Universe

In science, universe represents the entirety that is accessible to our senses and experiment.

Nun cosmology
The following shows the main "cosmologies" developed over the years, the three of which define what is called "Nun cosmology"
developed predominantly in Egypt, a synthesis of the local mythologies of the 42 pre-dynastic nomes (5000-3100BC), which was worked into a nation creation theology, changing theoretical form and development over time, in four different power centers: Heliopolis (3100BC), Memphis (2800BC), Hermopolis (2400BC), and Thebes (2040BC). In Hermopolis scheme, the model became strongly anthropomorphic, in the sense that the god earth (Geb) was viewed as being surrounded by the heavens (Nut) through which the sun (Ra) passed on its daily journey being carried on a solar barque. The Heliopolis creation model, sometimes referred to as the Heliopolitan Ennead (god of nine), as well as the other modified versions, are shown below:

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Dan Cobley - Hmolpedia

Dan Cobley - Hmolpedia
Heliopolis creation theory (3100BC)

Heliopolitan Ennead (2700BC)
Anthropomorhic Ennead (2400BC)

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Nun cosmology (good and evil)



Round earth model
Egyptian flat earth model (1000BC)
Osiris-Set rendition of the Ennead [1]
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Aristotelian cosmology
The Nun cosmology model, through the teachings of
Plato, who traveled to Egypt to learn their sciences and religio-mythology models, was incorporated into the work of Aristotle and afterwords into science. On the specific description of the heavens, Aristotle created a complex system containing 55 spheres, the last of which demarcated the so-called "edge" of the universe—as famously depicted in the 1888 Flammarion engraving, below right, as found in Camille Flammarion’s book The Atmosphere: Popular Meteorology: [4]

Aristotelian cosmologyDan Cobley - Hmolpedia




Aristotle's Egyptian version + Greek four element theory (320BC)





Ptolemy-Aristotle model

In 150 AD, Ptolemy expandedon Aristotle's model:


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Dan Cobley - Hmolpedia


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Aristarchus heliocentric model (270BC)
Ptolemy' elaborated Aristotle model (150AD)
Dante's universe (1300)

Copernican model
The 1543, Polish astronomer Nicholaus Copernicus introduce the heliocentric model:

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Dan Cobley - Hmolpedia


Nebular hypothesis (Swedenborg)
Copernican model (1543)
Brahe model (1590)
Nebular hypothesis (1734)


Fludd cosmology
The following shows a 1617 four element geocentric cosmology according to Robert Fludd, a segment of the macrocosm showing the elemental spheres of terra (earth), aqua (water), aer (air), and ignis (fire): (Ѻ)

Fludd cosmology (1617)

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Modern laity views
The following is a generic model of how the average child is taught about existence, i.e. the earth and heaven/hell model of existence, an unwritten mixture of Anunian cosmology, modern religion, and modern science:

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Thermodynamics
The universe, for the thermodynamicist, is made up of the system examined and the surroundings able to act on its evolution. [1] By convention, the universe of the thermodynamicist is an isolated system, which equates to the following:


Universe = System + Surroundings

Whether the universe of the cosmologist is an isolated system still remains a subject of discussion. This discussion is particularly notable in the field of black hole thermodynamics, in which the laws of thermodynamics seem to be phrased differently depending on whether or not the system contains a black hole. [2]

See also
Atheistic universe
Living universe
Mechanical universe
● Pantheistic universe
● Physical universe
● Spiritual universe
● Theistic universe
● Thermodynamical universe

References
1. Perrot, Pierre. (1998). A to Z of Thermodynamics, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Wald, Robert M. (1994). Quantum Field Theory in Curved Spacetime and Blackhole Thermodynamics. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
3. Wudka, Jose. (1998). “Aristotelian Cosmology”, Nov 09, UCR.edu.
4. Flammarion engraving – Wikipedia.


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