geniuses and IQ tests, on the under-estimated end, as best data available to sensory input furnishes. The notation (IQ:#|rank#), e.g. Da Vinci (IQ:200|#7), as employed in Hmolpedia existographies, is tool to see an person's IQ and ranking position.

Geniuses | 1-100
The following are geniuses "1 to 100" of the top 1000 geniuses (next: 101-200, 201-300, 301-400, 401-500, 501-600, 601-700, 702-800, 801-900, 901-1000): [N2]

Geniuses 1 to 100
IQPersonIQ estimatesDescription

image needed 75x99 headFuture Genius
(c.1000 AG)
(c.2750 ACM)
Library: 1,000+ books

The future genius will: (a) find the secret principle of the universe; (b) embody Henry Adams' famous 1910 “call for the aid of another Newton", someone who comes forth to give the “complete solution”, as Adams, who worked on the problem through Gibbs, Clausius, Darwin, etc., put it, to the elective affinities problem: explaining morality, sociology, economics, and history, etc., according to chemistry, physics, and mechanics, via pure mathematics, symbols, figures, and one "common formula"—in a sense, the "new Goethe"; (c) be the final version of Nietzsche’s 1883 prophesized “final Uberman”; (d) solve the: gravity/electromagnetic force problem, double slit problem, accelerating universe problem, and the spin-coupling problem (see: modern queries)—all integrated with new findings in particle physics, the final version of quantum mechanics, among other new experimental findings that may arise, all subsumed under the auspices of first law (fundamental law) and second law (supreme law) of thermodynamics—the only science, of universal content, "least likely", in the words of Einstein, to ever be overthrow (unless, of course, it is overthrown); in short.

Goethe 75 newJohann Goethe
Occupations: 35+
Polyglot: 7+ languages
Collected works: 142+
Library: 5,000
Vocabulary: 100,000+ words

Light bulb icon L \rightleftharpoons \,Anti-chance
Light bulb icon L \rightleftharpoons \,HCR theorist
Light bulb icon L \rightleftharpoons \,HFE theorist
 IQ_O \,=240
IQ BR=233
IQ MM=225
 IQ_B \,=215|#2
IQ SK=215|#4
 IQ_{CB} \,=213
 IQ_C \,=210|#1
IQ SS=210, 200+, 188
 IQ_W \,=200
 IQ_O \,=180
Elective Affinities 4(Cattell 1000:7) (Gottlieb 1000:131) [RGM:36|1,500+] (Murray 4000:2|WL) (GMG:1) (Perry 80:1|Li) [LUG] [LPKE] [TCG] [polymath] [uberman] (SN:1) (HD:19) (FA:56) (GA:6) (LR:2) (Re:82) (EvT:8|21+) (GPhE:6) [CR:2151] German poly-intellect;

“He who is firm in will moulds the world to himself.”

#2 in genius meta-analysis rankings; epicenter genius (IQavg:210); a dual scientific revolutions genius; blue sky problem theorist; top GLAE; first human estimated to have had an IQ of 225 (Merrill, c.1925); IQ folklore ranked (2003) at 240 (Ѻ); founder of human chemistry (theory: human elective affinities; 1796) precursor to human chemical thermodynamics; known for: literature (second ranked WorldCatExternal link icon (c)behind Shakespeare), evolution theory (forerunner to Darwin), poetry (top 10 greatestExternal link icon (c)), anatomy (discovered the intermaxillary bone, proving an connection between humans and lower animals); physics (color theory of light in opposition to Newton's corpuscular theory); philosophical and intellectual mentor to: Einstein, Tesla, Helmholtz, Freud, Elliot, Jung, among others; a founder of religious mythology (1770); world's largest active vocabulary (50,000-90,000 words); very high in emotional intelligence; highest-ranked "longevity genius" (⅘th-century-long prolificness).

Newton 75Isaac Newton
Occupations: 7+
Library: 1,752+ books (369 scientific)

Light bulb icon L \rightleftharpoons \, Anti-chance
 IQ_O \,=250+
IQ SS=250
 IQ_O \,=200
 IQ_B \,=195|#5
 IQ_{CB} \,=193
 IQ_C \,=190|#7
IQ SK=190|#14
IQ JP=190
IQ CPB=192
 IQ_W \,=170
Laws of motion 3(Cattell 1000:14) (Gottlieb 1000:6) [RGM:3|1,500+] (Murray 4000:2|CS / 1|P / 2|M) (EPD:F0) (GR:1) (SIG:1) (RE:84) [CR:866] English physicist, chemistry, mathematician, and philosopher;

Is it not for want of an attractive virtue between the parts of water () and oil, of quick-silver ()(Hg) and antimony ()(Sb), of lead ()(Pb) and iron ()(Fe), that these substances do not mix; and by a weak attraction, that quick-silver ()(Hg) and copper ()(Cu) mix difficultly; and from a strong one, that quicksilver ()(Hg) and tin ()(Sn), antimony ()(Sb) and iron ()(Fe), water () and salts, mix readily?
— Isaac Newton (1718), “Query 31” of Optics

Noted for his 1686 Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, where he introduced the laws of motion, which he applied to both falling apples and falling planets; the #1 in genius meta-analysis rankings; triple scientific revolutions genius; blue sky problem theorist; [GPE] [GME]; known for: mechanics, gravitational theory; his Query 31 launched affinity chemistry (the key behind Goethe's 1809 Elective Affinities) and well as physical chemistry; known for: differential equations, optics, etc; IQ of 250+ (Azak, 2011).

Einstein 75 (older)Albert Einstein
Polyglot: 2+ languages
Library: 650+
(52+ by Goethe)

Light bulb icon L \rightleftharpoons \, Anti-chance
IQ SS=240
IQ BR=233
 IQ_O \,=225
 IQ_B \,=205|#4
 IQ_O \,=200
IQ SK=190|#16
IQ JP=180+
 IQ_O \,=160
Gravitation Waves gif(Gottlieb 1000:17) [RGM:2|1,500+] (Murray 4000:9|CS / 2|P) (LGS:1) [Kanowitz 50:2]
[Cropper 30:1|R] (GPE:1)
(HD:52) (RE:76) [CR:737] German physicist, astronomer, and philosopher;

“I am a determinist. As such, I do not believe in free will. Schopenhauer's words: 'Man can do what he wants, but he cannot will what he wills,' accompany me in all situations throughout my life and reconcile me with the actions of others, even if they are rather painful to me. This awareness of the lack of free will keeps me from taking myself and my fellow men too seriously as acting and deciding individuals, and from losing my temper.”
— Albert Einstein (1932), Aggregate Quote (1928 George Viereck interview + 1932 James Murphy interview)

He is
#6 in genius meta-analysis rankings; epicenter genius (IQavg:210); a triple scientific revolutions genius; blue sky problem theorist; [GPE]; known for: the light quanta hypothesis (quantum mechanics); his 1919 general theory of relativity predicted the existence of gravitational waves (as shown adjacent); noted in: radiation thermodynamics; kept a bust of Goethe in his study, and Goethe's works were the most predominant amid his personal library (see: Einstein's library).

Maxwell 75James Maxwell
IQ SK=185|#26Electromagnetic wave (labeled) gif[RGM:73|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:205) (Murray 4000:20|CS / 9|P) (EPD:M8) (DN:4±) (RE:48) (GPE:3) [CR:478] Scottish mathematical physicist;

Was it a god that wrote these signs, revealing the hidden and mysterious forces of nature around me, which fill my heart with quiet joy?”
Ludwig Boltzmann (1893), on Maxwell’s equations, inspired by opening monologue of Goethe’s Faust; which, itself, he considered the “greatest of all works of art”

a dual scientific revolutions genius; blue sky problem theorist; known for: electromagnetic theory, model of the electromagnetic force (pictured), kinetic theory, thermodynamics (graphical thermodynamics); highest-ranked "magnitude genius" (prolific output in short time); one of the three shoulder genius Einstein said (Ѻ) he stood on; first-slating: 195-215 (c.2015).

Gibbs (75px)Willard Gibbs
IQ SK=180|#36Gibbs model 2(Gottlieb 1000:825) [RGM:1270|1,500+] [GTE] [GCE:27] [GPE] [GEE] (RE:64) [CR:845] American mechanical engineer, chemical engineer, and mathematical physicist; his genius is unmistakable:

“Willard Gibbs is the greatest mind in American history. Lorentz, comparatively, is the greatest and most powerful thinker I have ever known. I never met Gibbs, but, perhaps, had I done so, I might have placed him beside Lorentz.”
Albert Einstein (c.1925/54), aggregate quote

“In the last generation, this country produced one of the most eminent men of science in the whole world. His name was quite unknown among us while he lived, and it is still unknown. Yet I may say without too great exaggeration that when I heard it mentioned in a professional assembly in the Netherlands two years ago, everybody got down under the table and touched their foreheads to the floor. His name was Josiah Willard Gibbs”.
Albert Nock (1931)

Central founder of chemical thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, vector analysis; first-slating: 195-220 (c.2013).

Leonardo da VinciLeonardo da Vinci
Library: 200 books
 IQ_O \,=260
IQ SS=250
IQ BR=233
 IQ_B \,=220|#1
 IQ_O \,=210
 IQ_{CB} \,=200
IQ SK=195|#9
 IQ_C \,=180|#27
 IQ_W \,=167
Da Vinci engine(Cattell 1000:86) [RGM:1|1,500+] (Murray 4000:3|T / 4|WA) (Gottlieb 1000:9) [GEE] [LPKE] [uberman] (RE:67) (RMS:13) (EP:4) (CR:183) Italian engineer, artist, technologist, polymath, universal genius, physicist, astronomer, and general philosopher;

“The desire to know is natural to good men.”
— Leonardo da Vinci (c.1490)

note for: blue sky problem theorist; animal heat theory, engineering, e.g. he made the first design for a piston and cylinder (see: piston) style gunpowder engine able to to lift a weight (adjacent), and therein an avowed "vacuist" (compare: avacuist); designed warfare technology, flight machines; heliocentrism advocate; did a pumpkin growing variant of Johann Helmont’s later more-popular willow growing experiment; Bible flood myth debunker; said to have utilized a "sleep formula", sleeping no more than four hours at a time, so to optimize his intellectual output: IQ of 260 (Araugo, 2017).

Clausius 75Rudolf Clausius
IQ SK=175|#84Clausius formulation of heat[RGM:1250|1,500+] (GS:5) (SIG:3) (RE:66) [CR:829] German mathematical physicist;

“Before Clausius, truth and error were in a confusing state of mixture, and wrong answers were confidently urged by the highest authorities.”
Willard Gibbs (1889), “Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius”

an Epicenter genius (IQavg:210); a dual scientific revolutions genius; blue sky problem theorist; [GTE]; known for: thermodynamics (founder and greatest), entropy, kinetic theory; intellectual mentor to Gibbs, Maxwell, Einstein, and Planck; see: Euler genealogy to discern the significance and density of his influence; his Clausius inequality (1856) determined the nature and measure of irreversible "change" in the universe, via the interaction of heat and work on ALL bodies; first-slating: 195-210 (c.2014).

Aristotle 75Aristotle
IQ SS=250
 IQ_O \,=190-210
IQ Quora 3=190/200+
 IQ_B \,=190
Aristotelian Universe(Cattell 1000:6) [RGM:5|1,500+] (Murray 4000:3|CS / 1|WP) (Glenn 20:1) (Perry 80:3|Li) (EPD:M&F) [LPKE] (GPhE:1) (RE:62) [CR:537] Greek physicist philosopher; #4 in genius meta-analysis rankings; epicenter genius (IQavg:210); first dominate blue sky problem theorist; student of Plato—teacher of Alexander the Great, the synergy and transmission of which, in Alexandria, resulted to bring about the unification of Aristotelian cosmos theory, i.e. a 55-sphere earth-centric universe model (adjacent), with Egyptian astro-theology into what we now know as Christianity; first to document the Mpemba effect; in his circa 350 Metaphysics, was the first to dominantly introduced the term energy; central advocate of the nature abhors a vacuum dictum—that complete vacuums are impossible; Quora IQ (Ѻ) estimates: 190/200+ (2019).

GalileoGalileo Galilei
IQ SS=240
 IQ_C \,=185
 IQ_{CB} \,=183
 IQ_B \,=180
Galileo ball dropping experiment(Cattell 1000:46) [RGM:4|1,500+] (Murray 4000:2|CS / 5|P / 2|A) (EP:10) [GPE:5] (GAE:2) [CR:273] Italian scientist;

“Many years ago, I accepted Copernicus’ theory, and from that point of view I discovered the reasons for numerous natural phenomena which unquestionably cannot be explained by the conventional cosmology. I have written down many arguments as well as refutations of objections. These, however, I have not dared to publish up to now. For I am thoroughly frightened by what happened to our master, Copernicus. Although he won immortal fame among some persons, nevertheless among countless – for so large is the number of fools – he became a target of ridicule and derision. I would of course have the courage to make my thoughts public, if there were more people like you. But since there aren’t, I shall avoid this kind of activity.”
— Galileo Galilei (1596), “Letter to Johannes Kepler”, after receiving copy of Kepler’s The Cosmic Mystery

in genius meta-analysis rankings; dual scientific revolutions genius; ; known for: dynamics, vacuum theory, temperature, astronomy, heliocentric theory; intellectual giant to Einstein; first draft slating: IQ:185-200 (c.2014).

Helmholtz 75Hermann Helmholtz

Helmholtz (ophthalmology)[RGM:235|1,500+] [LUG] [Cropper 30:4|T] (GPE:21) [CR:386] German physicist, philosopher, and physician;

“I believe it is a common saying that Helmholtz was the last of the last universal geniuses, and we are fast arriving at the point where even a single subject becomes too vast for one man. At any rate, whether or not any of my learned colleagues could write an entire chemical engineering handbook, I could not—hence the present [multiple contributor] form”
Donald Liddell (1922), Handbook of Chemical Engineering

solver of the thermodynamic theory of affinity (see: affinity-free energy equation), co-discoverer of the conservation of energy; founder of the Helmholtz school; linchpin of the Reymond-Brucke oath; first-draft slating: IQ:190-210 (c.2015).

Thomas Young 75Thomas Young
Library: 1,000+ books
IQ SK=185|#17double slit 2[RGM:658|1,500+] (Murray 4000:19|P) [LPKE] [polymath] (RE:56) (CR:103) English physician, physicist, decoder, and general polymath; noted physical sciences encyclopedist pioneer;

“The longer a person has lived the less he gains by reading, and the more likely he is to forget what he has read and learnt of old; and the only remedy that I know of is to write upon every subject that he wishes to understand, even if he burns what he has written.”
— Thomas Young (1809), “Letter to Hudson Gurney”

known for coining the the modern term "energy" (with formulation), inventor of the double slits experiment, as shown adjacnent, Rosetta Stone (translator); quote: “scientific investigations are a sort of warfare, carried on in the closet or on the couch against all one’s contemporaries and predecessors; I have often gained a single victory when I have been half asleep, but more frequently found, on being thoroughly awake, that the enemy had still the advantage of me when I thought I had him fast in a corner—and all this, you see, keeps one alive” (commentary on the mathematics of Joseph Lagrange); first-draft slating: 185-200 (c.2015).

Gilbert Lewis 75Gilbert Lewis

Gilbert Lewis (prophet)[RGM:652|1,500+] [CR:429] American physical chemist and chemical thermodynamicist;

“Perhaps our genius for unity will some time produce a science so broad as to include the behavior of a group of electrons and the behavior of a university faculty (see: chemistry professor paradox), but such a possibility seems now so remote that I for one would hesitate to guess whether this wonderful science would be more like mechanics or like a psychology.”
— Gilbert Lewis (1925), The Anatomy of Science (§8: Life; Body and Mind)

His Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical Substances is considered the "bible of thermodynamics"; eponym of the Lewis school of thermodynamics, first to translate and distill Willard Gibbs' On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances; invented the Lewis dot structure pair model of chemical bonding; did some of the first work on relativity; coined the term photon; Linus Pauling's On the Nature of the Chemical Bond (1939) was dedicated to him; quote: “Lewis was the direct mentor of more Nobel Prize winners in chemistry than any Nobel Prize winner in any category” (Adriaan de Lange, 1998); his 1925 Anatomy of Science, speculated on hmolscience, i.e. on whether or not him writing this book was nothing but a large "chemical reaction" (extrapolate up) or conversely whether crystals "think" (extrapolate down); first-slating: IQ:190-200 (c.2015)

Descartes 75Rene Descartes
 IQ_C \,=180
 IQ_{CB} \,=178
 IQ_B \,=175
 IQ_W \,=175
Cartesian coordinates (Cattell 1000:23) [RGM:33|1,500+] (Murray 4000:6|CS / 7|M / 4|WP) (Gottlieb 1000:25) (GPE:13) (GME:6) (Library:2,000) (GPhE:3) [CR:441] French physicist, philosopher, and mathematician, aka the “restorer of modern philosophy” (Holbach, 1770);
“Give me matter and motion, and out of them I will build the universe.”
— Rene Descartes (c.1630), Publication (Ѻ); cited by Ludwig Buchner (1855) in Force and Matter (pg. 64)
known for: Cartesian coordinate system, atomic theory revival (1637), vis viva theory (c.1640), the “I think, therefore I am” philosophy, automaton theory (mechanical theory of life), ethereal heat theory; a shoulder genius (intellectual giant) to Newton; downgrade ↓↓ for his “humans have souls” / “animals have NO souls” dualism divide; downgrade ↓ for denying the void, as discussed by Guericke (1672).

Laplace 75Pierre Laplace

Light bulb icon L \rightleftharpoons \, Anti-chance
 IQ_C \,=190 Laplace on god (labeled)(Cattell 1000:233) [RGM:1306|1,500+] (Murray 4000:8|CS / 4|A) (CR:186) French mathematician, physicist, and astronomer;

“Let us apply to the political and moral sciences the method founded upon observation and upon calculus, the method which has served us so well in the natural sciences.”
— Pierre Laplace (1795), “Application of the Calculus of Probabilities to the Moral Sciences”

“I had no need of that [god] hypothesis.”
— Pierre Laplace (1802), Napoleon Laplace anecdote

a disciple of Baron d'Holbach (Blumenau, 2014) (Ѻ), notable for having built the first ice calorimeter with Antoine Lavoisier in 1782, with which they made measurements of heat released or absorbed during various chemical reactions and processes, according to which he is one of the founders of thermochemistry; in his 1796 Exposition of the System of the World, he outlined the mathematical details of what has come to be known as the nebular hypothesis; his famous Laplace’s demon (1814), which is based on Holbach’s geometrician (1770), is a forerunner to Maxwell’s demon (1867); his work on the mathematics of force is said to have been precursor to the later development of the concept of potential; known for his Newtonian upgraded 5-volume, atheism implicit, celestial mechanics (shown).

Euler 75Leonhard Euler
IQ SS=230
 IQ_O \,=190-210
reciprocity relation 2(Cattell 1000:512) [RGM:101|1,310+] (Murray 4000:16|CS / 1|M) (GME:1) (CR:101) Swiss mathematician;

“If Gauss is the Prince; Euler is the King.”
— Anon (c.2005), internet meme

upgrade for his reciprocity relation (mathematical proof behind state functions, in particular entropy; see: Mathematical Introduction); see: Euler genealogy; first-draft slating: IQ:180-200 (c.2015); Quora IQ ranked at 190-210 (2016) (Ѻ).

Voltaire 75Voltaire
 IQ_O \,=200
 IQ_C \,=190
 IQ_W \,=185
Voltaire (coffee house) (Cattell 1000:4) [RGM:34|1,500+] (Murray 4000:7|WL) (EPD:M7) (GPhE:#) [CR:313] French writer, philosopher, scientist; an epicenter genius (IQavg:210); a “universal genius” (Ѻ); upgrade for his support of Jean Sales and his human molecular hypothesis; known for: Newtonian mechanics, physics, literature, hmol philosophy, religious mythology; lover of Emilie Chatelet; very high emotional intelligence (a greatest philosopher ever candidate).

Tesla 75Nikola Tesla
 IQ_O \,=230-310
 IQ_O \,=200
 IQ_O \,=140-160
AC motor (Tesla) (Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:7|1,500+] (RE:87) (CR:148) Serbian-born American electrical engineer, inventor, and philosopher;

“I am an automaton endowed with power of movement, which merely responds to external stimuli beating upon my sense organs.”
— Nikola Tesla (1900), “The Problem of Increasing Human Energy”

known for: defunct life theory, electricity, magnetism, human energy, radio technology, alternating current, electromagnetic motors; adhered to a Goethean philosophy, to the exclusion of all other philosophies.

Robert Hooke 75Robert Hooke
Library: 3,000 books

Light bulb icon L \rightleftharpoons \, Anti-chance [?]
IQ HE=225+Hooke gunpowder trier[RGM:584|1,500+] (Murray 4000:13|CS / 20|P) (EPD:13|F) (EP:11) [Kanowitz 50:45] (Partington 50:23) (GCE:#) (GPE:18) [CR:125] English physicist, chemist, engineer, astronomer, and natural philosopher;

“The vacuum left by fire lifts a weight.”
— Robert Hooke (1675), “A New Invention in Mechanics of Prodigious Use, Exceeding the Chimera’s of Perpetual Motions for Several Uses”

“What Des-Cartes did was a good step. You have added much several ways, & especially in taking ye colours of thin plates into philosophical consideration. If I have seen further it is by standing on ye sholders of giants [sic].”
Isaac Newton (1678), “Letter to Hooke”, Feb 5

A triple scientific revolutions genius; a shoulder genius (intellectual giant) to Newton; self-taught: mastered Euclid’s Elements by age 15; claims (c.1679) to have been the first to arrive at the inverse square law of gravity (before Newton); built the Guericke-style pneumatical engine used to discover Boyle' law (the first gas law); a nature abhors a vacuum theorist; heat as motion advocate; in 1685, defined the a universal law of volume expansion (for all bodies) some forty-years before it was codified as law (Boerhaave's law, 1724), evolution theorist, cellular anatomist; light theory (wave theory of light); shown adjacent is his gunpowder engine (1663) for curling springs; a “highest IQ ever” (2009) nominee (Ѻ); first-slated: 190-2015 (c.2015).

Henry Adams 75Henry Adams
Collected works: 12+

Light bulb icon L \rightleftharpoons \,HFE theorist

Henry Adams (thought experiment) 3(RGM:1174|1,500+) (GHE:1) (LR:4) (SN:2) (RE:80) [CR:568] American historian;

“No one shall convince me that I am not a phase.”

penned nine-volume American history set solely to prove cause and effect; his The Education of Henry Adams (1907), which is ranked as the greatest American nonfiction book of the twentieth century (American Library), grapples with: Goethe, Gibbs, Clausius, Thomson, Pearson, Darwin, among others, in search of a unified theory of the humanities and physical sciences; prophet of the "another Newton"; biggest hmolscience thinker since Goethe; spent five decades on the social-history aspects of the elective affinities problem; quote: “social chemistry—the mutual attraction of equivalent human molecules—is a science yet to be created, for the fact is my daily study and only satisfaction in life” (1885); quote: "I would travel a few thousand-million miles to discuss with [Thomson] the thermodynamics of socialistic society” (1909); probably the first true hmolscientist (human chemist + human thermodynamicist + human physicist); known to many as an enigmatic genius of political thought; first-slating: 185-195 (c.2016).


Vilfredo Pareto 75 newVilfredo Pareto

Pareto pyramid[RGM:590|1,500+] (Scott 50:29) (SN:3) [CR:282] was a French-born Italian mathematical engineer, physical socioeconomist, and “engineer-turned-economist-turned-sociologist” (Stegner, 2001);

“My wish is to construct a system of sociology on the model of celestial mechanics, physics, and chemistry.”
— Vilfredo Pareto (1912), Treatise on General Sociology (pg. #)

classified as one of the chiefs of the Laussane school of physical economics (1890s to 1920s), characterized a a “scholar of encyclopedia ambitions and Machiavellian dispositions” (Fuller, 2000); was the thematic backbone of of the 1930s to 1940s Harvard Pareto circle; generally noted, in hmolscience, for his efforts to formulate a social molecule themed mechanics of sociology, aka "economic dynamics" (Pantaleoni, c.1900); his total work culminating in his monumental four-volume magnum opus Treatise on General Sociology; ; first-slated: 185-195± (c.2016).

Gauss 75Carl Gauss
(1777-1855) ↓
IQ SS=240
 IQ_O \,=200+
IQ JP=190
Gaussian surface(Cattell 1000:848) [RGM:39|1,500+] (Murray 4000:4|M) (GME:2) [LPKE] (CR:73) German mathematical physicist; known for: mathematics, astronomy, electromagnetics; at age 24, famously solved the Ceres tacking problem; considered by Laplace to have been the greatest mathematician in the world; described as a “powerful intellect” by Maxwell; downgrade (↓) for his late age 60 religious-fallout grappling issues, commenting, e.g., how religious matters, such as ethics, destiny, human future, etc., are outside the province of science; 2018 Quora ranked (Ѻ) at 200+.

Lagrange 75 Joseph Lagrange
 IQ_C \,=185 Lagrangian(Cattell 1000:512) [RGM:558|1,500+] [GME:7] (DN:5-7) (CR:114) French mathematician and physicist;

“The invention of dynamics as a mathematical science [was founded by] Galileo, and [through] the wonderful extension which was given to that science by Newton—among the successor to those illustrious men: Lagrange has perhaps done more than any other analyst to give extent and harmony to such deductive researches, by showing that the most varied consequences respecting the motions of systems of bodies may be derived from one radical formula; the beauty of the method so suiting the dignity of the results, as to make of his great work a kind of scientific poem.”
William Hamilton (1834), On a General Method in Dynamics

noted for his 1788 Lagrangian formulation of the total energy or force function quantification of a system; see also: Euler genealogy.

Gottfried Leibniz 75 newGottfried Leibniz
(1646-1716) ↓↓
 IQ_C \,=205
 IQ_W \,=200
 IQ_{CB} \,=194
 IQ_B \,=182
Leibnitz integral (1675) (Cattell 1000:34) [RGM:32|1,500+] (Murray 4000:14|CS / 6|M / 11|WP) (GME:8) [LUG] [LPKE] [CR:276] German mathematician, physicist, and philosopher; known for: differential equations, e.g. he invented the integral sign (1675) in the equation shown (see: history of differential equations), dynamics (vis viva, vis mortua);

“Those who wish to form an idea of the shackles imposed by theology on the genius of philosophers born under the ‘Christian dispensation’, let them read the metaphysical romances of Leibniz, Descartes, Malebranche, Cudworth, etc., and coolly examine the ingenious but rhapsodically systems entitled: the pre-established harmony of occasional causes; physical pre-motion, etc.”
Denis Diderot (1770), note to Baron d’Holbach’s The System of Nature (pgs. 51-52)

Downgrade (↓) for having his 1710 optimistic approach to the problem of evil, i.e. his assertion that this is “best of all possible worlds”, lampooned by Voltaire in his 1759 Candice (see: Alexander Pope) and also ridiculed by Schopenhauer (Ѻ); down-graded from 195|#16 to 195|#22 per Diderot quote (Jan 2018); Down-grade #2 ↓ to 190|#24 for his attack on vacuists and for his principle of sufficient reason, as ridiculed by Samuel Clarke (Sep 2019).

Empedocles 75Empedocles

Light bulb icon L \rightleftharpoons \,Anti-chance
Light bulb icon L \rightleftharpoons \,HCR theorist

Empedocles (theory of everything) (Cattell 1000:896) [RGM:401|1,500+] (ACR:11) (FA:8) (EvT:5|21+) [CR:276] Greek physical science philosopher;

“Now though this great country is seen to deserve, in many ways, the wonder of mankind, and is held to be well worth visiting, rich in all good things, guarded by large force of men, yet seems it to have held within it nothing more glorious than this man [Empedocles], and nothing more holy, marvelous, and dear. The verses, too, of his godlike genius cry with a loud voice, and set forth in such wise his glorious discoveries, that he hardly seems born of a mortal stock.”
Lucretius (60BC), On the Nature of Things; cited by Friedrich Lange (1875) in The History of Materialism, Volume One (pg. 136)

Originator of the two forces four elements theory of everything; person behind the people mix like oil and water or water and wine philosophy (see: Goethe + Empedocles); characterized as and world's first "professor of atheism" (Theophilus, 180AD); first-draft slating: 185-195 (c.2014); upgraded ↑ to 190|#37→195|#9 (Jan 2018); downgraded ↓ to 190|#25 after reading all of the pre-Socratic philosopher fragments, and noting that there is not enough extant text by him (Feb 2019).

Sadi Carnot 75 Sadi Carnot

Carnot engine and cycle(Cattell 1000:345) [RGM:846|1,500+] (EP:25) (CR:425) French physicist and engineer;

“The most original work ever written in the physical sciences, with a core of abstraction comparable to the best of Galileo.”
Tom Shachtman (1999)

Noted for his 1824 Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, wherein, via his Carnot engine and Carnot cycle, initiated the science of thermodynamics; first-slated: 180-195 (c.2014).

Schrodinger 75Erwin Schrödinger

Schrodinger (what is life) [RGM:424|1,500+] (Becker 160:44) [CR:224] Austrian physicist;

“Life feeds on negative entropy.”
— Erwin Schrodinger (1943), What is Life

noted for his 1925 Schrodinger equation, a Lagrangian-based state equation for the wave movement of an electron about an atom, for his 1935 book Science and the Human Temperament, wherein he stated his opinion that the rise of cultures is governed by the second law of thermodynamics, for his ultra-famous 1943 "What is Life?, wherein he attempted, in laymanized terms, to explain "life" in terms of physics and chemistry, a lecture-turned-book, wherein he postulated that “life feeds on negative entropy”, and followup retraction "Note to Chapter 6", wherein he had to admit to error, commenting that he should have discussed life in terms of "free energy" instead of entropy, in regards to the theory of life; also noted for his 1946 Statistical Mechanics; first-slated: 185-195 (c.2015).

Francis Bacon 75 Francis Bacon

Bacon works (Cattell 1000:5) [RGM:130|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:84) (LPKE:4|18+) (GPhE:#) [CR:149] English physicist, natural philosopher, and general polymath;

Knowledge is power.”
— Francis Bacon (c.1610)

Commentator on atheism, a pioneer of the scientific method; noted for being one of the first to state, in circa 1600, that heat is motion; first to define impelling power; one of the first to do battle with Aristotle and his "final cause" logic;

Boltzmann 75Ludwig Boltzmann

S = k log W[RGM:618|1,500+] [Kanowitz 50:44] [Cropper 30:1|SM] (GPE:26) (RE:62) [CR:364] Austrian physicist; a dual scientific revolutions genius; formulator of the famous H-theorem model of entropy (1872), the seed to the 1901 later S = k ln W model of entropy; initiator of the "What is Life?"—in physical science terms—debate (see: theories of existence), via his infamous riddled postulate: 1886 postulate that "life is a struggle for entropy" (1886); initiator of the quantum hypothesis (quantum mechanics): “I see no reason why energy shouldn’t also be regarded as divided atomically” (1891) (see: energy element); hung himself (1906) as a result of prolonged attack by the energetics school of his usage of atomic theory to explain thermodynamics; first-draft slating: IQ:190-195 (c.2015); downgraded from 195|#15 to 190|#28 (Nov 2019) per intuition.

Nietzsche 75Friedrich Nietzsche
Library:1,100 books
IQ quora 2=190, 210
IQ SS=160, 200, 200+
 IQ_O \,=180
 IQ_O \,=186
 IQ_O \,=180
Nietzsche (caricature)[RGM:30|1,500+] (Murray 4000:15|WP) (Perry 80:7|Li) [HD:44] (FA:138) (GAE:2) [RGA:21|370+] (GPhE:#) [CR:320] German philosopher; his last will to power fragment (WP:1067) is as follows:

“And do you know what ‘the world’ is to me? Shall I show it to you in my mirror? This world: a monster of energy, without beginning, without end; a firm, iron magnitude of force that does not grow bigger or smaller, that does not expend itself but only transforms itself ... this, my, Dionysian (see: Dionysus; Osiris rescripts) world of the eternally self-creating, the eternally self-destroying, this mystery world of the twofold voluptuous delight, my "beyond good and evil," without goal, unless the joy of the circle is itself a goal ... this world is the will to power—and nothing besides! And you yourselves are also this will to power—and nothing besides!”

First to proclaim “god is dead” (1882), caricature (Ѻ) shows Nietzsche killing or gunning for god; postulated an “uberman” (1883), a person with an IQ of 180+ (according to Bertrand Russell), who would eventually become the replacement model for the “idea of god” (god theory); Sigma Society IQ:180 (Ѻ); Quora ranked (Ѻ) at 190 to 210; or in the range of Alexander Pope to Georg Hegel.

Pierre Gassendi 75Pierre Gassendi
 IQ_C \,=185(Cattell 1000:218) [RGM:379|1,500+] (GPE:50) (GCE:26) (GME:30) [CR:99] French physicist, mathematician, philosopher, and polymath;

“Who can easily comprehend that small thing … within the body of an elephant … that it should be able to agitate such a bulk, and to cause it to perform a swift and harmonious dance? But indeed, the same fiery nature of the soul, serves within the body by its own mobility, what a little flame of gunpowder does in a cannon: it not only drives the bullet with so much force, but also drives back the whole machine with so great strength.”
— Pierre Gassendi (c.1630), Publication; cited by Thomas Willis (c.1660) in “On Convulsive Diseases”

noted for being one of the first to revive the atomic theory work of Epicurus, writing a set of books on the philosophical implications of this subject, supposedly written to counter the philosophical views of Rene Descartes; was the first to coin the term “molecule”, which he described as “fitted together atoms”; gave one of the first chemical creation models: “atoms” → “molecules” → “small structures similar to molecules” description of evolution (a forerunner to the later human molecular hypothesis (1789) of Jean Sales.

Paul d’Holbach 75Baron d’Holbach

Light bulb icon L \rightleftharpoons \, Anti-chance

Baron d'Holbach (reason quote)[RGM:414|1,500+] [SN:12] (FA:74) (GAE:1) (GPhE:5) [CR:251] German-born French-raised atheism-explicit, anti-chance based, matter-and-motion philosopher;

Holbach’s System of Nature is the most exhaustive [and intellectually thorough-going] discussion of atheism — from a scientific, philosophical, moral, and political perspective — ever written.”
Sunand Joshi (2014), The Original Atheists (pg. #)

aka “Newton of the atheists” (Ѻ) (V|1:45); a top-ranked extreme atheist; the Hume-Holbach dinner party (1763) encounter situate him between Voltaire and David Hume in intellect, if not above [?] Voltaire; his mentally-penetrating The System of Nature turned both Goethe and Percy Shelley into the atheist natural philoosphy mode of thinking; upgraded ↑ from 185|#57 to 190|#33 (Feb 2018) after absorbing first 116 pages of System of Nature.

Paul Dirac 75Paul Dirac

Dirac Equation[RGM:311|1,500+] (Murray 4000:15|P) [GPE:#] (DN:7) (CR:129) English-born American physicist;

“I don’t know what all the fuss is about, Dirac did it all before me.”
Richard Feynman (c.1948)

first to applying relativity to the electron, thereby predicting the existence of the anti-particle; his Principles of Quantum Mechanics (1930) became a sort of handbook for Einstein, who would could frequently be heard saying “where’s my Dirac” whenever he had any type of quantum mechanics question; noted for his atheist physics outspokenness against Einstein and his “god’s dice” proclamations (see: god does not play dice), which was code for the fact that Einstein was an anti-chance philosopher; first-slating: 190|#36 (c.2016).

Christiaan Huygens 75Christiaan Huygens
 IQ_C \,=175light (waves or particles) (Cattell 1000:306) [RGM:186|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:333) (Murray 4000:7|CS, 17|P, & 4|T) [Kanowitz 50:16] (EP:14) (GPE:27) (Eells 100:24) (GME:28) [CR:104 Dutch physicist, inventor, astronomer, and mathematician;

“In all of [Descartes'] physics, I find almost nothing to which I can subscribe as being correct.”
— Christiaan Huygens (c.1660) (Ѻ)

noted for his wave theory of light (1678), in opposition to Isaac Newton’s later corpuscular theory of light; inventor of the pendulum clock (1656); noted for his study of the rings of Saturn and the discovery of its moon Titan; mathematical mentor to Gottfried Leibniz (see: Euler genealogy); liaison between the vacuum work of Otto Guericke and the invention of the steam engine, via his gunpowder engine research with his associate Denis Papin (Papin engine, 1690); determined that the quantity mv² (later called vis viva by Leibniz) remains constant during perfectly elastic collisions; upgraded from 185|#56 to 190|#34 (Mar 2018).

Jefferson 75Thomas Jefferson
Library: 6,700+ (Ѻ)
 IQ_B \,=195
 IQ_{CB} \,=178
 IQ_C \,=160
 IQ_W \,=160
IQ_S \,=160
Jefferson on religion 2 (Cattell 1000:79) [RGM:37|1,500+] (Washington 23|#) (HD:17) (CR:232) American founding father; third American President; author of declaration of independence (based on Newtonian mechanics); thinker behind the separation of church and state; fabled "last persons to know everything"; thing philosopher; an unlearn expositor; auto-characterized Epicurean materialist.

Linus Pauling 75Linus Pauling
IQ JP=180
IQ SS=160, 170, 180
 IQ_O \,=160
Pauling Chemical Bond Revolution[RGM:182|1,500+] [GCE:#] (EPD:F9) (CR:85) American chemical engineer; startup chemical company (before age 15); studied under Arnold Sommerfeld in Munich, Niels Bohr in Copenhagen, and Erwin Schrödinger in Zürich, during which time he became interested in how quantum mechanics might be applied in his chosen field of interest, the electronic structure of atoms and molecules; also, in Zürich, Pauling was also exposed to one of the first quantum mechanical analyses of bonding in the hydrogen molecule, done by Walter Heitler and Fritz London; his 1938 The Nature of the Chemical Bond has been referred to as the “bible” of modern chemistry; gets upgrade for, in 1989, ripping apart Schrodinger's thermodynamic views on life (see: Note to Chapter 6).

Democritus 75 newDemocritus

Democritus (atomic theory)(Cattell 1000:751) [RGM:68|1,500+] (FA:14) (ACR:4) [CR:285] Greek materialism philosopher;

“Democritus must, in truth, amongst the great thinkers of antiquity, be numbered with the very greatest.”
Friedrich Lange (1865), History of Materialism, Volume One (pg. 18)

student of Leucippus (c.500-450BC), mentor to Epicurus (341-270BC); someone who “thought about everything” (Aristotle, 322BC), the “weightiest of the ancients” (Bacon, c.1610), a “universal scholar” (Melsen, 1952); famous motto: “Nothing exists but atoms and voids”; first-draft gauged at #71 (Jan 2018); upgraded, above Epicurus (IQ:185|#50), following reading of most of the pre-Socratic philosophers, particularly amid reading Taylor's The Atomists: Leucippus and Democritus (pg. 136) and how Democritus already did Eudoxus' conic section proofs, albeit via assertion without proof, kind of like Fermat (Jan 2019).

Otto Guericke 75Otto Guericke

Piston and Cylinder (1654) 2[RGM:274|1,500+] (EP:10) (GPE:62) [CR:161] German engineer, physicist, philosopher, diplomat;

Theories which are demonstrated by experiment and visual perception must be preferred to those derived from reasoning, however probable and plausible, for many things seem true in speculation and discussion, which in actual fact defy reality.”
— Otto Guericke (1663), New Magdeburg Experiments on the Vacuum of Space (pg. xvii)

In 1854, he experimentally disproved Aristotle's theories about space and and his view that nature abhors a vacuum; a characterized “neglected genius” (Coulson, 1943) (Ames, 1994) (Ѻ); the originality, variety, polymathly, and influence of his contributions are difficult to summarize in short; to say the least: he is the person behind: vacuum pump, vacuum engine, piston and cylinder, independent inventor of the barometer (compare Torricelli vacuum), solved the pump problem (proposed to Galileo), first to measure air on a scale, did bird in a vacuum experiment (before Boyle), stated Boyle's law in words (before Boyle), etc., etc., and the so-called: “first and greatest of the electrical discoverers”; first slated at 185|#61 (c.2017); upgrade ↑ to 190|#37 after reading up to pg. 169 of his Magdeburg Experiments on the Vacuum of Space (Feb 2019).

Ostwald 75Wilhelm Ostwald
IQ CP=170-195 [RGM:327|1,500+] (SN:15) (FA:94) (GCE:21) [CR:297] German physical chemistry and radical atheist;

“I am made from the C-H-N-O-S-P combination from which a Bunsen, Helmholtz, Kirchhoff came.”
— Wilhelm Ostwald (1926), Autobiography

noted for his involvement in the great 1895 “energetics debate”, with Mach and Helm on his side, with Boltzmann, who had Planck on his side; for 1905 MIT Affinity Lecture, wherein he outlines a semblance of a connection from Goethe's Elective Affinities to Sadi Carnot to August Horstmann to Willard Gibbs; for his “Ostwald happiness formula” (1905); for his 1910 “Monistic Sunday Sermons” wherein he taught energy-based atheism; and for his color wheel (1916) (Ѻ)(Ѻ), developed to explain, via formula, why some color combinations are pleasant (or harmonious) and other unpleasant; first-slated: 190|#41 (c.2017)

Archimedes 75Archimedes
IQ SS=240
IQ JP=190
 IQ_B \,=190
Buoyancy(Cattell 1000:414) [RGM:9|1,500+] (Murray 4000:20|M / 5|T) (GME:4) (CR:75) Greek physicist, mathematician, and mechanical engineer; a fabled "last persons to know everything”; known for: hydrostatics, statics, the principle of the lever, steam cannon; categorized as both an “overrated genius” (Ѻ) and an “underrated genius” (Ѻ), depending.

John von NeumannJohn Neumann

Light bulb icon L \rightleftharpoons \,HFE theorist
 IQ_O \,=225
 IQ_O \,=200
IQ JP=180
 IQ_O \,=163-180
Neumann computer[RGM:234|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:959) (Becker 160:142) (Odueny 100:54) (RE:53) [CR:219] Hungarian-born American mathematician, chemical engineer, economist, physicist, and computer scientist, a distinguished polymath, magnitude genius (see: genius), and "last" known of the supposed dying bread of "last universal geniuses" (see: hydraism); noted for his work in quantum thermodynamics (1927, 1932), human free energy theory of economic thermodynamics (1934-1944), for his ill-fated 1940 suggestion to American electrical engineer Claude Shannon to call information by the name “entropy” as in "information entropy" (see: Neumann-Shannon anecdote), for his computer system architecture designs (von Neumann architecture, 1945), and for his ideas on automaton self-assembly (see: Neumann automaton) (1948,1951), and for his work in computer science thermodynamics (1949).

ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare
IQ BR=233
 IQ_B \,=210
Othello(Cattell 1000:2) [RGM:11|1,360+] (Murray 4000:1|WL) (CR:82) English playwright;

“For there is nothing either ‘good’ or ‘bad’, but thinking makes it so.”
— William Shakespeare (1602), Hamlet (§2.2) (Ѻ)

“I know not where is that Promethean heat, that can thy life relum.”
— William Shakespeare (1603), Othello, the Moor of Venice

a Nietzsche uberman (IQ:186+); a GLAE candidate (#1); known for: literature, literature chemistry, Promethean heat; very high emotional intelligence; first-slating: 190|#46 (c.2015).

Planck 75Max Planck

Black body (labeled)[RGM:18|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:25) (Odueny 100:15) [Kanowitz 50:8] [Cropper 30:1|QM] (GPE:17) [CR:247] German physicist and thermodynamicist; generally known for his 1900 conjecture (efforts to solve the ultraviolet catastrophe problem), based on the early ideas of Boltzmann, that the internal energy U of a black body (resonator) could be divided into a discrete number of “energy elementsε by the expression:

U = \epsilon P \,

where P is large integer; this launched launching the quantum mechanics and the quantum revolution; a dual scientific revolutions genius; a top three greatest physicist of all time; known for: radiation thermodynamics, work on the third law of thermodynamics; downgrade ↓ for his 1937 (age 79) "Religion and Natural Science", wherein he tries to sell an weak-minded religion + science compatibilism picture; first-slating: 180-195 (c.2015).

Fermi 75 Enrico Fermi
AI IQ=164 [RGM:35|1,310+] (Murray 4000:12|P) (CR:52) Italian physicist; known as the “last universal physicist”, in the tradition of great men of the 19th century, and “the last person who knew all of physics of his day”; first-slated: 190|#30 (c.2015).

 IQ_O \,=180-200
IQ SS=195
 IQ_O \,=170-210
 IQ_O \,=170
Hypatia (astrolabe)[RGM:123|1,500+] (GFG:1) (CR:38) Greek philosopher, physicist, and astronomer;

“Fables should be taught as fables, myths as myths, and miracles as poetic fancies. To teach superstitions as truth is a most terrible thing. The child mind accepts and believes them, and only through great pain and perhaps tragedy can he or she be in after years relieved of them. The reason for this is that a superstition is so intangible a thing that you cannot get at it to refute it.”

Known as a fabled "last persons to know everything"; only known female universal genius; noted early irreligionist; credited with the invention of the astrolabe (adjacent); is rumored that to explain the seasonal variations of the apparent size of the sun, and conceived of elliptical orbit heliocentrism; Kepler; Bertrand Russel and Voltaire praised her; stoned to death; IQ:170 (Ѻ).



Giordano Bruno 75 newGiordano Bruno

Bruno (caricature)(Cattell 1000:655) (RGM:138|1,500+) (FA:47) (GAE:15) [CR:118] Italian philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, and priest;

“There is no absolute up or down, as Aristotle taught; no absolute position in space; but the position of a body is relative to that of other bodies. Everywhere there is incessant relative change in position throughout the universe, and the observer is always at the center of things.”
— Giordano Bruno (1584), On Cause, Primary Origin, and the One; this, supposedly, is a close paraphrase of Epicurus (“Letter to Herodotus”)

“Perhaps you, my judges, pronounce this sentence against me with greater fear than I receive it.”
— Giordano Bruno (c.1599), commentary on being sentenced to death by fire

Burned at the stake for refusing to recant his belief in atoms and a universe made of multiple solar systems; caricature (Ѻ) shows Bruno giving the “kill” signal with his thumb, while simultaneously lighting his own flame and or the spark of the revolution to follow; first-slating: 190|#32 (c.2016); down-graded from 190|#32 to 185|#45 following a reading of his On the Infinite, the Universe, and the Worlds (Jan 2019).

Pascal 75Blaise Pascal
IQ SS=235
 IQ_C \,=195
 IQ_W \,=192
Pascal’s Atmospheric Pressure Experiment(Cattell 1000:61) [RGM:40|1,500+] (Murray 4000:8|M) (Gottlieb 1000:144) (GME:18) (GPE:57) (SIG:3) [CR:102] French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher; at age 19 (1642), made a counting machine, impressed Descartes, with toothed wheels and gears, moving drums carrying numbers, that could add, subtract, multiply and divide; built 50 in total; in 1646 repeated Evangelista Torricelli's vacuum experiments; from 1652-64, spent all his time on the mathematics of gambling; after his 1654 brush with death (age 31) he "found god" (downgrade ↓) and thereafter seems to have lost his ability to think objectively (see: Pascal’s wager) and productively (relating all his theories to the Bible); upgrade (↑) for his Thoughts dialogues (Einstein-Pascal dialogue on purpose); upgrade for his atmospheric pressure experiment (1648); dereacted at 39; down-graded from 190|#49 to 185|#47 (Feb 2017).

Richard Feynman 75 Richard Feynman
IQ SS=225
 IQ_O \,=190
 IQ_O \,=125
Feynman diagram 2 [RGM:131|1,500+] (CR:79|#57) American physicist; in grade school, infamously scored 125 on an IQ test; as an MIT senior, in 1939, had the highest score in the nation on the Putnam; he supposedly had a standing bet that he could solve any problem to within 10% within 60 seconds; and some have suggested his non-verbal IQ was greater than 190 (Ѻ); motto: "believe in the atomic hypothesis" (Feynman time capsule wisdom); known for: quantum electrodynamics; see also: Feynman problem solving algorithm. Dirac is generally ranked, e.g. by Freeman Dyson (Ѻ), among others (Ѻ), as smarter than Feynman.

Pierre Maupertuis 75Pierre Maupertuis

[RGM:370|1,500+] (Cattell 1000:598) (Eells 100:59) (GME:#) (FA:32) (SN:69) (GPE:66) (CR:30) French mathematician, physicist, philosopher, and evolutionist, aka "radical materialist", noted for his 1745 book Venus Physics, in which he outlined a materialistic godless ‘blind destiny’ inherited traits fitness variation evolution model, and for his 1746 principle of least action, loosely that a system of point masses tend to minimize action. First draft intuitively gauged (Jun 2017) at high 185 possibly 190 range; his principle of least action, based on Newton's first law of motion, precursored the Lagrangian; Helmholtz attempted to reconcile his principle with the conservation of force; digressed on the physics of the soul (via atomic theory); did battle many big geniuses, e.g. Voltaire, Diderot (see: Maupertuis-Diderot debate); his Venus Physics oft-brings comparison to Goethe’s Elective Affinities; mentored by Johann Bernoulli (see: Euler genealogy) and was follower of Leibniz. Note: difficult to rank.

Epicurus 75Epicurus

Atomic philosophy(Cattell 1000:240) [RGM:72|1,500+] (FA:22) (GAE:3) (GPhE:#) [CR:356] Greek atomic theory philosopher;

Democritus, when at ripe old age warned him that mind and memory were failing, went freely to place his person in death’s path. Epicurus himself died when life’s light ran out, he who in mind surpassed all men—eclipsed them all, as the sun hung high in heaven, the stars.”
Lucretius (55BC), On the Nature of Things (pg. 81; 3:1039-44)

student of Democritus, mentor to Lucretius; name-dropped by nearly ever genius thereafter (e.g. Pierre Gassendi, Thomas Jefferson, etc.); eponym of Epicureanism, Epicurean atheism.

SpinozaBenedict Spinoza

Light bulb icon L \rightleftharpoons \, Anti-chance
 IQ_{CB} \,=175
 IQ_C \,=175
 IQ_B \,=175
Spinoza (labeled)(Cattell 1000:108) [RGM:160|1,330+] (Murray 4000:10|WP) [HD:6] [FA:50] (CR:75) [RMS:19] (EPD product) Dutch philosopher;

“I shall consider human actions and desires in exactly the same manner, as though I were concerned with lines, planes, and solids.”

bright from an early age; especially impressed by Rene Descartes and his axiom: “Nothing ought to be received as truth until it has been proved by good and solid reasons”, schooled himself in the classic and ancient systems of philosophy, mathematics, algebra, physics, chemistry, optics; met and advised both Christiaan Huygens and Gottfried Leibniz; the result of which was his posthumously-published Ethics — which had a great effect on Goethe, opening out for him a “boundless view of both the sensible and the moral world” and his later physical chemistry based "moral symbols" morality system—used the methods of Euclid to describe a single entity (god/nature), of which mind and matter are two manifestations, whereby events and actions are caused, free will is illusory, all explained in such a way, as Goethe says: “what especially riveted me to him, was the utter disinterestedness, which glowed in his every sentence”; mental architype to Nietzsche; see: Spinoza’s god; first draft slating: IQ:180-190 (c.2014).

Percy Bridgman 75Percy Bridgman
IQ JP=180
IQ EM=170
Princeton university (social physics)(CR:65|#75) American physicist and social physicist; known for Bridgman equations; Bridgman paradox (key modern topic); thermodynamics founders and suicide; played key role in John Q. Stewart's 1939-1954 Princeton Department of Social Physics.

William Thomson 75William Thomson

Kelvin scale 2(Cattell 1000:989) [RGM:726|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:111) [Kanowitz 50:19] [Cropper 30:5|T] (GPE:47) (SIG:6) [CR:385] Irish-born Scottish mathematical physicist; known for: absolute temperature (adjacent), thermodynamics; Glasgow University age 10; defended Joseph Fourier’s 1822 theory of heat over that of Philip Kelland’s 1837 heat theory (age 13); by age 15-16; published first scientific papers by age 17; in 1845 (age 21), after graduating second wrangler (Cambridge), simultaneous unearthed ( ) the then unknown and forgotten memoirs of Sadi Carnot’s 1824 thermodynamics memoir and George Green’s 1828 memoir on the mathematics of electricity and magnetism, now known as two of the most-original works in science; and gave the first mathematical development of Michael Faraday's idea that electric induction takes place through an intervening medium; downgrade () for latter religious undertone based calculations, e.g. age of the sun, etc.; first-slating: 185-190 (c.2015).

Edison 75Thomas Edison
IQ SS=240
 IQ_B \,=195
Lightbulb [RGM:38|1,500+] (Murray 4000:2|T) (Gottlieb 1000:28) (GEE:#) (FA:110) [CR:60] American electrical engineer, technologist, inventor, and philosopher;

“The brain can be developed just the same as the muscles can be developed, if one will only take the pains to train the mind to think.”
— Thomas Edison (c.1915), Publication (Ѻ)

noted for the invention of the: practical light bulb (1878), based on the electric arc lamp (1802) invention by Humphry Davy, the phonograph, and motion picture camera; and originated the concept and implementation of electric-power generation and distribution to homes, businesses, and factories; gave pretty decent stance (see: Edison on the soul) on religious theories (e.g. soul, life, immortality, spirit) query during 1909 New York Times interview; upgrade (↑) for his comments on Thomas Paine.

Euclid 75Euclid
 IQ_B \,=182 Euclid cartoon(Cattell 1000:501) [RGM:50|1,500+] (Murray 4000:19|CS / 3|M) (GME:4) (CR:65) Greek mathematician; his Elements, being the most cited mathematics book of all time, was like a “great holy book” to nearly every big genius: Nicolaus Copernicus (age 19), Robert Hooke (age 15), James Watt (youth), James Thomson (mathematician), edited a version of Euclid's Elements (1834), James Maxwell, who mentions Euclid in his last-dying poem “A Paradoxical Ode”, Albert Einstein, who at age 12 was given a text on Euclidean geometry, which he called the “holy geometry book”; to Sarah Sidis (tutored by Boris Sidis; mother to William Sidis) who in 1891 (age 17) "propped Euclid up above the sink, and studied while she washed the dishes".

Copernicus 75Nicolaus Copernicus
 IQ_{CB} \,=173
 IQ_C \,=160
 IQ_B \,=185
 IQ_T \,=100-110
Copernican model 2f(Cattell 1000:341) [RGM:14|1,500+] (Murray 4000:5|A) (Gottlieb 1000:18) [Kanowitz 50:15] (GPE:35) (GAE:1) [CR:136] Polish mathematician, astronomer, and physician, aka the "next Ptolemy" (Erasmus Reinhold, 1542), noted for his 1514 forty-page booklet “Little Commentary” (Commentariolus), in which he began to lay out the basics of his heliocentric model of the universe, as opposed to the older geocentric model of the universe, eventually publishing the finalized version as the 1543 On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres, the “first book in nearly 1,400-years to rival Ptolemy’s Almagest” (Repcheck, 2007), which introduced the revolutionary idea to the world that the “earth moves” or that "the earth is moving and the stars are at rest" (Anon, 1542), a view opposed to that of the older 350BC physics model of Aristotle that the earth is the center of the universe and stationary.

Boyle 75Robert Boyle
 IQ_C \,=160Boyle experiments (Cattell 1000:354) [RGM:466|1,500+] (Murray 4000:6|C) (Gottlieb 1000:142) [Kanowitz 50:41] (GPE:39) (GCE:6) (CR:149) English chemist, physicist, philosopher; a dual scientific revolutions genius; corroborator with Isaac Newton in the initiation of affinity chemistry; did the famous "power of the cold experiment" (1665), one of the first demonstrations of the mechanical equivalent of heat, showing that a weight of 72-pounds was required to prevent expanding ice from pushing out a cork supervised Robert Hooke in the construction of the pneumatical engine, the experimental device that led to the discovery of Boyle's law, the first gas law; first-slating: 170-185 (c.2015).

Leon Winiarski 75Leon Winiarski
IQ SN= 186± [RGM:N/A|1,310+] (SN:4|55+) Polish socio-econo physicist; his Essay on Social Mechanics (1898), attempted to base sociology on the Clausius inequality (adjacent); down-grade from initial 190|#34 (c.2015) to 185|#61 (Mar 2018) until full translation of his work into English.


Norman Dolloff 75Norman Dolloff

Light bulb icon L \rightleftharpoons \,HFE theorist
IQ SN= 186± Evolution (American model)(SN:5|55+) (CR:37) American metallurgical engineering geologist; in his Heat Death and the Phoenix (1975), he gives a so-called "organism synthesis equation", namely:

Dolloff organism formation equation

Classified as the transition point mindset of someone grappling to switch from the entropy "order/disorder" model of everything to the "free energy" model of everything; all done in the framework of explicit atheism.


Schopenhauer 75Arthur Schopenhauer

Light bulb icon L \rightleftharpoons \,HFE theorist
IQ EM=170 Schopenhauer and Nietzsche[RGM:89|1,500+] (Murray 4000:13|WP) (SN:15) (FA:93) (GA:10) (GPhE:#) [CR:250] German atheistic natural philosopher;

“The will of the copper, claimed and preoccupied by the electrical opposition to the iron, leaves unused the opportunity that presents itself for its chemical affinity for oxygen and carbonic acid, behaves exactly as the will does in a person who abstains from an action to which he would otherwise feel moved, in order to perform another to which he is urged by a stronger motive.”
— Arthur Schopenhauer (1844), The World as Will and Representation

his The World as Will and Representation (1814, 1844), building on Goethe's human elective affinities theory (see: elective affinity problem), explains "will" in a universal manner, e.g. in terms of the "will of the copper" atom in electrochemical reaction; first guesstimated at 170-190 (c.2015).

Percy Shelley 75nPercy Shelley

Light bulb icon L \rightleftharpoons \,HFE theorist
IQ PG 3=198
 IQ_O \,=185+
 IQ_T \,=165
Church of Elective Affinities (RGM:693|1,500+) (Gottlieb 1000:509) (HD:22) (FA:94) (GA:15) (CR:98) English romantic poet and physico-chemical philosopher;

“As we come nearer to our own times it becomes increasingly difficult to measure tendencies by the methods we are using. The positions of men on the list are subject to larger probable and constant errors. Byron (IQ:180|#134) may be a household word on the continent and Shelley unknown, while the best criticism may place Shelley ABOVE Byron. Our list places Mendelssohn above Bach and ignores Schumann altogether — while the last thirty years have altered not only critical opinion, but also popular taste.”
— James Cattell (1894), “A Statistical Study of Eminent Men”

A posthumous genius (IQavg:198); Cattell (1894) ranked him above George Byron (IQ:180|#134); Terman (1930) calculated his IQ of 165; a Robinson (2010) “missing Cox IQ genius”; Maxwell dedicated his last poem, "A Paradoxical Ode" (1878), to Shelley; derived, independent of Goethe, an atheism-explicit human elective affinity theory (see: physicochemical atheism); Mary Shelley (IQ:175|#225) married him, according to these principles, in the Church of Elective Affinities.

Isaac Beeckman 75Isaac Beeckman

(GPE:43) (GPhE:75) (CR:7) Dutch physicist, philosopher, astronomer, physician, meteorologist and natural philosopher;

What is the reason that bodies are moved in any direction?”
— Isaac Beeckman (1614), Journal Notes

first-slating: 180|#140 (Jun 2019); upgraded to 185|#62 (Mar 2020).

Desiderius Erasmus 75Desiderius Erasmus
 IQ_{CB} \,=178
 IQ_C \,=180
 IQ_B \,=175
Erasmus (caricature) [RGM:108|1,500+] (Cattell 1000:56) (Gottlieb 1000:97) (Stokes 100:27) (CR:37) Dutch intellectual, universal genius, and fabled "last person to know everything";

“Nothing is more beautiful than to know all.”
— Erasmus (c.1670) (Ѻ)

“Could god have taken on the form of a woman, a devil, a donkey, a gourd, or a flintstone? If so, how could a gourd have preached sermons, performed miracles, and been nailed to the cross?”
— Desiderius Erasmus (1509), Praise of Folly

noted for introducing the term "Pandora’s box", the precursor to Eve’s apple (see: Adam and Eve), into the cultural vernacular, a term he used in respect to the gift box given to Pandora, a penned during his translation of Hesiod’s 700BC Theogony; close associate of atomic utopian theorist Thomas More.

Hero 75Hero

Hero automaton[RGM:310|1,500+] [GEE:#] (Eells 100:36) (CR:53) Greek physicist, engineer, and mathematician; his circa 50AD Pneumatica, in which, he overviews the physics of Strato and Ctesibius, outlines an atomic theory in which matter consists of particles mixed with distributed vacua, and in which he describes how to make an aeolipile; was said to have openly challenge the nature abhors a vacuum belief, but his attempts to create an artificial vacuum failed; invent and build the world’s first working heat engine, namely a steam engine that opens temple doors; built a number of famous “automata”, wind turbines, and hydrostatic fountains; said to have discovered imaginary numbers; his Pneumatica was translated by Gottfried Leibniz and also read by Denis Papin, likely being influential in the inception of the Papin engine, the first piston and cylinder steam engine; his works, along with the works of Aristarchus, Hypatia, Sappho, and Berossus and his Babylonaica, are said to be the five most “tantalizing losses from the Library of Alexandria"; first slating: IQ:180-190 (c.2015).

Alan Turing 75Alan Turing
 IQ_O \,=180-190
 IQ_? \,=185±
Turing Bombe[RGM:32|#1,500+] (Stokes 100:96) (GEE:#) (Glenn 20:18) British polymath, mathematician, engineer, computer scientist, code breaker, and chemist; noted for his 1936 paper “On Computable Numbers, with an application to the Decision Problem” launched computer science; during WWII, his machine called Bombe (adjacent) famously cracked the Enigma code, allowing German naval communications to be read, which is said to have shortened the war by two years; his 1950 digression on the query “can machines think?”, wherein he seems to dismiss god talk, i.e. that humans have immortal souls, as unacceptable; famously deboundstated via cyanide apple (see: fruit from the tree of knowledge); IQ gauged at 180-190 (Ѻ) (2016).

Schiller 75Friedrich Schiller

Light bulb icon L \rightleftharpoons \, Anti-chance
 IQ_C \,=165 Passions[RGM:87|1,310+] (Cattell 1000:75) (CR:144) German poet and philosopher; from 1796 to 1803, he worked with Goethe in the development of his “human chemical theory”, namely that people react together like chemicals and that the passions are governed by the driving forces of chemical affinity:

“The passions are not like playing cards, what one can shuffle, play, reshuffle, and play again, without their changing at all. Passions are governed by the delicate chemical affinities, through which they attract and repel each other, reunite, neutralize each other, separate again and recover.”
— Goethe (1799), comment to Schiller on the writing of Prosper Crebillon

Generally known for his 1795 drive theory poem “The World Ways”, wherein he asserted that the world turns, similar to water driving a mill, by hunger and love, which was later used by Freud in his drives theory of sex and death; Goethe's last words mentioned him.

Davy 75 Humphry Davy
 IQ_C \,=185 Ice Rubbing Experiment (1799)(Cattell 1000:203) [RGM:1265|1,500+] (Murray 4000:5|C) (Partington 50:11) (GPE:43) (GCE:12) (CR:63) was an English chemist and physicist; noted for his (age 20) 1799 “ice-rubbing experiments”, one of the first mechanical equivalent of heat experiments; for his 1802 arc lamp invention (forerunner to the light bulb; done by Edison in 1878), for his 1806 lecture on electricity and chemical affinity; for his 1813 “point atom” theory of a human; and for the discovery of a number of elements; and for for his work on the conservation of force.

Jean Sales 75Jean Sales

Great principle 2[RGM:N/A|1,310+] (CR:68) Initiator, through the publication of his multi-volume 1775 The Philosophy of Nature: Treatise on Human Moral Nature, of the human molecular hypothesis (1789):

“We conclude that there exists a principle of the human body which comes from the great process in which so many millions of atoms of the earth become many millions of human molecules.”

he was imprisoned and eventually banished from France; while imprisoned, in 1777, he was visited by Voltaire, who gave 500 pounds to towards his release; first-slating: 190|#26 (c.2016); down-graded to 185|#70 (Feb 2018), when discovered that he got his Newton in Senegal from Holbach.

Gerald Massey 75Gerald Massey
(1828-1907) ↑↓
IQ GD=140+
 IQ_? \,=160-190 ±
Horus (see no evil)[RGM:506|1,500+] (RE:79) [CR:97] English freethinker, poet, archeologist, Egyptologist, evolution advocate, and leading religio-mythology scholar, noted for his 1883 Natural Genesis, wherein he explains how the Christian story of Jesus Christ, the basis of Christianity, is but a re-write of the Egyptian myth of the Egyptian god-human Horus born from the god Osiris and the goddess Isis, aka “Stella Maris” (star of the sea), of the Heliopolis Ennead (9 gods) of Anunian theology in Egyptian cosmology (see: religio-mythology transcription and syncretism); first-slating 185|#73 (Jan 2017)

John Mill 75John Mill
 IQ_O \,=200
IQ EM=190
 IQ_B \,=185
 IQ_{CB} \,=183
 IQ_C \,=180
(Cattell 1000:180) [RGM:151|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:81) (Perry 80:6|Li) [HD:24] (FA:80) (GPhE:#) (GEcE:#) [CR:105] English moral philosopher; fabled "last persons to know everything"; known for: political philosophy, utilitarianism; was a split-brainer who could write two different languages simultaneously, one in each hand.

Freud 75 newSigmund Freud
IQ JP=180
 IQ_O \,=156
Freudian psychology [RGM:75|1,500+] (Murray 4000:18|M) (Gottlieb 1000:15) (Becker 139:119) (Stokes 100:66) (Bloom 100:19) (Scott 50:11) [HD:51] (FA:122) (GA:13) (RMS:75) (GPhE:32) (GSE:#) [CR:297] Austrian psychiatrist and psychodynamicist;

“I feel that I have done for human ‘reason’, what Copernicus did for the ‘universe’, and Darwin did for our ‘origins’.”
— Sigmund Freud (c.1930)

noted for his 1895 his bound energy [-TΔS] / free energy [ΔG] based, atomic theory infused "A Project for Scientific Psychology", the 1896 coining of the term "psychoanalysis", the scientific analysis of the mind, the view that mental processes operate owing to the movement of particles in the mind governed by chemistry and energy, aka psychodynamics, energy psychology, Freud's psychical energy model, dynamic psychology; noted for Freudian atheism, and for religio-mythology debunking, e.g. that Moses is derived from Akhenaten.

Auguste Comte 75 Auguste Comte
 IQ_C \,=185 Positivism (definition)(Cattell 1000:95) [RGM:397|1,500+] (Scott 50:5) (FA:64) (CR:102) French positivism philosopher;

“Now that the human mind has grasped celestial and terrestrial physics, mechanical and chemical, organic physics, both vegetable and animal, there remains one science, to fill up the series of sciences or observation—social physics. This is what men have now most need of; and this it is the principal aim of the present work to establish.”
— Auguste Comte (1835), Positive Philosophy

A top HP pioneer who asserted that sociology needs a Galileo-Newton type description; he was in intellectual hero to John Mill, who became his close correspondent (Ѻ) in 1841, and roll model to Henry Buckle.

Alfred Lotka 75Alfred Lotka

Light bulb icon L \rightleftharpoons \,Anti-chance
Light bulb icon L \rightleftharpoons \,HCR theorist
Light bulb icon L \rightleftharpoons \,HFE theorist

Lotka Model of Money as Activation Energy[RGM:1305|1,500+] [SN:20] [CR:174] Austrian-born American physical chemist, mathematician, actuary, and “part-time genius” (Hannon and Ruth, 2014) (Ѻ);

“The examination, and, where need be, revision of our fundamental premises is a task of a wholly different order from that of rearing upon these premises a structure of logical argumentation. It is a task that often demands the efforts of giant intellects, of men of altogether unusual independence of thought. Most of us are held back by our preconceived, intuitive judgments, which, blindly entertained, blind us also against the recognition of possible alternatives.”
— Alfred Lotka (1925), on “Fundamental Premises and Implicit Assumptions” and “Difficulties of Shaking off Preconceived Premises” in Elements of Physical Biology (pgs. 367-77), via citation to how Gauss (1792) showed that Euclid’s parallel axiom theorem, once believed to be a “necessary truth”, is in fact but an “arbitrary assumption”

“Science has not yet produced the Vignola of its ensemble architecture—the ‘Newton’ called for by Adams (see: another Newton). Here we must wait not only for the coming of a Newton, but the development of a science not yet begun! Yet, as we observed, Alfred Lotka, among others, have broken ground in this direction.”
Roderick Seidenberg (1950), Post-Historic Man (pgs. 163, 170)

The "straining of a soap bubble to contract", an amoeba to "engulf food", and Newton straining his mind to "understand gravity", is explained by "one principle", according to Lotka, rooted in thermodynamics; first-slating: IQ:185-195 (c.2016).

image needed 75x99 headCtesibius

Piston and cylinder(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (CR:11) Greek engineer and mathematician;

“It is said that Ctesibius invented the piston and cylinder before 200BC.”
— Richard Kirby (1956), History of Engineering (pg. 154)

noted for a number of inventions, such as the ‘aeolipile’ (heat engine), pipe organ (hydraulis), counterweight adjustable mirrors, a water clock (clepsydra)—which more than 1,800 years the was the most accurate clock ever constructed, until the Christiaan Huygens detailed the use of pendulums to regulate clocks in the year AD 1656 — force pumps (water lifting device), the principle of the siphon; he published On Pneumatics (now lost) on the elasticity of the air; Influenced: Vitruvius, Athenaeus, Pliny the Elder, Philo of Byzantium, Proclus (the commentator on Euclid), and Hero; first-slating: 185|#80 (Feb 2018).

Thomas Hobbes 75 Thomas Hobbes
 IQ_C \,=165 Thomas Hobbes (1651), Leviathan (Cattell 1000:63) [RGM:127|1,500+] (Murray 4000:16|WP) (Gottlieb 1000:151) (Becker 139:5) (Stokes 100:31) (Perry 80:9) (HD:5) (FA:58) (GA:30) [RMS:18] (GPhE:14) [CR:173] was an English mechanical philosopher, social physicist, political theorist, and psychologist (Romanes, 1895);

“That when a thing lies still, unless somewhat else stir it, it will lie still forever, is a truth that no man doubts of. But that when a thing is in motion, it will eternally be in motion, unless somewhat else stay it, though the reason be the same, namely, that nothing can change itself, is not so easily assented to. For men measure, not only other men, but all other things, by themselves; and because they find themselves subject after motion to pain, and lassitude, think everything else grows weary of motion, and seeks repose of its own accord; little considering, whether it be not some other motion, wherein that desire of rest they find in themselves, consistent.”
— Thomas Hobbes (1651), Leviathan (§2: On Imagination) (pg. 3)

He draws analogies between laws of mechanics and features of society, indirectly advocated atheism and initiated the field of human physics (see: HT pioneers); a noted "thing" philosopher, influential to Benedict Spinoza and his natural right of "things" theologico-political philosophy; first to debunk the view that Moses was the author of the Pentateuch.

Kant 75 Immanuel Kant
 IQ_O \,=250+
 IQ_C \,=175
Kant cartoon(Cattell 1000:33) [RGM:20|1,330+] (Murray 4000:3|WP) (Perry 80:5|Li) (RMS:21) (CR:117|#37) German philosopher;

“There is only a single categorical imperative and it is this: act only on that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.
— Immanuel Kant (1797), Metaphysics of Morals (Ѻ)

fabled "last persons to know everything", an oft-cited "smartest person ever" missing candidate; generally known for his Critique of Pure Reason (1781); noted for doing work on the Nebular hypothesis (1755), the Abraham and Brahma problem (c.1769), the categorical imperative (1785), etc.; seems to have aimed to become a “modern Aristotle” of sorts; IQ of 250+ (Azak, 2011).

William Gilbert 75William Gilbert

floating boat magnet c(Cattell 1000:N/A) (Gottlieb 1000:N/A) [RGM1301|1,500+] (Murray 4000:18|P) (CR:31) English chemist-physicist and physician;

“In the discovery of secret things and in the investigation of hidden causes, stronger reasons are obtained from sure experiments and demonstrated arguments than from probable conjectures and the opinions of philosophical speculators of the common sort.”
— William Gilbert (c.1590) (Ѻ); compare: Otto Guericke

aka “father of magnetism”; introduced the term “electricity”; originator of the floating magnets experiment; his 1600 De Magnete, rejected Aristotle’s natural philosophy, Galen’s medicine, and Ptolemy’s astronomy, and in its place situated an electricity-magnetism based Copernican cosmology; first-slating: 185|#84 (c.2015).

Roger Boscovich 75Roger Boscovich

point atom theory (Boscovich)(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (Eells 100:44) Croatian mathematical physicist, astronomer, engineer, architect, philosopher, diplomat, poet, theologian, and general polymath, aka the “Croatian Leibniz” (Heisenberg, c.1930); noted for his 1758 Theory of Natural Philosophy, wherein he outlined a stationary point atom theory (adjacent), viewing atoms a centers of force, with the overall aim to ‘understand the structure of the universe in terms of a single idea’; influential to a large number of big geniuses, e.g. Faraday, Priestley, Davy, Kelvin, and Nietzsche; a 2012 missing top 400 genius candidate; (Ѻ); down-grade per reason that his work tends to be cite by those, e.g. Lancelot Whyte, who try to sneak god into physical monism; first-slating: 185|#88 (Feb 2018).

Emanuel SwedenborgEmanuel Swedenborg
1688-1772) ↓↓
 IQ_G \,=210
 IQ_O \,=205
 IQ_C \,=165
nebular hypothesis (labeled)(Cattell 1000:84) [RGM:127|1,500+] (Murray 4000:N/A) [LPKE] (CR:22) Swedish scientist, philosopher, theologian, revelator, mystic; noted for early work on nebular hypothesis and atomic theory; downgrade ↓ for plethora of god talk quotes and angels assertions (Ѻ).

Heraclitus 75Heraclitus
(c.535-450BC) ↑

Logos of Heraclitus(Cattell 1000:721) (Stokes 100:4) (ACR:9) (Stokes 100:4|Presocratics)
(Perry 80:1|Death) (GPhE:#) (CR:121) Greek physicist-philosopher;

Lightening steers the universe.”
— Heraclitus (c.495BC), Fragment 64 (Ѻ) (translator: Hans Diels); cited by Hippolytus (c.210AD)

Fire in its advance will judge and convict all things.”
— Heraclitus (c.495BC), Fragment 66 (Ѻ) (translator: John Brunet)

noted for his now lost On Nature (c.500BC), on the universe, politics, and theology, wherein he outlines a three element theory, according to which the universe is comprised of three principle elements: fire, earth, and water, but that fire was the primary element, controlling and modifying the other two, and that everything is in a continuous state of flux, or change, and war and strife between opposites is the eternal condition of the universe; Nietzsche considered his world view to be Heraclitean one; first-slotting: 180|#99 (Apr 2018); upgraded to 185|#81 per digestion of his first 66 fragments (Dec 2018).

Hugo GrotiusHugo Grotius
 IQ_C \,=200
 IQ_W \,=197
(Cattell 1000:125) [RGM:255|1,330+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (CR:14) Dutch jurist and international relations theorist; had theory of the origin of war, supposedly, similar to Thomas Hobbes (Ѻ); believed that in relations between nations there were natural laws which needed only research and reason to discover their principles.

Satyendra Bose 75Satyendra Bose
IQ CP=187Bose Einstein condensate[RGM:1,140|1,260+] (LGS:1) (CR:11) Indian mathematical physicist; noted for his 1919 proof that Max Planck’s theory of heat radiation could be deduced from Albert Einstein’s theory of photons, for his 1925 prediction, with Einstein, of Bose-Einstein condensate (adjacent), confirmed in 1995; and for his general Bose-Einstein statistics, which bosons obey; mean genius comparison IQ of 187; a top 500 missing genius candidate. (Ѻ)

Schelling 75Friedrich Schelling
 IQ_C \,=190Schelling caricature(Cattell 1000:154) (Cattell 1000:154) [RGM:106|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:N/A) (CR:37) German philosopher, physicist, and panpsychist (Skrbina, 2005), noted for his circa 1796 natural philosophy theory, an attempt go beyond the mechanistic universe views of Rene Descartes and Newton and to go beyond the model of Immanuel Kant, all while aiming to bring all the sciences, human will and feelings, affinity, electricity, and magnetism, together into one unified theory; the theory, however, supposedly, ran amuck in a "mystery forces" language; aspects of the theory were said to have influenced Goethe, the theory was later rejected by the Helmholtz school; caricature (Ѻ) shows Schilling smelling a beautiful flower, while thinking about this beauty in terms of the philosophies of Kant and Descartes.

Ettore Majorana 75Ettore Majorana

Neutrino, Majorana, Dirac(CR:54) (RE:32) Italian engineer and theoretical physicist; noted as first to predict the existence of the neutrino (discovered experimentally by James Chadwick); for synthesis of the exchange force theory of nuclear bonding; and for his circa 1935 sociophysics article “The Value of Statistical Laws in Physics and Social Sciences”, in which he suggested the application of quantum statistical physics to social sciences; ranked as on par with Galileo and Newton (Fermi, 1938); many things (Ѻ) in particle physics are named after him; first-slating: 195 (c.2016); downgraded to 185|#87 (c.2017), until further digestion of work resumes.

Jean d'Alembert 75 Jean d'Alembert
 IQ_C \,=185 (Cattell 1000:124) (GME:26) (GPE:71) (CR:35) French mathematical physicist and encyclopedist; known for d’Alembert’s principle; PhD advisor to Pierre Laplace (see: Euler genealogy); noted encyclopedist: his 1772 Encyclopedie, co-written with Denis Diderot, is said to mark “end of an area in which a single human being was able to comprehend the totality of knowledge” (see: "last persons to know everything").



Pythagoras 75Pythagoras

Pythagoras cartoon (egypt)(Cattell 1000:89) [RGM:15|1,500+] (GME:11) (ACR:6) [CR:115] Greek mathematician and philosopher;

“Know, so far as is permitted thee, that nature is in all things uniform.”
Pythagoras (c.500BC)

a student of Thales, from whom he gained an appreciation of geometry, and Thales' pupil Anaximander (who may have also been Pythagoras' pupil); popularly known for his Pythagorean triangle (adjacent), the sides of which abide by the following equation: a² + b² = c² ; a smartest person ever candidate (Ѻ); gauged (Ѻ) an over-rated genius; first-slating: 180|#90 (c.2017).

Lucretius 75Lucretius
IQ CP=180 Lucretius (On the Nature of Things)(Cattell 1000:209) [RGM:682|1,500+] (EvT:6|21+) [CR:281] Greek atomic theory philosopher;

Fools admire and like all things the more which they perceive to be concealed under involved language, and determine things to be true which can prettily tickle the ears and are varnished over with fine sounding phrase.”
— Lucretius (55BC)

first of Hmolpedia's "famous publications" listing; compared intellectually to Lord Byron (Flaubert, c.1875); characterized a "brilliant genius" (Cicero, c.45BC).

Rankine 75William Rankine

Rankine love poem (segment) Eddington (CR:105) Scottish engineer, mathematical physicist, and thermodynamicist, of the Glasgow school of thermodynamics; noted for being, according to James Maxwell, one of the “three founders”, along with Rudolf Clausius and William Thomson, of “theoretical thermodynamics”; noted for his thermodynamic function (1854), the forerunner to entropy; his “The Mathematician in Love” (1874), outlines, via rhyme, an equation of love, and correctly describes love as a form of thermodynamic potential; first-slating: 180±|#104 (c.2017).

Niels Bohr 75Niels Bohr

Bohr model 3[RGM:47|1,500+] (LGS:1) (CR:76) Danish physicist; his 1913 “Bohr model” of the atom proposed that normally each electron in an atom is confined to a particular electron shell or what he called “orbits” (see: molecular orbital theory), which may be spherical as well as elliptical, but that—in very a very science-redefining way—an electron can move or "jump" between adjacent orbits or orbitals only when the atom (or electron?) emits or absorbs a certain quantum amount (energy element amount) of radiant energy, of the amount ‘hν’, where h is Planck’s constant and ν (nu) is the frequency of the electromagnetic energy or light emitted or absorbed; first-slating: IQ:175-185 (c.2016); downgrade ↓ from 185|#77 to 180|#90 following digestion of his Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge (1958) lectures, wherein he attempts to defend, in a puerile middle ground sense, the concepts of life, free will, and teleological like purpose, via recourse to uncertainty principle arguments (Oct 2018).

Werner Heisenberg 75Werner Heisenberg
 IQ_B \,=173 uncertainty principle[RGM:37|1,500+] German physicist; student of Niels Bohr; known for: uncertainty principle, exchange force.

Kepler 75 Johannes Kepler
 IQ_C \,=175 Kepler system (second law)(Cattell 1000:157) [RGM:18|1,500+] (Murray 4000:4|CS / 2|A) (GAE:4) [CR:100] German mathematician and astronomer; a fabled "last persons to know everything", known for his 1619 three laws of planetary motion, according to which planets, based on the Copernican model, move not in spherical but rather “elliptical” orbits, which he derived from astronomical observations made by Tycho Brahe, that planets move faster at perihelion and slower at aphelion, according to geometric rules, and that "a line between the sun and the planet sweeps equal areas in equal times" (second law), as shown adjacent; his work provided foundations for Isaac Newton’ theory of universal gravitation; down-grade ↓ for believing that planets were moved by angels flapping their wings (see: Ra).

Thales 75Thales
(c.624-546 BC)

four elements (Cattell 1000:914) [RGM:84|1,500+] (Eells 100:62) (Stokes 100:1) (EvT:1|21+) (GPhE:#) [CR:91] Greek physical scientist and philosopher;

"The principle of all things is water. For all is water and all goes back to water."

root scholar of Greek philosophy (70+ philosophers); after studying in Egypt, he reformulated Egyptian water god Nun into a secular first principle of science, i.e. water as first principle, out of which fire and earth are formed (see: three element theory; four element theory); first-draft IQ gauged at 165-185 (c.2015).

Charles Sherrington 75Charles Sherrington

Defunct theory of life (RE:95) [CR:123] English physiologist and philosopher;

“Both the scientific and the everyday ‘elbow’ are one and the same system of electrical charges. It is of no use asking physics and chemistry whether it is ‘alive’. They do not understand the word. When physics and chemistry have entered on their description of the perceptible, life disappears from the scene, and consequently death. Both are anthropisms.”
— Charles Sherrington (1938), Man on His Nature (pgs. 236, 260)

his Man on His Nature (1938), building on Jean Fernel (IQ:180|#175), and his On the Hidden Causes of Things (1542), who overthrows Aristotle, e.g. “Did not Aristotle well and truly say, and leave it written for all posterity, that: ‘Heat is the condition of life’?”, rips the mind into a calm sea, in respect to the defunct theory of life purview, life terminology reform, life does not exist conclusion, and abioism stronghold; first-draft slated at top 500 genius position #100 (May 2017).

Lavoisier 75 Antoine Lavoisier
 IQ_C \,=170Solar furnace (labeled) (Cattell 1000:393) [RGM:285|1,500+] (Murray 4000:5|CS / 1|C) (Gottlieb 1000:67) (Partington 50:5) (EPD:M4) (GCE:2) [CR:166] was French chemist, botanist, economist, and lawyer;

“It took them only an instant to cut off that head, but it is unlikely that a hundred years will suffice to reproduce a similar one.”
Lagrange (1794), on his guillotine

His Elements of Chemistry (1789), building on the early model of heat as phlogiston (Stahl, 1703), formulated a new heat as "caloric" model, i.e. caloric theory, which was later superseded by entropy (Clausius, 1865).

Machiavelli 75Niccolo Machiavelli
 IQ_B \,=165Machiavelli quote (intelligence)(Cattell 1000:83) [RGM:54|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:40) (GPhE:#) (CR:53) Italian realism philosopher, historian, politician, and diplomat;

“We are much beholden to Machiavelli and others, that write what men do, and not what they ought to do. For it is not possible to join serpentine wisdom with the columbine innocency, except men know exactly all the conditions of the serpent; his baseness and going upon his belly, his volubility and lubricity, his envy and sting, and the rest; that is, all forms and natures of evil. For without this, virtue lieth open and unfenced. Nay, an honest man can do no good upon those that are wicked, to reclaim them, without the help of the knowledge of evil.”
Francis Bacon (1605), The Advancement of Learning (Ѻ)

upgrade for his "end justifies the means philosophy" (Machiavellian philosophy), as detailed in his The Prince; his fox/lions typology of human instincts is said to have influenced Vilfredo Pareto’s circulation of elites theory; supposedly, first to advance the idea of cyclic development of societies; the term “Machiavellian intelligence” (Ѻ) or Mach IQ (Ѻ)(Ѻ), a kind of realism social IQ (or political IQ), is named after him.

FaradayMichael Faraday
IQ SS=230
 IQ_B \,=180
 IQ_{CB} \,=175
 IQ_C \,=170
Faraday discovery (induction)(Cattell 1000:330) [RGM:35|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:119) (Murray 4000: 7|CS / 17|T) [Cropper 30:1|EM] (SIG:7) (GPE:11) (CR:102) English physicist, chemist, and philosopher;

“Let us now consider, for a little while, how wonderfully we stand upon this world. Here it is we are born, bred, and live, and yet we view these things with an almost entire absence of wonder to ourselves respecting the way in which all this happens. So small, indeed, is our wonder, that we are never taken by surprise; and I do think that, to a young person of ten, fifteen or twenty years of age, perhaps the first sight of a cataract or a mountain would occasion him more surprise than he had ever felt concerning the means of his own existence: How he came here; how he lives; by what means he stands upright; and through what means he moves about from place to place. We come into this world, we live, and depart from it, without our thoughts being called specifically to consider how all this takes place; and were it not for the exertions of some few inquiring minds, who have looked into these things, and ascertained the very beautiful laws and conditions by which we do live and stand upon the earth, we should hardly be aware that there was anything wonderful in it.”
— Michael Faraday (1859), On the Various Forces of Matter

known for: the basic principle of the electric motor, generator, induction coil, and transformer; work in chemistry; electromagnetic induction, largely self-taught through reading of books at a bindery he worked at as a child; intellectual giant to Einstein.

Roger Bacon 75Roger Bacon

Roger Bacon (studying) 2(Cattell 1000:199) [RGM:364|1,310+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (MAG:1) English natural philosopher;

“Argument is conclusive, but it does not remove doubt, so that the mind may not rest in the sure knowledge of the truth, unless it finds it by the method of experiment.”
— Roger Bacon (c.1280)

a two cultures genius, a last person to know everything claimant, a "savant with an enormous encyclopedic mind" (Hackett, 1980), and the so-called "first scientist" (Clegg, 2003), and originator of the scientific method; upgraded ↑ from 175±|#154 to 180|#109 (2017).

Plato 75Plato
IQ SS=225
 IQ_B \,=180
Plato's cave [RGM:5|1,240+] (Cattell 1000:10) (Murray 4000:2|WP) (Perry 80:1|Li) (GPhE:2) (CR:271) Greek philosopher;

“The intense yearning which lovers have toward each other does not appear to be the desire for sexual intercourse, but for something else which the soul of each desires and cannot tell, and of which he or she has only a dark and doubtful presentiment.”
— Plato (c.380BC), voice of Aristophanes, Symposium

teacher of Aristotle; known for: Plato’s cave (expositor: Socrates), Plato’s god, soul mate theory (expositor: Aristophanes), allegory of the charioteer, etc.; upgrade ↑ for his first law of affinity, i.e. likes attract; downgrade ↓for saying that to buy up and burn all the works of Democritus; downgrade ↓ for harsh reviews by d’Holbach (1770), who calls him the ‘great inventor of chimeras’, and Jefferson (1820), who says ‘no writer, ancient or modern, has bewildered the world with more ignes fatui [misleading influence]’; down-slated from 180|#89 (2014) to 180|#110 (early 2018); up-slated to 180|#100 (Apr 2018).

John StruttJohn Strutt

Why sky blue?[RGM:N/A|1,310+] (CR: 21) English physicist; called, by some, the “last of the great Victorian polymaths” (IQAVG=196); noted for his 1870 discussions with Ludwig Boltzmann on the so-called truth of the second law; his 1871 "scatter theory" solved the two-millennium old blue sky problem, about which he gave the definitive explanation of in 1899; his 1892 discussions with Willard Gibbs on statistical mechanics; his 1894 isolation, with William Ramsay, of the element argon (work for which he would win the 1904 Nobel Prize in physics); and his 1900 formulation of spectral energy flux density of black body radiation, which led to the ultraviolet catastrophe problem, and hence to the "energy element" solution by Max Planck, which launched the science of quantum mechanics; original slating: 180-190 (c.2015); down-graded ↓ from 190|#41 to 185|#86 (Apr 2018); down-graded ↓ to 180|#101 (Dec 2018) to make room for Heraclitus.

Stephen Hawking 75 newStephen Hawking
 IQ_O \,=280
IQ mensa=200-250
IQ SS=205
 IQ_B \,=180
 IQ_O \,=160
Hawking radiation[RGM:19|1,500+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (CR:118|#30) (DN:7) British astrophysicist and philosopher;

“People who talk about their IQ are losers.”
— Stephen Hawking (c.2005), when asked what his IQ was (New York Times interview)

noted for his 1965 PhD thesis, stimulated by research of Rodger Penrose, and based on Albert Einstein’s 1914 general theory of relativity, which argued that if a star can collapse inwards to form a singularity, coined a “black hole” in 1967 by American physicist John Wheeler, then so to can a singularity explode back outward; thus giving an explanation for the Big Bang; popularly noted for his 1988 A Brief History of Time, wherein he gives a short history of the universe, in layperson’s terms, the illustrated version of which gives a learning and brain entropy decrease diagram, one of the keys to Thims (2001) discernment of entropy, education, and Beckhap's law; previously listed at #1 in genius IQs existive rankings and #1 ranked existive RGM rankings; some rank him (Ѻ) close to Lev Landau on the Landau genius scale; first slating: 185|#85 (Mar 2018); downgraded to 180|#103 (Apr 2018) per cautious intuition of not quickly thinking a person can jump into the top 100 position the day after their existence cessation.


Quotes | Related
See main: Top 1000 geniuses (quotes)
The following are related quotes:

“Lestrade (Ѻ) to be let loose on such a study is exactly as pathetic as for a subnormal waitress in the IQ of 90 range to try to measure the intellectual differences in college students.”
John Platt (1962), “The Coming Generation of Genius” (pg. 73)

“For all of you out there in Twitterland that think he or she is extremely smart, check out Hmolpedia to see how you compare with the geniuses.”
— Kevin Edward (2016), Tweet (Ѻ), Nov 13

“I love this site. It's pure genius. I have never seen someone rank geniuses in such a brilliant way. I dedicated a [468+ genius] genealogy project (Ѻ) to your work. You even have a [] profile (Ѻ) … because I feel your work deserves wider recognition. I am fairly intuitive … I feel you are descended from Goethe (or another genius on your list).”
— Alex Bickle (2017), site message [via oye777] to Libb Thims, Feb 22, 25

“This [top 1000 geniuses] site is very good. Interestingly, outside Goethe and Leonardo da Vinci, most of the smartest on the list are physical [GPE] or mathematical [GME]. So, it is not mistaken the conception that studying physics or mathematics is the type of study that most requires intelligence to be undertaken [see: college degrees by intellectual difficulty]. Only below are philosophers and writers begin to appear. But I was surprised that there are no such genius composers as Beethoven, Bach, Brahms, and Wagner, or painters and sculptors, like Michelangelo, Renoir, and Van Gogh in the top 100. I cannot know which of the IQ indicators is the most reliable. I think the IQ Real (see: real IQ) presented is a good estimate. Note that above 180, which is taken as the lower limit of genius, there are only 209 people, which shows the rarity of genius, considering that more than twenty billion human beings must have been born [see: number of people who have existed]. Of course, many are not on the list because they were not prominent people.”
— Ernesto Ruckert (2018), “Response to Pabis Zanin” (Ѻ)(Ѻ), May 7

“Libb Thims' Hmolpedia Project has a page [Top 1000 Geniuses] with 315 historical persons that Mr. Thims estimates had an IQ of 175+. In these, 71 appear in my list of 330. Another 15 or so from my Top 330, appear on Mr. Thim's lists for IQs 160-174.”
— James Allen (2019), Discussion (Ѻ) about my List of Greatest Mathematicians

“David Mayer carries around a piece of paper [see: paper IQ] that says he is ranked as having the 93rd highest IQ of all time. That would place him 7 places above Stephen Hawking who is ranked at 100. Naturally, this is complete bullśhit. Source: Top 1000 Geniuses Of All Time.”
— Julian Leahy (2019), “AI Global Forex Review” (Ѻ), Jan 26
A Nov 2017 1:39-min video overview, by Libb Thims, of the “top 100” geniuses, at a point when about 600 geniuses, of the top 1000, had been ranked (see: chronology).

Top 1000 geniuses: 1-100 | IQ: 225-180
Top 1000 geniuses: 101-200 | IQ: 180-180
Top 1000 geniuses: 201-300 | IQ: 180-175
Top 1000 geniuses: 301-400 | IQ: 175-170
Top 1000 geniuses: 401-500 | IQ: 170-165
Top 1000 geniuses: 501-600 | IQ: 165-160
Top 1000 geniuses: 601-700 | IQ: 160-150
Top 1000 geniuses: 701-800 | IQ: 150-140
● Top 1000 geniuses: 801-900
● Top 1000 geniuses: 901-1000
Top 1000 geniuses (candidates)

N1. Other rankings employed include: IQ:200+ (40 individuals) + candidates (two dozen), IQ:225+ (10 individuals), IQ:150+ women (26 individuals), Glenn 20 greatest minds, Stokes 100 essential thinkers, Landau genius scale, the 121 main "cities" (minds) of Porter's 1939 Map of Physics, etc., plus others in the genius studies subpages, e.g. greatest physicist ever, greatest chemist ever, greatest philosopher ever, greatest mathematician ever, etc., plus genius rankings (meta-analysis), plus new listings, such as: Ranker greatest minds (1,500+ people), Oduenyi 100, Perry 80, etc.
N2. (a) This genius ranking list originated, in short, when Thims, in the in the late 1990s, began collecting all known individuals cited with IQs of 200 or over, and thereafter, in the period 17 Feb 2010 and 29 Sep 2010, was "forced" (no metaphor intended; which, of course, is the "point" [no metaphor intended, again], compare: pointlessness (Weinberg model) vs pointfullness models (e.g. Gates model) of existence, of Hmolpedia, into “re-ranking geniuses”, when, in particular, he found the curious cases of forced prodigy Adragon de Mello, cited with an IQ cited at 400 (calculated by his father), who for seven months was added to position #1, during which time re-ranking became apparent, e.g. that it is obvious that de Mello is not TWICE as smart as Newton, if we let their respectively "cited IQs" determine their ranked geniuses listing (see: list chronology).
(b) This specific page, then entitled "top 500 geniuses" was started at the point (Jan 2014) when the genius IQs page was at the 460+ geniuses level, i.e. 421 (listed) + 39 (candidates page), but getting difficult to edit, per wiki editing capabilities, i.e. extreme slowness (upwards of 45s wait time per edit) as one continuous page, not to mention page crashes.
(c) On 23 Nov 2017, at the point when the list was pushing the 540+ geniuses level, on now six wiki pages, the entire list was changed from the "top 500 geniuses" to the "top 1000 geniuses". This expanded spreading allows for more accurate fitting of where to fit geniuses like Evariste Galois (1811-1832), when unranked but known as: (RGM:612|1,310+) [GME]; Glenn 20 greatest minds (1996); ranked as “world’s 50 smartest teenagers” (2014) (Ѻ); Quora compared (Ѻ) to Terence Tao (2016), a top ranked existive genius (see: genius IQs existive), to historical geniuses like Adrien Legendre, who he read at age 14, and Joseph Lagrange (IQ:190|#24), who he read at age 15.
(d) The re-naming, to note, reset the Facebook like count (then at 75) to zero (see: like rankings)
N3. See "IQ key" page for IQ subscript symbol meaning.

Category | Focused
The following genius category focused subset pages, give a topic specific x-ray of the top 1000 geniuses listing:

Greatest fictional geniuses ever
Greatest mathematician ever
Greatest middle ages geniuses
Greatest military geniuses
Greatest musical geniuses

Top 100 geniuses | IQ:180-225 (2017)

External links
Famous Historical Genius IQs (697 individuals) –

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